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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 419, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have simultaneously focused on the associations of vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, school bullying, and Internet addiction (IA) with depressive symptoms. This study aimed to explore the direct and indirect effects of the above factors on depressive symptoms in adolescents by constructing a structural equation model (SEM). METHODS: This study was conducted in Qingdao from September to November 2021. A total of 6195 secondary school students aged 10-19 years were included in the analysis. Information on all variables was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. An SEM was constructed with depressive symptoms as the endogenous latent variable, IA as the mediating variable, and vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, and school bullying as the exogenous latent variables. The standardized path coefficients (ß) were the direct effects between the latent variables, and the indirect effects were obtained by the product of direct effects between relevant latent variables. RESULTS: The median value with the interquartile range of depressive symptom scores was 7 (3,12). Vegetable and fruit intake (ß=-0.100, P<0.001) and physical activity (ß=-0.140, P<0.001) were directly negatively related to depressive symptoms. While school bullying (ß=0.138, P<0.001) and IA (ß=0.452, P<0.001) were directly positively related to depressive symptoms. IA had the greatest impact on depressive symptoms. Vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, and school bullying could not only directly affect depressive symptoms, but also indirectly affect depressive symptoms through the mediating effect of IA, the indirect effects and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were -0.028 (-0.051, -0.007), -0.114 (-0.148, -0.089) and 0.095 (0.060, 0.157), respectively. The results of the multi-group analysis showed that the SEM we constructed still fit in boy and girl groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, school bullying, and IA had a significant direct impact on depressive symptoms, among which IA had the greatest impact. In addition, both vegetable and fruit intake, school bullying, and physical activity indirectly affected depressive symptoms through the mediating effect of IA. The impact of IA on depressive symptoms should be given extra attention by schools and parents. This study provides a scientific and effective basis for the prevention and control of adolescent depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Bullying , Depressão , Exercício Físico , Frutas , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Estudantes , Verduras , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Bullying/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Criança , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem , China/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 420, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization defines mental health as a combination of two dimensions: the negative dimension, or negative mental health, which indicates the presence of mental disorders, symptoms, and problems, and the positive dimension, or positive mental health, which includes emotions and positive personal characteristics such as self-esteem, resilience against environmental challenges, a sense of integrity, and self-efficacy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of internet addiction and academic resilience in predicting the mental health of high school students in Tehran, Iran. METHOD: The research method employed was a survey. 758 people participated in the study, and the samples consisted of high school students in Tehran during the academic year 2022-2023. The process of collecting information was carried out by distributing the questionnaire link through virtual networks and schools. The research utilized Young's Internet Addiction Test, Samuels' Academic Resilience Inventory, and Goldberg's Mental Health Questionnaire as the research tools. Statistical tests, including Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis, were employed to investigate the relationships between variables. RESULT: The effect of internet addiction on mental health (ß=0.39) is negative and significant at the 0.001 level, while the effect of academic resilience on mental health (ß=0.66) is positive and significant at the 0.001 level. These two variables collectively predict 53% of the variance in students' mental health. This indicates that as internet addiction increases among students, their mental health significantly decreases, whereas higher levels of academic resilience correspond to higher mental health. CONCLUSIONS: This study has elucidated the role of internet addiction and academic resilience in predicting the mental health of high school students in Tehran. Given the significance of adolescent mental health, it is imperative for healthcare professionals and other stakeholders to develop intervention and prevention models to address mental health crises and plan for the enhancement of adolescent mental health.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Saúde Mental , Resiliência Psicológica , Estudantes , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia
3.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0295719, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin cancer comprises half of all cancers in England and Wales. Most skin cancers can be prevented with safer sun exposure. As over exposure as a child can greatly increase future skin cancer risk, early and accessible sun safety education and promotion of sun safe behaviours is critical. Scientists agree there is no such thing as a 'safe tan', yet the public, including children, often have positive perceptions of tanned skin. To protect against future skin cancer, it is important to understand and address these misconceptions. The Curriculum for Wales with its area for Health and Well-being, and autonomy for schools in designing curriculum content, presents an ideal way to facilitate this exploration. AIMS: Gather data regarding perceptions towards tanning to explore the perceived effects of a tan on health.Inform the development and testing of an educational toolkit for integration within the Curriculum for Wales to encourage positive health behaviours and attitudes of school children towards tanning and sun exposure. METHODS: SunChat is a mixed methods exploratory study comprising three work streams: Workshops with school children to understand their perceptions on tanning.An online multiple-choice survey with parents/carers to understand perceptions, attitudes and behaviours towards tanning both for themselves and their children.An informal focus group with primary school educators to explore challenges in engaging with the school community around the Health and Well-being Area in the Curriculum for Wales. DISCUSSION: To date, there has been no work in Wales exploring children's, parents/carers', and educators' perceptions of tanning and how healthier attitudes can be encouraged. This study will engage with participants to scope current perceptions on tanning and the perceived effects tanning has on health. Findings will feed into future toolkit and curriculum development for health in schools in Wales and beyond.


Assuntos
Pais , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Banho de Sol , Humanos , País de Gales , Criança , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Banho de Sol/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Percepção
4.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0294545, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Zambia, 3.8% of young women and men aged 15-24 are HIV positive. However, like in most developing nations, HIV prevalence is higher among young women than young men (5.6% versus 1.8%). Despite the recognition of the rights of young people to sexual reproductive health (SRH) information and services, adolescent and young people (AYP) still face challenges in accessing healthcare in public health institutions including access to comprehensive knowledge on HIV/AIDs, HIV testing and contraceptives. The overall objective of the study was to collect baseline HIV, SRH and gender based violence (GBV) data at district level to inform the design of interventions targeting adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) aged 10-24 years in 20 districts of Zambia. METHODS: A cross-sectional, mixed-methods study was conducted in 20 districts of Zambia with the highest incidence of HIV. Data was collected between August and October 2022 with a total response rate of 92% (12,813/13960), constituting 5979 (46.7%) in-school and 6834 (53.3%) out-of-school participants. RESULTS: Overall, Mwinilunga, Chinsali, Chisamba and Chembe districts had the highest number of respondents, while Sinazongwe and Mungwi districts contributed the least. The overall age distribution was such that 12.6% (n = 1617) of those interviewed were aged 10 to 14 years, 35.4% (n = 4536) were aged 15-19 years, and 52.0% (n = 6660) were aged 20-24 years. The overall mean age at first sex among AGYW interviewed was 16.6 years which was broken down as follows: 16.2 years for in-school and 16.8 years for out of school. Overall, most of the respondents had first time sex with either their boyfriend (80.4%) or husband (15.6%), with 2.4% of the in-school participants reporting to have had their sexual debut in marriage compared to 21.0% among out-of-school AGYW. Prevalence of HIV was higher in the out-of-school compared to the in-school participants (5.5% vs 2.0%), Similarly, the prevalence of syphilis was higher in the out-of-school than the in-school participants (4.1% vs 1.5%). CONCLUSION: The study focused on assessing the prevalence and vulnerability of HIV, syphilis, GBV, and SRH services uptake among adolescent girls and young women, and exploring factors affecting girls' stay-in-school and re-engagement. The study found that HIV and syphilis are still significant public health problems among adolescent girls and young women in Zambia, emphasizing the need for increased efforts to prevent and manage these infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Comportamento Sexual , Sífilis , Humanos , Adolescente , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Prevalência , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Criança , Assunção de Riscos , Masculino , Adulto , Instituições Acadêmicas
5.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1277146, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841660

RESUMO

Objectives: A number of high school art students experience negative emotions during their preparation for the art college entrance examination, characterized by worries and fear of uncertainty. Therefore, how individual difference factors, such as intolerance of uncertainty, affect the negative emotions of students needs to be examined. Inspired by the integrative model of uncertainty tolerance, the current study seeks to explain the association between intolerance of uncertainty and negative emotions by testing the potential mediating role of psychological capital and the moderating role of family functioning. Patients and methods: A total of 919 Chinese high school art students (Mage = 18.50 years, range = 16-22) participated from November 2022 to December 2022. Convenience sampling strategies were used. The participants were asked to complete the measures of intolerance of uncertainty scale, psychological capital questionnaire, depression anxiety stress scale, and family adaptability and cohesion evaluation scale. The data were analyzed using Pearson's r correlations and moderated mediation analysis. Results: Results showed that intolerance of uncertainty was positively associated with negative emotions but negatively associated with psychological capital, which in turn, was negatively associated with negative emotions. Psychological capital mediated the indirect link of intolerance of uncertainty with negative emotions. Family functioning buffered the impact of psychological capital on negative emotions. Conclusion: This study can enhance our understanding of the intolerance of uncertainty on negative emotions and provide insights on interventions for high school art students' negative emotions for educators. The interventions targeting intolerance of uncertainty, psychological capital and family functioning may be beneficial in reducing the effect of intolerance of uncertainty on negative emotions faced by high school art students.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Emoções , Estudantes , Humanos , Incerteza , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , China , Análise de Mediação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1370118, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38841659

RESUMO

Life satisfaction has been determined as a cognitive indicator of subjective wellbeing, a term that acquires vital relevance during adolescence as a protective factor against numerous psychological, mental and social disorders. Therefore, the objectives of this study are: (1) to evaluate differences in life satisfaction as a function of gender and school environment in Spanish children and adolescents; and (2) examine the possible associations between life satisfaction and age and/or body mass index (BMI) of the student body. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was carried out with 723 students (aged 6 to 18 years) in which the "Satisfaction with life Scale" was applied, consisting of 5 items that measure self-perception of life satisfaction. Nonparametric statistics (Mann-Whitney U test) were used to explore differences in scores according to sex and school environment, in addition to Spearman's Rho test to identify associations between scale scores and students' age and BMI. Significant differences were obtained in terms of sex in favor of the male gender, and between the two environments of the centers in favor of the rural ones. In addition, the two variables explored (age and BMI) showed significant inverse associations with life satisfaction levels. Therefore, educational interventions and policies must take this information into account to design and develop actions aimed at improving this cognitive factor.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Satisfação Pessoal , Educação Física e Treinamento , Estudantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Criança , Espanha , Estudos Transversais , Educação Física e Treinamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Etários
7.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823800

RESUMO

The impact of schools closing for in-person instruction in the USA during the COVID-19 pandemic on the use of prescription medications is not known. In this study, we examined changes in the total prescriptions filled, specifically for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications, among school-aged children and adolescents aged 10-19 years during periods before and after complete school closures between October 2019 and September 2022. Our findings indicate that complete school closures were associated with declines in the use of ADHD medications among younger populations in the USA. These findings suggest that the underuse of ADHD medications may be an overlooked contributor to declines in academic performance observed during periods of school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , COVID-19 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem , Pandemias , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/provisão & distribuição , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0291704, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829864

RESUMO

This study identified latent trajectories of physical aggression (TPA) from infancy to preschool age and evaluated (a) effects of early parent, parenting and child predictors on TPA as well as on social, behavioral, and academic functioning in Grade 2, and (b) TPA effects net of early predictor effects on Grade 2 functioning. We used data from the Behavior Outlook Norwegian Developmental Study (BONDS), which included 1,159 children (559 girls). Parents reported on risk and protective factors, and on physical aggression from 1 to 5 years of age; teachers reported on Grade 2 outcomes. We employed latent class growth curve analyses and identified nine TPA. In fully adjusted models simultaneously testing all associations among predictors, trajectories, and outcomes, maternal and paternal harsh parenting, child gender, and sibling presence predicted TPA, which significantly predicted externalizing and academic competence in Grade 2. Child gender had a pervasive influence on all outcomes as well as on TPA. To our knowledge, this is the first trajectory study to determine which predictors are most proximal, more distal, or just confounded, with their relative direct effect sizes, and to link early paternal as well as maternal harsh parenting practices with children's TPA. Our findings underscore the need to include fathers in developmental research and early prevention and intervention efforts.


Assuntos
Agressão , Poder Familiar , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Agressão/psicologia , Lactente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Noruega , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Health Promot Int ; 39(3)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864399

RESUMO

Formation of proper handwashing techniques and habits from childhood is important for disease prevention. However, there are few studies that comprehensively and longitudinally evaluate the effectiveness of handwashing education for kindergarteners. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of continuous handwashing education using multiple activities to improve handwashing practices and skills among first- to third-grade students at a kindergarten in central Japan. A quasi-experimental one group pre- and post-test design was used. The education program consisted of three activities: (i) a 1-day teaching session by a researcher in January 2021, (ii) a 1-month follow-up activity led by kindergarten teachers and (iii) a 1-month follow-up activity led by parents at home, both occurring from late January to late February 2021. The study used questionnaires and handwashing skill experiments to investigate the kindergarteners' handwashing practices and comprehensive handwashing skills (handwashing steps, handwashing time, rinsing time and areas of the hands left unwashed) before and after Activities 1, 2 and 3. Data were obtained from 56 kindergarteners (64.4%). Second and third graders showed a significant improvement in their handwashing practices after coughing or sneezing. With the exception of rinsing time, handwashing skills significantly improved in all grades after the 1-day teaching session. After 1-month follow-up activities, the number of areas left unwashed by first graders significantly decreased, and the score for handwashing steps significantly improved. This study indicated that continuous handwashing education is partially effective at improving and maintaining handwashing practices and skills, except for rinsing time, among kindergarteners of all grades.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Masculino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Criança , Inquéritos e Questionários , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População do Leste Asiático
10.
Scand J Occup Ther ; 31(1): 2361649, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has identified diverse constraints to the adoption of school-based occupational therapy approaches and a lack of attention to addressing the barriers to children's play opportunities. Critical contextualised research is advocated to inform practice possibilities. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: This inquiry aimed to explore with occupational therapists their existing practices in Irish schoolyards to generate practice possibilities concerned with play, as an issue of occupational justice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the theory of practice architectures, six occupational therapists from diverse sites of practice participated in the first phase of a critical action research process using dialogical focus group and occupational mapping methods. RESULTS: Three themes were generated (1) Existing practices as situated (2) (Re)mattering play and practices as occupations and (3) Practice possibilities - 'Finding the play' between responsiveness and responsibilities. A further interrelated dimension was how the research methods provided mechanisms of raising consciousness. CONCLUSIONS, AND SIGNIFICANCE: Alongside constructing knowledges on existing practices in an Irish context, this inquiry contributes to understandings of practices as socially embedded generative processes of 'finding the play', highlighting ethical responsibilities to make visible inequities reproduced in habitual practices and engage in relationships of solidarity to (re)construct alternative shared practices.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais , Terapeutas Ocupacionais , Terapia Ocupacional , Jogos e Brinquedos , Humanos , Irlanda , Terapeutas Ocupacionais/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Masculino
11.
Mycopathologia ; 189(4): 51, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864977

RESUMO

Data on the epidemiology of tinea capitis (TC), an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, are scarce in Cameroon. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of TC among school-children in the Dschang Subdivision, Western Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2021 in Dschang including pupils aged 5-13. First, a standardized questionnaire was administered to participant for the collection of sociodemographic data. Then, samples were collected and cultured onto Sabouraud-Chloramphenicol-Gentamicin Agar. The etiological agents were identified based on their morphological features and with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 1070 children were clinically examined and 108 (10.1%) children presented with TC lesions. The mean age of the 1070 participants was 8.3 ± 2.6 years (range: 5-13 years); 772 (72.2%) were males. The use of borehole water (OR = 0.01, 95%CI[0.001-0.03]), spring water (OR = 0.2, 95%CI[0.08-0.50]), rainwater (OR = 0.004, 95%CI[0.001-0.016]), and hairdressing salons visits (OR = 0.413, 95%CI[0.196-0.872]) were associated with a decreased TC risk in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. In contrast, sharing bed with siblings (OR = 4.48, 95%CI[2.095-9.60]) was associated with an increased TC risk in children. Among the 32 dermatophytes isolated in culture, Microsporum audouinii was the most frequent (43.8%), followed by Trichophyton rubrum (25.0%) and T. soudanense (25.0%). Microsporum canis and T. violaceum were both rarely isolated. Further studies are warranted to assess the association of TC with domestic water usage that has been highlighted in this study.


Assuntos
Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Humanos , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Pré-Escolar , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Risco , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação
12.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e078850, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify factors that shaped working parents (WPs') experiences of COVID-19-related social restrictions and analyse the relationships between those factors. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive design was used to collect five time points of data including two online questionnaires and three telephone or online interviews between March 2021 and August 2021 with some follow-up interviews in December 2022. SETTING: The COVID-19 pandemic led to social restrictions which greatly impacted WPs who had to both work and look after their children within their home space without any formal childcare. PARTICIPANTS: 19 participants living in Scotland who had at least one child of primary school age and who had been working in March 2020. RESULTS: All parents were affected by social restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic, with the flexibility of employers, their socioeconomic situation and the amount of space in their home environment being particularly influential. The impact of social restrictions was greater for lone parents (LPs) due to the inability to share childcare with another adult in the home. Parents in low-income households were affected due to pre-existing inequalities of resources. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate several policy options that could mitigate negative outcomes for parents in the case of a future pandemic, including options to lessen inequities experienced by LPs. These include priority access to school places (particularly for children with underlying chronic medical conditions), the ability to establish a 'support bubble' at the beginning of social restrictions and being given access to safe outside places for children without a garden.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Escócia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Criança , Adulto , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Emprego , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
13.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e088312, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of an ecological dynamics (ED) intervention (EDI) on primary school children's physical literacy and well-being in the Hong Kong context. The aim of this project is to introduce a physical literacy and well-being framework through an EDI that allows primary school children to develop good physical activity (PA) and daily behavioural habits. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A four-arm (cluster) randomised controlled trial will be conducted to examine the effect of EDI on physical literacy and well-being in primary schools located in each of the 18 administrative districts of Hong Kong. Four classes in senior primary students (grade 4) at each school will be randomly assigned to the four different conditions. These participating schools will be equipped with sit-stand desks, PA recess facility and equipment, and sleep pillows. The research team will adopt both objective measures (aerobic fitness, fundamental movement skills, daily behaviour-physical activity and cognitive function) and self-reported measures (perceived physical literacy, quality of life, sleep quality) covering the elements and domains of physical literacy and well-being to examine the effects of EDIs at four time points, including baseline assessment, 3 months after intervention, postintervention and 3-month follow-up assessment. One-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) will be used to test for differences in the baseline characteristics of participants between groups. Repeated measure ANOVAs and MANCOVA, with time (baseline, after intervention and follow-up) as within-subjects factor, and intervention group as between-subjects factors, will be used to evaluate the effects of different interventions on the students' physical literacy and well-being. A Bonferonni correction to the p value will be calculated to adjust for multiple tests. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was sought from the Joint CUHK-NTEC Clinical Research Ethics Committee in Hong Kong (CREC Ref.No.:2024.027). The finding of this study will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals, international conference presentations and academic lectures. For secondary analysis of the data, please contact the corresponding author for permission. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN84025914.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Qualidade de Vida , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Hong Kong , Criança , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Masculino , Letramento em Saúde , Aptidão Física , Estudantes/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
14.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1532, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether the Good School Toolkit-Primary violence prevention intervention was associated with reduced victimisation and perpetration of peer and intimate partner violence four years later, and if any associations were moderated by sex and early adolescent: family connectedness, socio-economic status, and experience of violence outside of school. METHODS: Drawing on schools involved in a randomised controlled trial of the intervention, we used a quasi-experimental design to compare violence outcomes between those who received the intervention during our trial (n = 1388), and those who did not receive the intervention during or after the trial (n = 522). Data were collected in 2014 (mean age 13.4, SD 1.5 years) from participants in 42 schools in Luwero District, Uganda, and 2018/19 from the same participants both in and out of school (mean age 18, SD: 1.77 years). We compared children who received the Good School Toolkit-Primary, a whole school violence prevention intervention, during a randomised controlled trial, to those who did not receive the intervention during or after the trial. Outcomes were measured using items adapted from the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Institutional. We used mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression, with school fitted as a random-effect to account for clustering. RESULTS: 1910 adolescents aged about 16-19 years old were included in our analysis. We found no evidence of an average long-term intervention effect on our primary outcome, peer violence victimization at follow-up (aOR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.59-1.11); or for any secondary outcome. However, exposure to the intervention was associated with: later reductions in peer violence, for adolescents with high family connectedness (aOR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.99), but not for those with low family connectedness (aOR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.6; p-interaction = 0.06); and reduced later intimate partner violence perpetration among males with high socio-economic status (aOR = 0.32, 95%CI 0.11 to 0.90), but not low socio-economic status (aOR = 1.01 95%CI 0.37 to 2.76, p-interaction = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Young adolescents in connected families and with higher socio-economic status may be better equipped to transfer violence prevention skills from primary school to new relationships as they get older. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01678846, registration date 24 August 2012. Protocol for this paper:  https://www.researchprotocols.org/2020/12/e20940 .


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo Associado , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Uganda , Violência/prevenção & controle
15.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite parental concern, few studies have investigated children's experiences with school-based screening of growth deviations. This study aimed to explore perceptions of height and weight screening and associations with body size dissatisfaction (BSD) among third-grade children aged 8-9 years in central Norway. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study between November 2021 and April 2022, perceptions of height and weight screening and BSD were assessed individually among 209 children (49% girls) through researcher-assisted interviews. RESULTS: Most children indicated satisfaction with the screening by selecting a happy emoji, whereas only 1% indicated dissatisfaction, by selecting an unhappy emoji. However, 23%-30% selected a neutral emoji, indicating either neutrality or a response between satisfaction and dissatisfaction. No difference in the perception of height and weight screening was found between genders or body mass index (BMI). Children with parents from non-Western countries had a higher risk of being less satisfied with the height screening (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 7.3) than those from Western origin, and children attending schools with lower socioeconomic status (SES) had increased risk of being less satisfied with both height (OR=5.5, 95% CI 2.2 to 13.5) and weight screening (OR=4.0, 95% CI 1.7 to 9.3), compared with children from schools with medium-high SES. Twenty-three percent reported BSD, in which 14% and 9% desired a thinner or larger body, respectively, independent of gender and BMI. No association was found between BSD and the perception of weighing (OR=1.1, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.4), however, BSD was associated with being more satisfied with height screening (OR=0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8). CONCLUSION: In the present sample, most children indicated satisfaction with school-based height and weight screening, with no differences between gender or BMI category. However, more children of non-Western origin and from areas with low SES reported less satisfaction with the screening, independent of BSD.


Assuntos
Estatura , Imagem Corporal , Peso Corporal , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Noruega , Instituições Acadêmicas , Programas de Rastreamento , Satisfação Pessoal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/psicologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico
16.
Dyslexia ; 30(3): e1768, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38845553

RESUMO

A systematic literature review (SLR) of seven papers written between 2015 and 2021 explored the educational experiences of learners with dyslexia in mainstream schools in England from an ecosystemic perspective and how to improve the situation. The analysis employed keywords for database searches and followed the PRISMA flow protocol. It synthesised evidence using thematic analysis and identified seven themes: dyslexia challenges; differential treatment; negative stereotypes; early intervention; teachers' training; power dynamics; and collaboration. The results suggest that several factors can influence the learning experiences of learners with dyslexia in English mainstream schools. Similarly, such factors can, in turn, be dependent on education policies. On that premise, this systematic literature review recommends that to promote positive learning experiences for learners with dyslexia, classroom strategies targeting interventions should be supported with broader environmental strategies shaping individuals' learning experience and offer support from different perspectives. A whole-school approach to providing intervention, teachers' training, parents and school partnerships, and professional collaboration can improve learners' educational experiences. A further recommendation is for learning interventions to target all learners, to prevent differential treatment of learners with dyslexia and to avoid them standing out from their peers and creating a negative experience.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Aprendizagem , Instituições Acadêmicas , Humanos , Inglaterra , Inclusão Escolar , Criança , Estudantes/psicologia , Intervenção Educacional Precoce
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 649, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824605

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) places great importance on oral health promotion programs in schools, given that approximately one billion people worldwide are students. This demographic not only includes the students themselves, but also extends to school staff, their families, and the broader community, all of whom are interconnected. The objectives of this study were firstly to assess the knowledge of health personnel conducting fluoride varnish treatment (FVT) in schools, and secondly to solicit their views on the effectiveness of their training methods. METHODS: Data was collected from health personnel involved in FVT in schools, supervised by medical universities in Tehran province, using a questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into four sections: demographic information, methods of receiving FVT training, respondents' knowledge regarding FVT, and opinions about the effectiveness of FVT training methods. The questionnaire was distributed via social media, phone conversations, and email. The collected data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney in SPSS Version 26. A regression model was also fitted to the data. RESULTS: The present study included 403 participants. Among various educational methods, it was found that participation in previous workshops (P = 0.001) and FVT workshops (P = 0.013) was significantly correlated with a higher FVT knowledge score. Additionally, participation in previous oral health promotion programs was significantly associated with a higher knowledge score (P < 0.05). Therefore, a history of participating in previous health promotion programs significantly contributed to the participants' knowledge. CONCLUSION: Participation in previous oral health programs was found to be significantly correlated with a higher knowledge score. The effectiveness of training programs can be attributed to participation in previous workshops and FVT workshops. This study provided insights into potential strategies for enhancing personnel training in national oral health programs.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretos Tópicos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1336617, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827606

RESUMO

Introduction: Adolescents are experiencing an unprecedented cyber-saturated environment where the disclosure of private information should be approached with caution. This study aims to investigate the effects of school environment, including student support, teacher support, and opportunities for autonomy, on students' disclosure of private information and their experiences with cyberbullying. Methods: In September 2022, a total of 1,716 students (mean age = 14.60, SD = 1.35) from three regular and vocational schools in China participated in the survey. Results: The results showed that 35.6% of the participants had experienced victimization by cyberbullying, and 12.6% had perpetrated cyberbullying. Vocational school students reported significantly higher rates of cyberbullying and lower levels of perceived school climate than students from regular school. Student support in the school environment was found to negatively affect both cyberbullying perpetration and victimization, with this impact appearing to be stronger in regular schools as compared to vocational schools. Opportunities for autonomy and the disclosure of private information were positively correlated with experiences of cyberbullying. Discussion: This study introduces a novel perspective that perceived school climate influences adolescents' disclosure of private information and their involvement in cyberbullying. The findings could provide implications for future research and practices aimed at child protection in cyberspace.


Assuntos
Cyberbullying , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Humanos , China , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Revelação , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
19.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1531, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the changes in the unhealthy eye-related behaviors of junior middle school students during the COVID-19 pandemic and the double reduction policy and its relationship with myopia. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2019-2022 Tianjin Children and Youth Myopia, Common Diseases and Health Influencing Factors Survey. Latent profile analysis (LPA) and a generalized linear model (GLM) were applied to analyze the effect of eye-related behavior classes on myopia. RESULTS: A total of 2508 junior middle school students were included. The types of eye-related behavior were categorized into the medium-healthy behavior group, heavy academic burden and near-eye behavior group, insufficient lighting group and high-healthy behavior group. Students with heavy academic burdens and near-eye behavior were more likely to develop myopia than were those in the high-healthy group (OR = 1.466, 95% CI = 1.203-1.787; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The dual reduction policy has a positive effect on improving unhealthy eye-related behaviors, and the prevention and control of myopia through the use of different combinations of eye-related behaviors are heterogeneous among junior middle school students. In the post-COVID-19 period, we should continue to implement a double reduction policy and formulate targeted eye-related behavior strategies to provide an important reference for the prevention and control of myopia among children and adolescents during public health emergencies in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miopia , Estudantes , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/psicologia , Miopia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Criança , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS Biol ; 22(6): e3002677, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848309

RESUMO

Much has been written about the energetic effects of animals moving in schools or flocks, but experimental results are few and often ambiguous. A new study in PLOS Biology shows that schooling greatly reduces the cost of transport for fish in turbulent flow.


Assuntos
Peixes , Natação , Animais , Natação/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
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