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1.
Development ; 149(8)2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438172

RESUMO

Hofbauer cells (HBCs) are tissue macrophages of the placenta thought to be important for fetoplacental vascular development and innate immune protection. The developmental origins of HBCs remain unresolved and could implicate functional diversity of HBCs in placenta development and disease. In this study, we used flow cytometry and paternally inherited reporters to phenotype placenta macrophages and to identify fetal-derived HBCs and placenta-associated maternal macrophages in the mouse. In vivo pulse-labeling traced the ontogeny of HBCs from yolk sac-derived erythro-myeloid progenitors, with a minor contribution from fetal hematopoietic stem cells later on. Single-cell RNA-sequencing revealed transcriptional similarities between placenta macrophages and erythro-myeloid progenitor-derived fetal liver macrophages and microglia. As with other fetal tissue macrophages, HBCs were dependent on the transcription factor Pu.1, the loss-of-function of which in embryos disrupted fetoplacental labyrinth morphology, supporting a role for HBC in labyrinth angiogenesis and/or remodeling. HBC were also sensitive to Pu.1 (Spi1) haploinsufficiency, which caused an initial deficiency in the numbers of macrophages in the early mouse placenta. These results provide groundwork for future investigation into the relationship between HBC ontogeny and function in placenta pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Macrófagos , Placenta , Animais , Feminino , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Camundongos , Células Progenitoras Mieloides , Gravidez , Saco Vitelino
2.
Development ; 149(8)2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452096

RESUMO

Previously, we have demonstrated that a subpopulation of microglia, known as Hoxb8 microglia, is derived from the Hoxb8 lineage during the second wave (E8.5) of yolk sac hematopoiesis, whereas canonical non-Hoxb8 microglia arise from the first wave (E7.5). Hoxb8 microglia have an ontogeny distinct from non-Hoxb8 microglia. Dysfunctional Hoxb8 microglia cause the acquisition of chronic anxiety and an obsessive-compulsive spectrum-like behavior, trichotillomania, in mice. The nature and fate of the progenitors generated during E8.5 yolk sac hematopoiesis have been controversial. Herein, we use the Hoxb8 cell lineage reporter to define the ontogeny of hematopoietic cells arising during the definitive waves of hematopoiesis initiated in the E8.5 yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. Our murine cell lineage analysis shows that the Hoxb8 cell lineage reporter robustly marks erythromyeloid progenitors, hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny, particularly monocytes. Hoxb8 progenitors and microglia require Myb function, a hallmark transcription factor for definitive hematopoiesis, for propagation and maturation. During adulthood, all immune lineages and, interestingly, resident macrophages in only hematopoietic/lymphoid tissues are derived from Hoxb8 precursors. These results illustrate that the Hoxb8 lineage exclusively mirrors murine definitive hematopoiesis.


Assuntos
Hematopoese , Saco Vitelino , Animais , Linhagem da Célula , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Mesonefro , Camundongos
3.
Nature ; 604(7907): 740-748, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444273

RESUMO

All tissue-resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS)-including parenchymal microglia, as well as CNS-associated macrophages (CAMs1) such as meningeal and perivascular macrophages2-7-are part of the CNS endogenous innate immune system that acts as the first line of defence during infections or trauma2,8-10. It has been suggested that microglia and all subsets of CAMs are derived from prenatal cellular sources in the yolk sac that were defined as early erythromyeloid progenitors11-15. However, the precise ontogenetic relationships, the underlying transcriptional programs and the molecular signals that drive the development of distinct CAM subsets in situ are poorly understood. Here we show, using fate-mapping systems, single-cell profiling and cell-specific mutants, that only meningeal macrophages and microglia share a common prenatal progenitor. By contrast, perivascular macrophages originate from perinatal meningeal macrophages only after birth in an integrin-dependent manner. The establishment of perivascular macrophages critically requires the presence of arterial vascular smooth muscle cells. Together, our data reveal a precisely timed process in distinct anatomical niches for the establishment of macrophage subsets in the CNS.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Sistema Nervoso Central , Macrófagos , Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Macrófagos/citologia , Microglia , Gravidez , Saco Vitelino
4.
J Cell Biol ; 221(6)2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482005

RESUMO

Tissue-resident macrophages play essential functions in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and repair. Recently, the endocardium has been reported as a de novo hemogenic site for the contribution of hematopoietic cells, including cardiac macrophages, during embryogenesis. These observations challenge the current consensus that hematopoiesis originates from the hemogenic endothelium within the yolk sac and dorsal aorta. Whether the developing endocardium has such a hemogenic potential requires further investigation. Here, we generated new genetic tools to trace endocardial cells and reassessed their potential contribution to hematopoietic cells in the developing heart. Fate-mapping analyses revealed that the endocardium contributed minimally to cardiac macrophages and circulating blood cells. Instead, cardiac macrophages were mainly derived from the endothelium during primitive/transient definitive (yolk sac) and definitive (dorsal aorta) hematopoiesis. Our findings refute the concept of endocardial hematopoiesis, suggesting that the developing endocardium gives rise minimally to hematopoietic cells, including cardiac macrophages.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Coração , Macrófagos , Miocárdio , Animais , Aorta/citologia , Endocárdio/citologia , Coração/embriologia , Hematopoese/genética , Miocárdio/citologia , Saco Vitelino/citologia
5.
Development ; 149(7)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297995

RESUMO

Establishing a functional circulatory system is required for post-implantation development during murine embryogenesis. Previous studies in loss-of-function mouse models showed that FOXO1, a Forkhead family transcription factor, is required for yolk sac (YS) vascular remodeling and survival beyond embryonic day (E) 11. Here, we demonstrate that at E8.25, loss of Foxo1 in Tie2-cre expressing cells resulted in increased sprouty 2 (Spry2) and Spry4 expression, reduced arterial gene expression and reduced Kdr (also known as Vegfr2 and Flk1) transcripts without affecting overall endothelial cell identity, survival or proliferation. Using a Dll4-BAC-nlacZ reporter line, we found that one of the earliest expressed arterial genes, delta like 4, is significantly reduced in Foxo1 mutant YS without being substantially affected in the embryo proper. We show that FOXO1 binds directly to previously identified Spry2 gene regulatory elements (GREs) and newly identified, evolutionarily conserved Spry4 GREs to repress their expression. Furthermore, overexpression of Spry4 in transient transgenic embryos largely recapitulates the reduced expression of arterial genes seen in conditional Foxo1 mutants. Together, these data reveal a novel role for FOXO1 as a key transcriptional repressor regulating both pre-flow arterial specification and subsequent vessel remodeling within the murine YS.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular , Saco Vitelino , Animais , Artérias , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Camundongos , Remodelação Vascular/genética , Saco Vitelino/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265428, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290397

RESUMO

Forms of embryonic nutrition are highly diverse in cartilaginous fishes, which contain oviparity, yolk-sac viviparity and several types of matrotrophic viviparity (histotrophy, oophagy, and placentotrophy). The molecular mechanisms of embryonic nutrition are poorly understood in these animals as few species are capable of reproducing in captivity. Oviparous cartilaginous fishes solely depend on yolk nutrients for their growth and development. In the present study, we compared the contribution to embryonic nutrition of the embryonic intestine with the yolk sac membrane (YSM). RNA-seq analysis was performed on the embryonic intestine and YSM of the oviparous cloudy catshark Scyliorhinus torazame to identify candidate genes involved in nutrient metabolism to further the understanding of nutrient utilization of developing embryos. RNA-seq discovery was subsequently confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis and we identified increases in several amino acid transporter genes (slc3a1, slc6a19, slc3a2, slc7a7) as well as genes involved in lipid absorption (apob and mtp) in the intestine after 'pre-hatching', which is a developmental event marked by an early opening of the egg case about 4 months before hatching. Although a reciprocal decrease in the nutritional role of YSM was expected after the intestine became functional, we observed similar increases in gene expression among amino acid transporters, lipid absorption molecules, and lysosomal cathepsins in the extraembryonic YSM in late developmental stages. Ultrastructure of the endodermal cells of YSM showed that yolk granules were incorporated by endocytosis, and the number of granules increased during development. Furthermore, the digestion of yolk granules in the YSM and nutrient transport through the basolateral membrane of the endodermal cells appeared to be enhanced after pre-hatching. These findings suggest that nutrient digestion and absorption is highly activated in both intestine and YSM after pre-hatching in catshark embryos, which supports the rapid growth at late developmental stages.


Assuntos
Elasmobrânquios , Oviparidade , Animais , Peixes , Lipídeos , Nutrientes , Saco Vitelino/metabolismo
8.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(3): 159, 2022 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35224692

RESUMO

Yolk sac (YS) CSF1 receptor positive (CSF1R+) cells are thought to be the progenitors for tissue-resident macrophages present in various tissues. The YS progenitors for tissue-resident macrophages are referred to as erythroid-myeloid progenitors (EMPs). However, diverse types of hematopoietic progenitors are present in the early YS, thus it is not precisely known which type of hematopoietic cell gives rise to the CSF1R+ lineage. In this study, an analysis was conducted to determine when CSF1R+ progenitors appeared in the early YS. It showed that CSF1R+ cells appeared in the YS as early as embryonic day 9 (E9) and that the earliest hematopoietic progenitors that differentiate into CSF1R+ cells were found in E8. Since these progenitors possessed the capability to generate primitive erythroid cells, it was likely that primitive erythroid lineages shared progenitors with the CSF1R+ lineage. Mutual antagonism appears to work between PU.1 and GATA1 when CSF1R+ cells appear in the early YS. One day later (E9), multiple progenitors, including myeloid-restricted progenitors and multipotent progenitors, in the YS could immediately generate CSF1R+ cells. These results suggest that EMPs are not an exclusive source for the CSF1R+ lineage; rather, multiple hematopoietic cell populations give rise to CSF1R+ lineage in the early YS.


Assuntos
Hematopoese , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Macrófagos , Saco Vitelino/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Camundongos , Saco Vitelino/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saco Vitelino/fisiologia
9.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 48(2): 321-335, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35146595

RESUMO

This work aimed to evaluate the whole-organism and cellular level responses to different combinations of water temperature and salinity of the notothenioid Patagonotothen cornucola at the end of the yolk-sac larval stage. Egg masses of the species were collected in the wild and then maintained at natural water conditions (4 °C and 30 PSU). Newly hatched larvae were placed in aquaria with different combinations of water temperature (4 °C, 12 °C, and 16 °C) and salinity (15 and 30 PSU) during four days before yolk sac absorption. Larvae exposed to 12 °C grew more in length than those exposed to 16 °C, but yolk volume was more reduced in larvae exposed to 16 °C than those exposed to 4 °C and 30 PSU than of 15 PSU. In addition, a higher proportion of larvae exposed to 12 °C and 15 PSU completely absorbed their yolk. Whereas the more tolerant larvae to high temperatures were those exposed to 16 °C and 30 PSU, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were highest at natural and at 12 °C and 30 PSU conditions, respectively. The nutritional status (as standardized DNA/RNA index-sRD -) was low in all cases, even at natural conditions (average sRD ~ 1). Our study suggests that, in the context of climate change, the mortality rate of yolk-sac larvae of P. cornucola would not increase due to temperature or salinity stress. However, indirect effects (such as habitat degradation or changes in food availability) would be critical after complete absorption of the yolk.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Salinidade , Animais , Peixes , Larva , Perciformes/fisiologia , Temperatura , Água , Saco Vitelino
10.
J Exp Med ; 219(3)2022 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201267

RESUMO

Atkins et al. (2022. J. Exp. Med.https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20211924) create a PSC differentiation model for human yolk sac hematopoiesis and discover multipotent progenitors with erythro-myeloid and T lymphoid potential. The multipotent progenitors emerge via hemogenic endothelium and share origin with primitive erythroid wave in KDR+CD235a/b+ mesoderm.


Assuntos
Hematopoese , Saco Vitelino , Humanos , Mesoderma
11.
J Comp Physiol B ; 192(2): 263-273, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35118516

RESUMO

Shark placentae are derived from modifications to the fetal yolk sac and the maternal uterine mucosa. In almost all placental sharks, embryonic development occurs in an egg capsule that remains intact for the entire pregnancy, separating the fetal tissues from the maternal tissues at the placental interface. Here, we investigate the structure and permeability of the egg capsules that surround developing embryos of the placental Australian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon taylori) during late pregnancy. The egg capsule is an acellular fibrous structure that is 0.42 ± 0.04 µm thick at the placental interface between the yolk sac and uterine tissues, and 0.67 ± 0.08 µm thick in the paraplacental regions. This is the thinnest egg capsule of any placental shark measured so far, which may increase the diffusion rate of respiratory gases, fetal wastes, water and nutrients between maternal and fetal tissues. Molecules smaller than or equal to ~ 1000 Da can diffuse through the egg capsule, but larger proteins (~ 3000-26,000 Da) cannot. Similar permeability characteristics between the egg capsule of R. taylori and other placental sharks suggest that molecular size is an important determinant of the molecules that can be exchanged between the mother and her embryos during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Tubarões , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Permeabilidade , Placenta , Gravidez , Tubarões/fisiologia , Saco Vitelino
12.
Exp Neurol ; 351: 113986, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065053

RESUMO

Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS), which, in a healthy state, promote CNS homeostasis and respond to CNS injury. In contrast, microglia are also implicated in pathological conditions where they may contribute to neural damage. Primitive microglia arise from extraembryonic progenitors in the yolk sac (YS). The extraembryonic origins of primitive microglia are distinct from other tissue macrophages. The YS is the first site of hematopoiesis in development. Uniquely, microglial pregenital cells in the mouse derive from an early myeloid branch of the hematopoietic lineage in the YS. Microglia are critical in several key stages of physiological brain development, including embryonic vasculogenesis, immunosurveillance, and neurogenesis. Abnormal microglial function has been linked to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, although mechanistic roles in disease etiology remain incompletely understood. Knowledge of species-specific differences between human, murine and other animal models is also critical to understanding translational relevance to human health and disease as biomedical understanding of the importance of primitive microglia advances. This significance drives the importance of understanding, comparatively, the extraembryonic origins and developmental mechanisms whereby human primitive microglia differentiate and migrate to inform translational research. A better understanding of the molecular drivers may lead to biomarkers and/or preventative or therapeutic measures for neonatal brain development and neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, the role of microglia in neonatal brain development is discussed, current understandings of the developmental origins of microglia are described, the ontogeny and phylogeny of microglia, and implications of in vitro microglia-like cell differentiation, with a specific interest on neurodegenerative diseases, are reviewed. Together, these emphasize the importance of leveraging the extraembryonic origins of microglia to not only better understand neurodevelopment and neurodegenerative diseases, but also to develop protective measures that are specific to human microglia.


Assuntos
Macrófagos , Microglia , Animais , Encéfalo , Hematopoese/fisiologia , Camundongos , Saco Vitelino/fisiologia
13.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 48(1): 185-200, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044583

RESUMO

Egg biochemical composition is among the main factors affecting offspring quality and survival during the yolk-sac stage, when larvae depend exclusively on yolk nutrients. These nutrients are primarily embedded in the developing oocytes during vitellogenesis. In aquaculture, assisted reproduction procedures may be applied enabling gamete production. For the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), reproductive treatment involves administration of pituitary extracts from carp (CPE) or salmon (SPE) to induce and sustain vitellogenesis. In the present study, we compared the influence of CPE and SPE treatments on offspring quality and composition as well as nutrient utilization during the yolk-sac stage. Thus, dry weight, proximal composition (total lipid, total protein), free amino acids, and fatty acids were assessed in eggs and larvae throughout the yolk-sac stage, where body and oil-droplet area were measured to estimate growth rate, oil-droplet utilization, and oil-droplet utilization efficiency. The results showed that CPE females spawned eggs with higher lipid and free amino acid contents. However, SPE females produced more buoyant eggs with higher fertilization rate as well as larger larvae with more energy reserves (estimated as oil-droplet area). Overall, general patterns of nutrient utilization were detected, such as the amount of total lipid and monounsaturated fatty acids decreasing from the egg stage and throughout the yolk-sac larval stage. On the contrary, essential fatty acids and free amino acids were retained. Notably, towards the end of the yolk-sac stage, the proximal composition and biometry of surviving larvae, from both treatments, were similar.


Assuntos
Anguilla , Hormônios/farmacologia , Óvulo/química , Vitelogênese , Saco Vitelino/química , Aminoácidos/química , Animais , Extratos Celulares , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Larva , Hipófise , Vitelogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Dev Biol ; 483: 22-33, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973175

RESUMO

The extra-embryonic yolk sac contains adjacent layers of mesoderm and visceral endoderm. The mesodermal layer serves as the first site of embryonic hematopoiesis, while the visceral endoderm provides a means of exchanging nutrients and waste until the development of the chorioallantoic placenta. While defects in chorioallantoic fusion and yolk sac hematopoiesis have been described in Cdx mutant mouse models, little is known about the gene targets and molecular mechanisms through which Cdx members regulate these processes. To this end, we used RNA-seq to examine Cdx-dependent gene expression changes in the yolk sac. We find that loss of Cdx function impacts the expression of genes involved in yolk sac hematopoiesis, as previously described, as well as novel Cdx2 target genes. In addition, we observed Cdx-dependent changes in PRC2 subunit expression accompanied by altered H3K27me3 deposition at a subset of Cdx target genes as early as E7.5 in the embryo proper. This study identifies additional Cdx target genes and provides further evidence for Cdx-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the early embryo, and that this regulation is required to maintain gene expression programs in the extra-embryonic yolk sac at later developmental stages.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição CDX2/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Animais , Endoderma/embriologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Hematopoese/genética , Masculino , Mesoderma/embriologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Gravidez , RNA-Seq/métodos , Transcrição Genética/genética , Saco Vitelino/embriologia
15.
Aquat Toxicol ; 244: 106083, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085954

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely spread environmental contaminants which affect developing organisms. It is known that improper activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by some PAHs contributes to toxicity, while other PAHs can disrupt cellular membrane function. The exact downstream mechanisms of AhR activation remain unresolved, especially with regard to cardiotoxicity. By exposing newly hatched rainbow trout alevins (Oncorhynchus mykiss) semi-statically to retene (32 µg l-1; AhR agonist), fluoranthene (50 µg l-1; weak AhR agonist and CYP1a inhibitor) and their binary mixture for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days, we aimed to uncover novel mechanisms of cardiotoxicity using a targeted microarray approach. At the end of the exposure, standard length, yolk area, blue sac disease (BSD) index and PAH body burden were measured, while the hearts were prepared for microarray analysis. Each exposure produced a unique toxicity profile. We observed that retene and the mixture, but not fluoranthene, significantly reduced growth by Day 14 compared to the control, while exposure to the mixture increased the BSD-index significantly from Day 3 onward. Body burden profiles were PAH-specific and correlated well with the exposure-specific upregulations of genes encoding for phase I and II enzymes. Exposure to the mixture over-represented pathways related to growth, amino acid and xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress responses. Alevins exposed to the individual PAHs displayed over-represented pathways involved in receptor signaling: retene downregulated genes with a role in G-protein signaling, while fluoranthene upregulated those involved in GABA signaling. Furthermore, exposure to retene and fluoranthene altered the expression of genes encoding for proteins involved in calcium- and potassium ion channels, which suggests affected heart structure and function. This study provides deeper understanding of the complexity of PAH toxicity and the necessity of investigating PAHs as mixtures and not as individual components.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Fluorenos , Oncorhynchus mykiss/genética , Fenantrenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Transcriptoma , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Saco Vitelino
16.
J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol ; 35(2): 177-181, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) occurring in the uterus are extremely rare. To report a uterine YST case in a prepubertal girl and review literature on uterine YST to outline clinical management in diagnosis and treatment. CASE: We present a case of a 2-year-old girl who presented with vaginal bleeding and a pelvic mass. The diagnosis of YST was confirmed via biopsy. After four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (PEB), vaginoscopic examination and laparoscopy revealed a uterine YST without metastasis. The patient was treated with laparoscopic hysterectomy and two cycles of PEB postoperatively. During the 18 months of follow-up, the patient remained disease-free. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: Primary uterine YST is extremely rare and no treatment guidelines have been established to date. Surgery combined with PEB chemotherapy is considered effective for uterine YST.


Assuntos
Tumor do Seio Endodérmico , Neoplasias Uterinas , Pré-Escolar , Tumor do Seio Endodérmico/diagnóstico , Tumor do Seio Endodérmico/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia , Útero/patologia , Útero/cirurgia , Saco Vitelino/patologia
17.
Poult Sci ; 101(1): 101562, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823184

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) deposition in egg yolk is essential for the rapid growth and complete development of the avian embryo. Thus, it is crucial to obtain maximal Zn mobilization at an appropriate time during development in favor of the survival of avian embryos. The aim of this study was to study the developmental change of Zn mobilization and gene expression related to key Zn transport proteins between the yolk sac membrane and embryonic liver from the incubation d 17 (E17) to d 32 (E32) during duck embryonic developing. The weights of duck embryo, embryo without yolk sac, and embryonic liver increased as well as the yolk sac weight decreased linearly (P < 0.0001) when incubation day increased. The Zn concentration in the yolk sac did not change from E17 to E29 and only declined significantly from E29 to E32 of duck embryos, while hepatic Zn level decreased linearly as with the increased incubation time (P < 0.01). When the incubation day increased, the decreased Zn amount in the yolk sac and the increased Zn amount in the embryonic liver were observed (P < 0.0001). The calculated transfer-out rate of Zn in the yolk sac and transfer-in rate of Zn in livers were both increased from E23-26 to E29-32 (P < 0.01). Among E17, E23 and E29, the solute carrier family 39 member (ZIP) of ZIP10, ZIP13, and ZIP14 genes mRNA expressions were increased in yolk sac membrane but were decreased in the embryonic liver, while metallothionein 1 mRNA expression was increased both in the yolk sac membrane and liver (P < 0.05). In conclusion, yolk sac membrane and embryonic liver tissues displayed the similar developmental patterns of Zn mobilization and metallothionein 1 mRNA expression from E17 to E32 during duck embryonic developing. The appropriate time of the maximal rate of Zn mobilization were observed between E29 and E32 of duck embryo, associated with the significant changes of gene expression related to some key Zn transport proteins on E29 in yolk sac membrane and liver tissues.


Assuntos
Saco Vitelino , Zinco , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte , Galinhas , Patos/genética , Expressão Gênica , Fígado
18.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 106(1): 139-146, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075633

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the effects of breeder age on egg quality and amino acid and mineral transfer to the egg yolk and yolk sac of newly hatched chicks. Three ages (32, 42 and 52 weeks) of the same commercial flock of Hubbard breeders were studied. A total of 465 eggs were used for each age, with 60 being used for determining egg quality and amino acid and mineral content of yolk, and 405 for incubation period to obtain and evaluate the yolk sac of chicks. Breeders aged 52 weeks had heavier eggs and a higher percentage of yolk (p < 0.05), whereas 32-week-old breeders had higher eggshell percentage and thickness (p < 0.05). The percentage of protein deposited in egg yolk for 52-week-old breeders was higher than that for 32- and 42-week-old breeders (p < 0.05). Percentages of methionine, cysteine, met + cysteine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine and isoleucine in egg yolk for 32-week-old breeders were higher than that for 42- and 52-week-old breeders (p < 0.05). The transfer from breeder of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc to the yolk of eggs from 32-week-old breeders was greater than that for eggs from 42- and 52-week-old breeders (p < 0.05). Chicks from 32-week-old breeders had greater deposition of phosphorus and calcium in the yolk sac (p < 0.05). Breeder age did not affect the deposition of potassium, magnesium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in the yolk sac of newly hatch chicks (p > 0.05). It can, however, be concluded that younger breeders deposit more amino acids and minerals in egg yolk, while embryos of older breeders seem to use the nutrients present in the yolk more efficiently during embryonic development.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo , Saco Vitelino , Aminoácidos , Animais , Galinhas , Minerais
19.
J Exp Med ; 219(3)2022 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928315

RESUMO

In the mouse, the first hematopoietic cells are generated in the yolk sac from the primitive, erythro-myeloid progenitor (EMP) and lymphoid programs that are specified before the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells. While many of the yolk sac-derived populations are transient, specific immune cell progeny seed developing tissues, where they function into adult life. To access the human equivalent of these lineages, we modeled yolk sac hematopoietic development using pluripotent stem cell differentiation. Here, we show that the combination of Activin A, BMP4, and FGF2 induces a population of KDR+CD235a/b+ mesoderm that gives rise to the spectrum of erythroid, myeloid, and T lymphoid lineages characteristic of the mouse yolk sac hematopoietic programs, including the Vδ2+ subset of γ/δ T cells that develops early in the human embryo. Through clonal analyses, we identified a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor with erythroid, myeloid, and T lymphoid potential, suggesting that the yolk sac EMP and lymphoid lineages may develop from a common progenitor.


Assuntos
Hematopoese , Modelos Biológicos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Saco Vitelino/citologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Hematopoese/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Células Progenitoras Linfoides/citologia , Células Progenitoras Linfoides/metabolismo , Linfopoese/genética , Camundongos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
20.
Poult Sci ; 101(2): 101622, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959155

RESUMO

During chicken embryonic development, skeleton calcification mainly relies on the eggshell, whose minerals are progressively solubilized and transported to the embryo via the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). However, the molecular components involved in this process remain undefined. We assessed eggshell demineralization and calcification of the embryo skeleton after 12 and 16 d of incubation, and analyzed the expression of several candidate genes in the CAM: carbonic anhydrases that are likely involved in secretion of protons for eggshell dissolution (CA2, CA4, CA9), ions transporters and regulators (CALB1, SLC4A1, ATP6V1B2, SGK1, SCGN, PKD2) and vitamin-D binding protein (GC). Our results confirmed that eggshell weight, thickness, and strength decreased during incubation, with a concomitant increase in calcification of embryonic skeletal system. In the CAM, the expression of CA2 increased during incubation while CA4 and CA9 were expressed at similar levels at both stages. SCL4A1 and SCGN were expressed, but not differentially, between the two stages, while the expression of ATP6V1B2 and PKD2 genes decreased. The expression of SGK1 and TRPV6 increased over time, although the expression of the latter gene was barely detectable. In parallel, we analyzed the expression of these candidate genes in the yolk sac (YS), which mediates the transfer of yolk minerals to the embryo during the first half of incubation. In YS, CA2 expression increases during incubation, similar to the CAM, while the expression of the other candidate genes decreases. Moreover, CALB1 and GC genes were found to be expressed during incubation in the YS, in contrast to the CAM where no expression of either was detected. This study demonstrates that the regulation of genes involved in the mobilization of egg minerals during embryonic development is different between the YS and CAM extraembryonic structures. Identification of the full suite of molecular components involved in the transfer of eggshell calcium to the embryo via the CAM should help to better understand the role of this structure in bone mineralization.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Membrana Corioalantoide , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/genética , Casca de Ovo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Óvulo , Saco Vitelino
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