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1.
Fitoterapia ; 161: 105230, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688285

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants of the Schisandraceae family have a rich and medicinal history dating back to ancient times. Many of them are used as folk medicine in the treatment of chronic coughs, asthma, nocturnal emission, spontaneous sweating, night sweats, palpitation, insomnia and thirst. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The current review is carried out on triterpenoids from the Schisandraceae family, aiming to comprehensively summarize their phytochemistry, pharmacology and synthesis and provide new insights to the chemical and pharmacological study and rational utilization on medicinal plants of the Schisandarceae family. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information was searched from the scientific literature published from June 2014 to November 2021 on the online databases (including PubMed, CNKI, Elsevier, SciFinder and Web of Science) and other bibliography (e.g. the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, 2020 edition, Chinese herbal books). The scientific literature related to phytochemistry, pharmacology, biological activites and synthesis of triterpenoids from the Schisandraceae family was gathered. RESULTS: From June 2014 to November 2021, there were approximately 211 novel triterpenoids isolated and identified from 18 species of the Schisandraceae family. These compounds exhibit tremendous diversity in their structures, and some of them possess promising pharmacological activities, including anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, immunosuppressive activities and neuroprotective effects. In the attempt to synthesize active compounds, the total synthesis of 13 schinortriterpenoids belonging to five structural types was successfully completed. CONCLUSIONS: Studies of triterpenoids from the Schisandraceae family are well documented in this review (from June 2014 to November 2021), and it is also well acknowledged that they are valuable resources with medicinal efficacy. However, relevant pharmacological studies are limited to in vitro tests, and data from in vivo studies and toxicology are lacking or unavailable. Fortunately, there is growing interest in the synthesis of active compounds, which should serve as an approach for accessing active compounds to develop in vivo or toxicity studies, with a view of clarifying their in vitro and vivo mechanisms for more effective and safe natural drugs.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Triterpenos , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Schisandraceae/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
2.
Nat Chem ; 13(1): 24-32, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349693

RESUMO

Oxidative cyclizations create many unique chemical structures that are characteristic of biologically active natural products. Many of these reactions are catalysed by 'non-canonical' or 'thwarted' iron oxygenases and appear to involve long-lived radicals. Mimicking these biosynthetic transformations with chemical equivalents has been a long-standing goal of synthetic chemists but the fleeting nature of radicals, particularly under oxidizing conditions, makes this challenging. Here we use redox-neutral photocatalysis to generate radicals that are likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of lignan natural products. We present the total syntheses of highly oxidized dibenzocyclooctadienes, which feature densely fused, polycyclic frameworks that originate from a common radical progenitor. We show that multiple factors control the fate of the proposed biosynthetic radicals, as they select between 5- or 11-membered ring cyclizations and a number of different terminating events. Our syntheses create new opportunities to explore the medicinal properties of these natural products, while shedding light on their biosynthetic origin.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Radicais Livres/química , Lignanas/biossíntese , Lignanas/química , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/metabolismo , Catálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ciclização , Ciclo-Octanos/química , Ciclo-Octanos/metabolismo , Irídio/química , Luz , Conformação Molecular , Oxirredução , Rutênio/química , Schisandraceae/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 3536761, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123569

RESUMO

Schisandra chinensis, which has a high development value, has long been used as medicine. Its mature fruits (called Wuweizi in Chinese) have long been used in the famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) recorded in the "Chinese Pharmacopoeia." Chloroplasts (CP) are the highly conserved primitive organelles in plants, which can serve as the foundation for plant classification and identification. This study introduced the structures of the CP genomes of three Schisandraceae species and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships. Comparative analyses on the three complete chloroplast genomes can provide us with useful knowledge to identify the three plants. In this study, approximately 5 g fresh leaves were harvested for chloroplast DNA isolation according to the improved extraction method. A total of three chloroplast DNAs were extracted. Afterwards, the chloroplast genomes were reconstructed using denovo combined with reference-guided assemblies. General characteristics of the chloroplast genome and genome comparison with three Schisandraceae species was analyzed by corresponding software. The total sizes of complete chloroplast genomes of S. chinensis, S. sphenanthera, and Kadsura coccinea were 146875 bp, 146842 bp, and 145399 bp, respectively. Altogether, 124 genes were annotated, including 82 protein-coding genes, 34 tRNAs, and 8 rRNAs of all 3 species. In SSR analysis, only S. chinensis was annotated to hexanucleotides. Moreover, comparative analysis of chloroplast Schisandraceae genome sequences revealed that the gene order and gene content were slightly different among Schisandraceae species. Finally, phylogenetic trees were reconstructed, based on the genome-wide SNPs of 38 species. The method can be used to identify and differentially analyze Schisandraceae plants and offer useful information for phylogenetics as well as further studies on traditional medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Schisandraceae/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Ordem dos Genes/genética , Genômica/métodos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(4): 1085-1095, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667936

RESUMO

Plant extracts are considered to be an effective alternative to antibiotics in response to weaning stress in piglets. This study evaluated the effect of Illicium verum extracts (IVE) or Eucommia ulmoides leaf extracts (ELE) on growth performance, serum and liver antioxidant ability of nursery piglets, as well as the difference of IVE and ELE on Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) and Chinese native Licha-black (LCB) piglets. A total of 96 nursery piglets (48 DLY and 48 LCB piglets) with an average body weight of 11.22 ± 0.32 kg were randomly divided into four treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial design. Each treatment had four replicates with 3 DLY and 3 LCB piglets per replicate respectively. Treatments included: basal diet, basal diet + 500 mg/kg IVE, basal diet + 250 mg/kg ELE and basal diet + 50 mg/kg chlortetracycline (CHL). All piglets were housed individually for the 42 days trial period after 7 days adaptation. Results showed that there were significant interactions (p < .05) between piglets species and dietary treatments in average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency, serum and hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic integral optical density (IOD) of α-tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α), hepatic relative mRNA expressions of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/TNF-α and protein expression of TNF-α. Regardless of piglets species, supplementation with IVE and ELE increased (p < .05) ADG and feed efficiency, T-SOD and GSH-Px in serum and liver, hepatic IOD of Nrf2, hepatic mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2/TNF-α. However, CHL treatment resulted in lower (p < .05) serum GSH-Px and hepatic mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2/TNF-α, and higher hepatic MDA and IOD of TNF-α. Compared to LCB, DLY piglets had higher (p < .05) ADG and feed efficiency, serum and hepatic MDA, and protein expression of TNF-α, but lower (p < .05) ADFI, liver index, serum and hepatic GSH-Px, hepatic IOD of TNF-α, mRNA expressions of Nrf2/TNF-α were observed. In conclusion, Illicium verum (500 mg/kg) and Eucommia ulmoides leaf (250 mg/kg) extracts can increase the growth performance and antioxidant ability of DLY and LCB piglets, while chlortetracycline produces undesirable side-effects on the antioxidant ability of DLY and LCB piglets. Illicium verum and Eucommia ulmoides leaf extracts produced different antioxidant effects in DLY and LCB piglets with the Chinese native Licha-black pig responding better than Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire.


Assuntos
Eucommiaceae/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Schisandraceae/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Extratos Vegetais/química , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
J Nat Med ; 73(4): 834-840, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165408

RESUMO

Glycyrrhizae Radix is an important crude drug in Japan and is the most frequently prescribed drug in Kampo medicines for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Glycyrrhizin (GL), the major active ingredient of Glycyrrhizae Radix, has various pharmacological actions but causes adverse effects such as pseudoaldosteronism. In a previous study, the GL content of shoseiryuto was found to be unexpectedly low, and Schisandrae Fructus in shoseiryuto reduced the pH value of the decoction and drastically decreased the extraction efficiency of GL from Glycyrrhizae Radix. In the present study, we investigated the extraction efficiency of GL from Glycyrrhizae Radix in decoctions comprising Glycyrrhizae Radix and five different fruit-derived crude drugs. Among the five fruit-derived crude drugs tested, Schisandrae Fructus markedly decreased both the pH value of the decoction and the extraction efficiency of GL. A comparison of the pH value of the decoction and the GL content of 12 Kampo prescriptions (containing at least Glycyrrhizae Radix and Schisandrae Fructus) showed that the GL content per daily dose was proportional to the compounding amount of Glycyrrhizae Radix, and that the extraction efficiency of GL from Glycyrrhizae Radix was strongly correlated with the pH value of the decoction. In addition, the pH value of the decoction was similar to the pH value documented in interview forms provided by pharmaceutical companies. These results suggested that the GL content in Glycyrrhizae Radix-containing Kampo products can be estimated from both the compounding amounts of Glycyrrhizae Radix and the pH value documented in their interview forms. Knowledge of GL content will help avoid adverse reactions due to Glycyrrhizae Radix.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirrízico/análise , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Medicina Kampo , Schisandraceae/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Japão , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 238: 111902, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018145

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by failure of spontaneous resolution of inflammation. The stem of Kadsura heteroclite (KHS) is a well-known anti-arthritic Tujia ethnomedicinal plant, which named Xuetong in folk, has long been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatic and arthritic diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and the potential mechanisms behind such effects of KHS would be investigated by using different animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The abdominal writhing episodes of mice induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and the tail-flick response induced by radiant heat stimulation were used to evaluate the analgesic effect of KHS. The number of abdominal writhing episodes of mice and the latency of tail-flick in rats were measured and recorded. In acute inflammatory models, the ear edema of mice was induced by applying xylene on the ear surface, while the paw edema of male and female rats was induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan into the right hind paws of animals. The carrageenan-induced paw swelling in rats were selected as an anti-acute inflammatory mechanism of KHS. Serum levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) were measured by ELISA, and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: The maximal tolerated single dose of KHS was determined to be 26 g/kg in both sexes of mice. Pharmacological studies showed that KHS at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly prolonged the reaction time of rats to radiant heat stimulation and suppressed abdominal writhing episodes of mice induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid. KHS at the dose of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg, showed dose-dependent inhibition of xylene-induced ear swelling in mice. KHS at the dose of 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg demonstrated dose- and time-dependent suppression of paw edema induced by subcutaneous injection of carrageenan in both all rats. Mechanistic studies revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of KHS was associated with inhibition of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α and effectively decreased the expression of COX and iNOS proteins in the carrageenan-injected rat serum, paw tissues and inflammatory exudates. The positive reference drug, rotundine at a dosage of 100 mg/kg and indomethacin at a dosage of 10 mg/kg were used in both mice and rat models. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that KHS has significant effects on analgesia and anti-inflammation with decreasing the pro-inflammation cytokines of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α and inhibiting the proteins expression of COX-2 and iNOS.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Schisandraceae/química , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Etnofarmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Medição da Dor , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Ratos
7.
Acc Chem Res ; 52(2): 480-491, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681828

RESUMO

Plants in the Schisandraceae family are important components of the traditional Chinese herbal medicines and are often used to treat various illnesses. Therefore, these Schisandraceae plants are valuable sources for the discovery of new chemical entities for novel therapeutic development. Considerable progress has been made in the identification of bioactive and structurally novel triterpenoids from the Schisandraceae family in the past two decades. In particular, Sun and co-workers have successfully isolated over 100 nortriterpenoids from the Schisandraceae family. Some of these nortriterpenoids have strong inhibitory activities toward hepatitis, tumors, and HIV-1. However, the natural scarcity of these nortriterpenoids in the Schisandraceae plants has hampered their isolation and further biomedical development, and their biosynthesis has not been fully elucidated. It is therefore important and urgent to develop efficient and streamlined total syntheses of these medicinally important nortriterpenoids. Such syntheses will provide sufficient materials for detailed biological studies as well as new synthetic analogues and probe molecules to improve their biological functions and elucidate their mode of actions. However, because of their structural novelty and complexity, the total syntheses of these nortriterpenoid natural products present a significant challenge for synthetic chemists, despite the progress made in organic synthesis, particularly total synthesis, in the 20th century and since the beginning of the 21st century. New synthetic methodologies and strategies therefore need to be invented and developed to facilitate the total syntheses of these nortriterpenoid natural products. With this in mind, our group has spent the last 15 years, ever since the isolation of micrandilactone A (1) by Sun and co-workers in 2003 ( Sun et al. Org. Lett. 2003 , 5 , 1023 - 1026 ), working on synthetic studies with a view to developing methods and strategies for the total syntheses of schinortriterpenoids. Enabling methods such as a thiourea/Pd-catalyzed alkocycarbonylative annulation and a thiourea/Co-catalyzed Pauson-Khand reaction have been developed under these circumstances to form the key ring systems and stereocenters of these complex target molecules. These methodological advances have led us to the first total syntheses of schindilactone A (2), lancifodilactone G acetate (6a), 19-dehydroxyarisandilactone A (9), and propindilactone G (10) with diverse structural features via a branching-oriented strategy. The chemistry developed during our total synthesis campaign has not only helped us to deal with various challenges encountered in the syntheses of the four target molecules, but has also opened up new avenues for synthesizing other naturally occurring schinortriterpenoids and their derivatives, which will likely result in molecules with improved biological functions and tool compounds to enable elucidation of their mechanism of actions or potential cellular targets. This Account highlights the chemistry evolution of our schinortriterpenoid syntheses.


Assuntos
Triterpenos/síntese química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Schisandraceae/química , Estereoisomerismo , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9285, 2018 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915292

RESUMO

Chloroplast genomes of plants are highly conserved in both gene order and gene content, are maternally inherited, and have a lower rate of evolution. Chloroplast genomes are considered to be good models for testing lineage-specific molecular evolution. In this study, we use Schisandraceae as an example to generate insights into the overall evolutionary dynamics in chloroplast genomes and to establish the phylogenetic relationship of Schisandraceae based on chloroplast genome data using phylogenomic analysis. By comparing three Schisandraceae chloroplast genomes, we demonstrate that the gene order, gene content, and length of chloroplast genomes in Schisandraceae are highly conserved but experience dynamic evolution among species. The number of repeat variations were detected, and the Schisandraceae chloroplast genome was revealed as unusual in having a 10 kb contraction of the IR due to the genome size variations compared with other angiosperms. Phylogenomic analysis based on 82 protein-coding genes from 66 plant taxa clearly elucidated that Schisandraceae is a sister to a clade that includes magnoliids, monocots, and eudicots within angiosperms. As to genus relationships within Schisandraceae, Kadsura and Schisandra formed a monophyletic clade which was sister to Illicium.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genômica , Filogenia , Schisandraceae/genética , Sequência de Bases , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética
9.
Int J Mol Med ; 41(4): 2108-2116, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393335

RESUMO

The nephrotoxicity of cisplatin limits its clinical application. Schizandrin B (SchB) has been demonstrated to have a variety of potential cytoprotective activities. The present study explored the molecular mechanisms by which SchB inhibits the dichlorodiammine platinum (DDP)­induced apoptosis of HK­2 proximal tubule epithelial cells. In vitro assays demonstrated that SchB increased the viability of HK­2 cells, alleviated the cis­DDP­induced activation of caspase­3, reduced apoptosis and improved the nuclear morphology of HK­2 cells. Additionally, the mechanism underlying the cis­DDP­induced apoptosis was indicated to involve the activation of p53, c­Jun­N­terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signaling. Furthermore, SchB was demonstrated to activate extracellular signal­regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor κB (NF­κB) signaling, and induce the expression of survivin. The inhibition of ERK and NF­κB signaling using U0126 and pyrollidine dithiocarbamate, respectively, inhibited the expression of survivin, whereas blocking the expression of survivin using small interfering RNA inhibited the alleviating effect of SchB on cis­DDP­induced apoptosis as indicated by a reduction in cleaved caspase­3 expression. In conclusion, SchB regulates ERK/NF­κB signaling to induce the expression of survivin, thereby alleviating cis­DDP­induced renal injury.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Compostos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Ciclo-Octanos/química , Ciclo-Octanos/farmacologia , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/citologia , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Lignanas/química , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Compostos Policíclicos/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Schisandraceae/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Survivina , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 285(1870)2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298936

RESUMO

Insect pollination in basal angiosperms is assumed to mostly involve 'generalized' insects looking for food, but direct observations of ANITA grade (283 species) pollinators are sparse. We present new data for numerous Schisandraceae, the largest ANITA family, from fieldwork, nocturnal filming, electron microscopy, barcoding and molecular clocks to infer pollinator/plant interactions over multiple years at sites throughout China to test the extent of pollinator specificity. Schisandraceae are pollinated by nocturnal gall midges that lay eggs in the flowers and whose larvae then feed on floral exudates. At least three Schisandraceae have shifted to beetle pollination. Pollination by a single midge species predominates, but one species was pollinated by different species at three locations and one by two at the same location. Based on molecular clocks, gall midges and Schisandraceae may have interacted since at least the Early Miocene. Combining these findings with a review of all published ANITA pollination data shows that ovipositing flies are the most common pollinators of living representatives of the ANITA grade. Compared to food reward-based pollination, oviposition-based systems are less wasteful of plant gametes because (i) none are eaten and (ii) female insects with herbivorous larvae reliably visit conspecific flowers.


Assuntos
Dípteros/anatomia & histologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Oviposição/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Schisandraceae/fisiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Feminino , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Pólen
11.
Chemistry ; 23(56): 14080-14089, 2017 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768051

RESUMO

Full details of the total synthesis of the Schisandraceae nortriterpenoid natural product rubriflordilactone A are reported. Palladium- and cobalt-catalyzed polycyclizations were employed as key strategies to construct the central pentasubstituted arene from bromoendiyne and triyne precursors. This required the independent assembly of two AB ring aldehydes for combination with a common diyne component. A number of model systems were explored to investigate these two methodologies, and also to establish routes for the installation of the challenging benzopyran and butenolide rings.


Assuntos
Schisandraceae/química , Triterpenos/síntese química , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , 4-Butirolactona/química , Catálise , Cobalto/química , Ciclização , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Paládio/química , Schisandraceae/metabolismo , Estereoisomerismo , Triterpenos/química
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 47: 28-37, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28364626

RESUMO

Schisantherin A (SchA) is a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruit of Schisandra sphenanthera. The role of SchA in liver injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) has not yet been elucidated. The present study hypothesized the protective effects of SchA in hepatic I/R model. Either sham laparotomy or hepatic I/R was induced in C57BL/6 male mice after SchA or vehicle administration. Liver function, histological damage, oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammatory infiltration, cytokine production, cell apoptosis, cell autophagy, and I/R-associated intracellular signaling pathway were assessed to evaluate the impact of SchA pretreatment on I/R-induced liver injury. After liver I/R injury, the mice pretreated with appropriate SchA displayed significantly preserved liver function, less histological damage, ameliorated oxidative/nitrosative stress, attenuated inflammatory state, and reduced cell apoptosis. However, no differences in the autophagic response were detected after SchA pretreatment. The underlying protective mechanism putatively involves the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Based on the beneficial effects, SchA pretreatment may serve as a potential prophylactic measure to prevent liver I/R injury related to various clinical conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Octanos/uso terapêutico , Dioxóis/uso terapêutico , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Schisandraceae/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais
13.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0149663, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26930483

RESUMO

Retinal degeneration is often progressive. This feature has provided a therapeutic window for intervention that may extend functional vision in patients. Even though this approach is feasible, few promising drug candidates are available. The scarcity of new drugs has motivated research to discover novel compounds through different sources. One such example is Schisandrin B (SchB), an active component isolated from the five-flavor fruit (Fructus Schisandrae) that is postulated in traditional Chinese medicines to exert prophylactic visual benefit. This SchB benefit was investigated in this study in pde6cw59, a zebrafish retinal-degeneration model. In this model, the pde6c gene (phosphodiesterase 6C, cGMP-specific, cone, alpha prime) carried a mutation which caused cone degeneration. This altered the local environment and caused the bystander rods to degenerate too. To test SchB on the pde6cw59 mutants, a treatment concentration was first determined that would not cause morphological defects, and would initiate known physiological response. Then, the mutants were treated with the optimized SchB concentration before the appearance of retinal degeneration at 3 days postfertilization (dpf). The light sensation of animals was evaluated at 6 dpf by the visual motor response (VMR), a visual startle that could be initiated by drastic light onset and offset. The results show that the VMR of pde6cw59 mutants towards light onset was enhanced by the SchB treatment, and that the initial phase of the enhancement was primarily mediated through the mutants' eyes. Further immunostaining analysis indicates that the treatment specifically reduced the size of the abnormally large rods. These observations implicate an interesting hypothesis: that the morphologically-improved rods drive the observed VMR enhancement. Together, these investigations have identified a possible visual benefit of SchB on retinal degeneration, a benefit that can potentially be further developed to extend functional vision in patients.


Assuntos
Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Compostos Policíclicos/uso terapêutico , Degeneração Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Visão Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/genética , Ciclo-Octanos/química , Ciclo-Octanos/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignanas/química , Mutação , Compostos Policíclicos/química , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Degeneração Retiniana/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/patologia , Schisandraceae/química , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
14.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 63(9): 746-51, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26329870

RESUMO

Four new dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan glucosides, schisandrosides A-D (1-4), as well as two known rare nortriterpenoids, micrandilactone C (5) and propindilactone Q (6), were isolated from the roots of Schisandra chinensis BAILLON (Schisandraceae). The structure of compounds 1-4 were elucidated by physical and spectroscopic data interpretation. To the best of our knowledge, schisandrosides A-D (1-4) represent the first example of a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan glycoside.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Octanos/química , Glucosídeos/química , Lignanas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Schisandraceae/química , Ciclo-Octanos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Conformação Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Estereoisomerismo
15.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0125574, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25938480

RESUMO

Many species of Schisandraceae are used in traditional Chinese medicine and are faced with contamination and substitution risks due to inaccurate identification. Here, we investigated the discriminatory power of four commonly used DNA barcoding loci (ITS, trnH-psbA, matK, and rbcL) and corresponding multi-locus combinations for 135 individuals from 33 species of Schisandraceae, using distance-, tree-, similarity-, and character-based methods, at both the family level and the genus level. Our results showed that the two spacer regions (ITS and trnH-psbA) possess higher species-resolving power than the two coding regions (matK and rbcL). The degree of species resolution increased with most of the multi-locus combinations. Furthermore, our results implied that the best DNA barcode for the species discrimination at the family level might not always be the most suitable one at the genus level. Here we propose the combination of ITS+trnH-psbA+matK+rbcL as the most ideal DNA barcode for discriminating the medicinal plants of Schisandra and Kadsura, and the combination of ITS+trnH-psbA as the most suitable barcode for Illicium species. In addition, the closely related species Schisandra rubriflora Rehder & E. H. Wilson and Schisandra grandiflora Hook.f. & Thomson, were paraphyletic with each other on phylogenetic trees, suggesting that they should not be distinct species. Furthermore, the samples of these two species from the southern Hengduan Mountains region formed a distinct cluster that was separated from the samples of other regions, implying the presence of cryptic diversity. The feasibility of DNA barcodes for identification of geographical authenticity was also verified here. The database and paradigm that we provide in this study could be used as reference for the authentication of traditional Chinese medicinal plants utilizing DNA barcoding.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Loci Gênicos , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Schisandraceae/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Nat Prod Rep ; 32(3): 367-410, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25483912

RESUMO

Several significant advances in the field of phytochemistry were made between 2008 and 2014 because of the high level of interest in Schisandraceae triterpenoids. In addition to a dramatic increase in the number of newly identified triterpenoids, the first complete synthesis of a schinortriterpenoid was accomplished. There has also been substantial progress in investigations of biological activity and mechanism of action. In this update, we review more than 250 new triterpenoids and describe their structures, classifications, biogenetic pathways, syntheses, and bioactivities.


Assuntos
Schisandraceae/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacologia
17.
J. physiol. biochem ; 70(3): 735-747, sept. 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-127318

RESUMO

Brain ischemia appears to be associated with innate immunity. Recent reports showed that C3a and C5a, as potent targets, might protect against ischemia induced cell death. In traditional Chinese medicine, the fruit of Schizandra chinesis Baill (Fructus schizandrae) has been widely used as a tonic. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of schizandrin A, a composition of S. chinesis Baill, against oxygen and glucose deprivation followed by reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced cell death in primary culture of rat cortical neurons, and to test whether C3a and C5a affected cortical neuron recovery from ischemic injury after schizandrin A treatment. The results showed that schizandrin A significantly reduced cell apoptosis and necrosis, increased cell survival, and decreased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in primary culture of rat cortical neurons after OGD/R. Mechanism studies suggested that the modulation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK), and p38, as well as caspase-3 activity played an important role on the progress of neuronal apoptosis. C5aR participated in the neuroprotective effect of schizandrin A in primary culture of rat cortical neurons after OGD/R. Our findings suggested that schizandrin A might act as a candidate therapeutic target drug used for brain ischemia and related diseases


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacocinética , Schisandraceae , Neurônios , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Apoptose , Isquemia/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética
18.
Antiviral Res ; 98(3): 441-8, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23583286

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus integrase (HIV-1 IN) inhibitors that are currently approved or are in advanced clinical trials specifically target the strand transfer step of integration. However, considerable cross-resistance exists among some members of this class of IN inhibitors. Intriguingly, though, HIV-1 IN possesses multiple sites, distinct from those involved in the strand transfer step, that could be targeted to develop new HIV-1 IN inhibitors. We have developed a fluorescent HIV-1 IN DNA binding assay that can identify small molecules termed IN binding inhibitors (INBIs) that inhibit IN binding to viral DNA. This assay has been optimized with respect to concentrations of each protein, long terminal repeat (LTR) DNA substrate, salt, and time, and has been used successfully to measure the HIV-1 IN DNA binding activity of a well-characterized INBI termed FZ41. In addition, we have used the assay to screen a small library of natural products, resulting in the identification of nigranoic acid as a new INBI. The proposed fluorescence assay is easy and inexpensive, and provides a high-throughput detection method for determination of HIV-1 IN DNA binding activity, monitoring of enzyme kinetics, and high-throughput screening for the identification of new INBIs.


Assuntos
DNA Viral/metabolismo , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/isolamento & purificação , Integrase de HIV/metabolismo , HIV-1/enzimologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Ligação Competitiva , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/metabolismo , Integrase de HIV/genética , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/metabolismo , Repetição Terminal Longa de HIV , HIV-1/genética , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Schisandraceae/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sesquiterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 37(10): 1353-9, 2012 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22860441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate and arrange the ethno-pharmacological information of Schisandraceae plants in China. METHOD: The information was obtained by literature search, specimen inspection, field resource investigation and samples collection. RESULT: Twenty-six Schisandraece plants (inlcuding 4 varieties) have been used as folk medicines in different regions of China, the identical medicinal parts of different species in one genus show the similar usage, action and indications, and different medicinal parts with different administrated ways show different action and indications. CONCLUSION: The results provide reliable information for resource development and comprehensive utilization of Schisandraece plant resource in China.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Schisandraceae , China , Etnofarmacologia
20.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 39(3): 256-64, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21895737

RESUMO

1. The mitochondrial free radical theory of ageing (MFRTA) proposes a primary role for mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the ageing process. The reductive hot spot hypothesis of mammalian ageing serves as a supplement to the MFRTA by explaining how the relatively few cells that have lost oxidative phosphorylation capacity due to mitochondrial DNA mutations can be toxic to the rest of the body and result in the development of age-related diseases. 2. Schisandrin B (SchB), which can induce both a glutathione anti-oxidant and a heat shock response via redox-sensitive signalling pathways, is a hormetic agent potentially useful for increasing the resistance of tissues to oxidative damage. The enhanced cellular/mitochondrial anti-oxidant status and heat shock response afforded by SchB can preserve the structural and functional integrity of mitochondria, suggesting a potential role for SchB in ameliorating age-related diseases. 3. Future studies will focus on investigating whether SchB can produce the hormetic response in humans.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Hormese/fisiologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Compostos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Qi , Schisandraceae , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Octanos/farmacologia , Ciclo-Octanos/uso terapêutico , Hormese/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Compostos Policíclicos/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
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