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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e063687, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127093

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Assessing mental health literacy has implications for the identification and treatment of mental health problems. Adolescents have been identified as a particularly important target group for initiating and improving mental health literacy. However, much of what we know about adolescent mental health literacy comes from high-income countries. This proposed review seeks to synthesise the available published primary evidence from sub-Saharan Africa on the status and measurement of mental health literacy among school-going adolescents. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic review reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement (PRISMA-2020). We will systematically search selected global databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed and MEDLINE) and regional electronic databases (African Index Medicus and African Journals OnLine) up to December 2021 for observational and qualitative studies published in English and French. The standard quality assessment criteria for evaluating primary research papers from a variety of fields (QualSyst criteria) will be used to appraise the methodological quality of the included studies. The Petticrew-Roberts 3-step approach to narrative synthesis will be applied to the included studies. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We will not seek ethical approval from an institutional review board, as this is a systematic review of available and accessible literature. When completed, the full report of this review will be submitted to a journal for peer-reviewed publication; the key findings will be presented at local and international conferences with-partial or full-focus on (adolescent) mental health (literacy). PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021229011.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1785, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low childhood physical activity levels constitute an important modifiable risk for adult non-communicable disease incidence and subsequent socio-economic burden, but few publications have explored age and sex related patterns within the UK population. The aims were to profile child physical activity data from the Health Survey for England from 2012 (1,732 respondents) and 2015 (5,346 respondents). METHODS: Reported physical activity episodes were converted to metabolic equivalents with reference to child-specific compendiums. Physical activity levels were aggregated for each domain, and again to produce total physical activity estimates. Contributions from each domain to total physical activity were explored, stratifying for age, sex, socio-economic deprivation, ethnicity, and weight status. Further analyses were run stratifying for physical activity levels. Few differences were detected between the survey iterations. RESULTS: Boys reported higher absolute levels of physical activity at all ages and across all domains. For boys and girls, informal activity reduces with age. For boys this reduction is largely mitigated by increased formal sport, but this is not the case for girls. Absolute levels of school activity and active travel remained consistent regardless of total physical activity, thereby comprising an increasingly important proportion of total physical activity for less active children. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend a specific focus on establishing and maintaining girl's participation in formal sport thorough their teenage years, and a recognition and consolidation of the important role played by active travel and school-based physical activity for the least active children.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Esportes , Adolescente , Criança , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1790, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep is important to an individual's health and well-being, but also for school achievement among adolescents. This study investigates the associations between sleepiness, sleep deficits, and school achievements among adolescents. METHODS: This trend study involved a representative sample of Norwegian adolescents based on the "Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study" (TIMSS), N = 4499 (2015) and N = 4685 (2019) and their teachers. The students were 9th graders from a Norwegian compulsory secondary school. The survey included questions on students' sleepiness as students reported in 2019 and sleep deficits among students that limited teaching in class as their teachers reported in 2015 and 2019. Regression, triangulation, and mediation analyses were used. Mplus was used to perform the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The results revealed significant negative associations between sleep deficits and school achievements, adjusted for gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and minority status among Norwegian 9th graders. These results were found for both mathematics and science achievements in 2015 and 2019. Sleepiness that the students reported was negatively associated with school achievements in 2019. Trend and mediation analyses showed that sleep deficits explained 18 and 11% of the decrease in mathematics and science achievements, respectively, from 2015 to 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep deficits were associated with school achievements in mathematics and science among Norwegian 9th graders. Mediation analyses revealed that sleep deficits explained a significant part of the decline in academic achievements. Insufficient sleep may have negative public health implications and influence adolescents' academic achievements and competences, and should therefore be discussed in both the educational and health systems.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Humanos , Matemática , Instituições Acadêmicas , Sono , Sonolência , Estudantes
4.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 70, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research shows that elementary and secondary school children have considered infant feeding choices for when they become parents and are interested in learning about breastfeeding in school. Despite recommendations to include infant feeding education in secondary school classrooms, teachers' practices and attitudes regarding this topic have been the subject of minimal research. The purpose of this study was to explore North Carolina, USA, family and consumer sciences teachers' infant feeding education practices and their views on incorporating breastfeeding education in the curricula of family and consumer sciences classes that cover topics related to parenting and nutrition. METHODS: The study used a purposive sample of 19 teachers who participated in semi-structured qualitative telephone interviews exploring their attitudes and practices relating to infant feeding education. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews using the constant comparative method through the lens of the Theory of Planned Behavior by examining the participants' attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls. RESULTS: Teachers had predominantly positive attitudes towards the inclusion of breastfeeding education in high school parenting, child development, and nutrition courses, citing the need to normalize breastfeeding and support students' ability to make informed choices when they become parents. Teachers' subjective norms included concerns about parents' and administrators' views on the appropriateness of the content and apprehension about negative student responses. Perceived behavioral controls included student maturity, teachers' own experiences and comfort with infant feeding, and the view that curriculum guidelines limit content selection. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study can be used in the development and implementation of secondary school education programs that increase knowledge about infant feeding and positive attitudes towards breastfeeding for all members of the community. Teachers' concerns need to be addressed in the implementation of these programs.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Professores Escolares , Estudantes
5.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 7986850, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36133160

RESUMO

Primary and secondary schools have the enormous responsibility of developing talent over a hundred years, and they should not only be concerned with the moral, ideological, and cultural development of teenagers but also with their mental well-being. We need to start by making the external environment better, provide in-depth psychological counseling, and support students as they work to continually increase their psychological adaptability in order to promote the healthy development of their personalities. As the epidemic situation in China has now stabilized into a normal state of prevention and control, it is imperative to provide primary and secondary school students with mental health education. In light of this context, this paper develops a browser-server network architecture-based consultation system for the mental health of students in primary and secondary schools. It eliminates the conventional booking mode and substitutes credibility as the characteristic programming parameter. The performance of the original system is improved by the reliability model the most when the parameter is set to 0.2, and the recovery rate rises by 1.32 percent. Compared to the original reliability model, which improved the system's F value performance by 0.83 percent, the accuracy rate only declines by 0.68 percent while F rises by 0.37 percent. This research is crucial for creating an information campus and raising the standard of psychological counseling.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/psicologia
6.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0272871, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074757

RESUMO

School engagement has been demonstrated to be a relevant aspect in promoting students' successful trajectories, a commitment that in its turn is influenced by contextual factors (family, teachers, and peers). Having instruments to measure these constructs allows decisions to be made to improve student retention, especially relevant in the context of uncertainty caused by covid-19. The aim of the study was to adapt and analyze the psychometric properties of questionnaires used to measure school engagement and contextual factors in the context of the pandemic with elementary school students in Chile. After adaptation of the instruments, through expert evaluation and focus groups with students, they were administered to 579 students in seventh and eighth grade (mean age = 12.79, 52% were boys), and to 334 students in fifth and sixth grade (mean age = 11.35, 38% were boys) in Chile. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the two versions of the school engagement measurement instrument had an adequate fit with the original model of three correlated factors, cognitive, affective, and behavioral commitment. Similarly, these two versions of the instrument measuring the contextual factors had a good fit with the original model of three correlated factors, family, teachers, and peers. In addition, both versions of both questionnaires presented appropriate levels of internal consistency.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0268961, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084095

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Substance use amongst adolescents remains a global public health challenge. The potential negative health outcomes of substance use suggest the need to understand the pattern of use and the associated factors among adolescents. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of substance use, SUDs, and PD and the associated factors in adolescent learners at public schools in Gaborone, Botswana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 13 public secondary schools in Gaborone among 742 students. Assessment tools included the World Health Organization drug questionnaire, DSM-5 interview for SUD, and the General Health Questionnaire-12. RESULTS: The mean age (SD) of the participants was 15.26 (1.57) years, and there were more females (55.5%). Over two-fifths (44.6%) of learners reported psychoactive substance use in the past 12 months, and 31.5% meeting DSM 5 criteria for a SUD. Alcohol was the most used psychoactive substance (25.1%). Male gender (AOR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.26-2.995), having a friend (AOR = 4.27; 95% CI: 2.68-6.78), or father (AOR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.14-3.04), who uses substance, and higher levels of PD (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03-1.17) remained significantly associated with SUD. Regular participation in religious activities negatively correlated with SUD (AOR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.96). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of substance use and SUDs among in-school adolescents is concerning. Substance use programs need to include family-focused and religious-based therapy and youth empowerment in developing positive peer relationships. Also, they should be integrated with mental health screening to assess comorbid PD.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
9.
Am Psychol ; 77(6): 727-742, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074568

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the lives of many high school and college students, and recent studies indicate increased emotional distress in this age group. We examined associations among 10 pandemic-related concerns, 21 affects, and three self-regulatory skills using cross-sectional online survey data from high school and college students in two regions of the United States (Study 1: N = 392 and Study 2: N = 1,200). Network models of regularized partial correlation networks revealed both equifinal and multifinal pathways between specific COVID-19 concerns and positive and negative affects. In both studies, concern about conflict with parents was the pandemic-related concern most strongly connected to negative affects, mindfulness was most strongly connected to pandemic-related concerns and negative affects, and self-compassion was most strongly connected to positive affects. These findings provide greater insight into risk and resilience factors associated with students' emotional well-being during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pandemias , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades
10.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 52(4): 421-434, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117303

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of parental self-esteem on late school-aged children's media device addiction by mediating marital conflict and children's self-esteem. METHODS: This study used data from the 11th (2018) Panel Study on Korean Children. The participants consisted of 1,082 family triads (fathers, mothers, and children). Data were collected using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Marital Conflict Scale, and K-Internet Addiction Scale. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling with SPSS/WIN 27.0 and Mplus 8.7. RESULTS: The final model showed a good fit for the data. Children's media device addiction was directly related to mothers' self-esteem, mothers' marital conflict, and children's self-esteem. Fathers' self-esteem had a significant indirect effect on children's media device addiction by mediating both fathers' and mothers' marital conflict. In addition, mothers' self-esteem had a significant indirect effect on children's media device addiction by mediating mothers' marital conflict. CONCLUSION: The findings indicates that self-esteem and marital conflict for both fathers and mothers have a significant effect on children's media device addiction. It suggests that more attention might be given to fathers and mothers in developing interventions to prevent children's media device addiction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Conflito Familiar , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem
11.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(3): 339-348, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have discussed school-based health programs in Montessori education. Lumin has a network of Montessori elementary schools serving mainly lower income families in Dallas, Texas. Since 2015, our medical school has partnered with Lumin to design and implement fitness and nutrition curricula adherent to Montessori principles. OBJECTIVES: To describe a novel Montessori school-based health program and determine avenues for improvement based on lessons learned. METHODS: Led by medical students with guidance from faculty mentors, the program was developed collaboratively with Lumin leaders based on a critical need in their community and shaped with results from a cross-sectional health needs assessment among Lumin families. Data were collected to measure the impact of the program and a program evaluation was conducted after 5 years of operation to explore curriculum refinement.Results and Lessons Learned: The greatest challenges were recruitment of student volunteers, scheduling and coordination, and garnering community interest for secondary activities (e.g., health fairs). CONCLUSIONS: Despite challenges, this partnership has resulted in a successful program that relies on faculty and student volunteers, incorporates community-based participatory research and service learning concepts, and follows Montessori principles.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Educação em Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
Sante Publique ; 34(1): 21-44, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102089

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF RESEARCH: To investigate upon the relationship between screen exposure time and graphic/fine motor skills of children aged 5 to 6 in Auvergne. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in 2019-2020 in 3 kindergarten classes in Clermont-Ferrand and 4 in Cantal, chosen according to different socio-demographic criteria. The main criteria for evaluating fine motor skills were 3 calibrated graphic/fine motor activities, carried out during an individual assessment at school. The weekly screen exposure time of the child was assessed during a parental interview. RESULTS: 127 children took part in the survey. The main results point out that children who spend more than 10 hours per school week (more than 20 hours a holiday school week) on screen have significantly lower graphic/fine motor skills. Regardless of screen exposure time, a child living with a single parent, and/or of low level of educational, and/or intermediate occupation/socio-professional category, has lower graphic/fine motor skills scores. The rural setting of the school seems to play a positive role in the level of graphic/fine motor skills, while the socio-demographic profile of the school and the attendance of the children do not seem to influence these skills. CONCLUSIONS: Our survey shows a significant association between increased weekly screen time exposure and decreased graphic/fine motor skills in children aged 5-6 years. Further work will be required to explore this association. Health education programs implemented in school and health communities with parental involvement would be useful to improve screen usage and prevent learning disabilities.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora , Tempo de Tela , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Lakartidningen ; 1192022 09 14.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106739

RESUMO

Physical inactivity is recognised as a major public health problem. In Sweden about 1/3 of the adult population reports being insufficiently active. A central task in public health work is to support the individual, without blaming, in making healthy choices. Initiatives in healthcare, such as counselling on physical activity, have been shown to be both cost-effective and effective for disease prevention and treatment. The use of a physical activity vital sign and brief advice from physicians can make a big difference. In this paper we present how the healthcare system as one of eight evidence-based investments can promote physical activity. The eight investment areas are: whole-of-school programs, active transport, active urban design, health care, public education, sports and recreation, workplaces and community-wide programs. Evidence suggests that the largest population health benefit will be achieved by combining these investments and implementing a systems-based approach.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde , Adulto , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 949130, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111187

RESUMO

This study is intended for exploring the effects of the physical activity combined with extra ciliary-muscle training with different frequencies on children's kinetic visual acuity and uncorrected distance visual acuity, and eventually figuring out the optimal frequency of ciliary-muscle training for each physical education class. To do the present research, A total of 160 students aged 10-11 from a school in Suzhou (a major city located in southeastern Jiangsu Province, East China) were randomly selected and divided into control group (n = 33), 15-frequency group (n = 44), 30-frequency group (n = 40) and 60-frequency group (n = 43), and the latter three experimental groups participated in a specially designed physical activity plan based on the training principles of ciliary muscle, while the control group participated in normal physical activity as usual. The experimental intervention period was 16 weeks, and all students' kinetic visual acuity and uncorrected distance visual acuity were measured before and after the experiment. The result showed that the kinetic visual acuity of the students in the 30 and 60-frequency groups got improved significantly after the experiment (p < 0.05), with the highest improvement occurring in the 30-frequency group, while there was no significant change in the 15-frequency group and the control group; The uncorrected distance visual acuity of the students in the 30 and 60-frequency groups was significantly improved after the experiment (p < 0.05), and the improvement range in these two groups was similar. In contrast, there was no significant change in the 15-frequency group, while the control group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05). Physical activity combined with extra ciliary-muscle training has a positive effect on improving children's vision; at the same time, ciliary-muscle training with different frequencies bring out different outcomes on children's vision improvement, among which ciliary-muscle training with frequency of 30 in each physical education class is the best choice to enhance children's kinetic visual acuity and uncorrected distance visual acuity.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Humanos , Músculos , Estudantes , Acuidade Visual
15.
Trends Hear ; 26: 23312165221122587, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114643

RESUMO

A tablet-based language-independent self-test involving the recognition of ecological sounds in background noise, the Sound Ear Check (SEC), was adapted to make it feasible for young children. Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment investigated the SEC's feasibility, as well as its sensitivity and specificity for detecting childhood hearing loss with a monaural adaptive test procedure. In the second experiment, the SEC sounds, noise, and test format were adapted based on the findings of the first experiment. The adaptations were combined with three test procedures, one similar to the one used in Experiment 1, one presenting the sounds dichotically in diotic noise, and one presenting all the sounds with a fixed signal-to-noise ratio and a stopping rule. Results in young children show high sensitivity and specificity to detect different grades of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss (70-90%). When using an adaptive, monaural procedure, the test duration was approximately 6 min, and 17% of the results obtained were unreliable. Adaptive staircase analyses showed that the unreliable results probably occur due to attention/motivation loss. The test duration could be reduced to 3-4 min with adapted test formats without decreasing the test-retest reliability. The unreliable test results could be reduced from 17% to as low as 5%. However, dichotic presentation requires longer training, reducing the dichotic test format's feasibility.


Assuntos
Idioma , Autoteste , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Audição , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1749, 2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use is a leading cause of harm in young people and increases the risk of alcohol dependence in adulthood. Alcohol use is also a key driver of rising health inequalities. Quantifying inequalities in exposure to alcohol outlets within the activity spaces of pre-adolescent children-a vulnerable, formative development stage-may help understand alcohol use in later life. METHODS: GPS data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 10-and-11-year-old children (n = 688, 55% female). The proportion of children, and the proportion of each child's GPS, exposed to alcohol outlets was compared across area-level income-deprivation quintiles, along with the relative proportion of exposure occurring within 500 m of each child's home and school. RESULTS: Off-sales alcohol outlets accounted for 47% of children's exposure, which was higher than expected given their availability (31% of alcohol outlets). The proportion of children exposed to alcohol outlets did not differ by area deprivation. However, the proportion of time children were exposed showed stark inequalities. Children living in the most deprived areas were almost five times more likely to be exposed to off-sales alcohol outlets than children in the least deprived areas (OR 4.83, 3.04-7.66; P < 0.001), and almost three times more likely to be exposed to on-sales alcohol outlets (OR 2.86, 1.11-7.43; P = 0.03). Children in deprived areas experienced 31% of their exposure to off-sales outlets within 500 m of their homes compared to 7% for children from less deprived areas. Children from all areas received 22-32% of their exposure within 500 m of schools, but the proportion of this from off-sales outlets increased with area deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: Children have little control over what they are exposed to, so policies that reduce inequities in alcohol availability should be prioritised to ensure that all children have the opportunity to lead healthy lives.


Assuntos
Comércio , Etanol , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Escócia/epidemiologia
17.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221118843, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113031

RESUMO

This study examined associations between changes in domain-specific sedentary behaviors and changes in health-related lifestyles of Spanish secondary school students (n = 113) to their first year of university. During the transitions from the end of high school to the beginning of university, engagement in sedentary behaviors have emerged as potential additional behavioral risk factors. Understanding how sedentary behaviors interconnect with other (un)healthy behaviors will inform interventions on multiple risk behaviors across this critical life period. A 3-year longitudinal survey assessed associations between domain-specific sedentary behaviors and leisure time physical activity (IPAQ), alcohol and tobacco consumption, and fruit and vegetable intake (24-h dietary recall), using Generalized Estimating Equations. Spending time on sedentary transportation was associated with a greater likelihood of smoking, whereas sedentary weekend homework was associated with a reduced likelihood of consuming alcohol. The lowest and highest tertiles for sedentary screen use and leisure-time PA were also less likely not to meet the recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption. For specific sedentary behaviors, associations were gender-based or affected by leisure time physical activity. From secondary school to university, specific sedentary behaviors are linked to lifestyle risk factors. Over this transitional period, public health interventions targeting reduced sedentary behaviors may bring multiple benefits by also preventing other harmful behaviors.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Universidades
18.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 370, 2022 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes in the prevalence of myopia and its relation to ocular biological parameters, and behaviors among primary school students in China, and understand the prevention and control of myopia. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were performed on 7-9-year-old children in the yrs. 2012 and 2019. In addition, spherical equivalent refraction (SER), axial length (AL), and AL/corneal radius ratio (AL/CR ratio) were collected without cycloplegia. Participants completed detailed questionnaires on behavior related to myopia. RESULTS: Data was collected on 623 children (8.02 ± 0.57 years old) in 2012 and 536 students in 2019 (8.09 ± 0.65 years old). The prevalence of myopia was 37.7% in 2012 and 39.9% in 2019. The SER was -0.25 (0.92) D in 2012 and -0.25 (1.25) in 2019. There was no statistical difference in the prevalence of myopia and SER over the 7 years (all P > 0.05). In 2019, the prevalence of myopia among girls demonstrated an increasing trend (33.8% vs. 37.8%), but there was no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The mean AL and AL/CR ratio of boys were decreasing (all P < 0.05). The proportion of children reading more than 2 h and using digital devices for more than 2 h per day after their classes in the 2019 group both decreased (all P < 0.05). However, the proportion of activities performed outdoors for more than 2 h./day decreased significantly (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared with 2012, the prevalence of myopia in primary school students in 2019 was under control, which may be related to the improvement of children's near-work behavior, but there was the problem of insufficient outdoor activity time. In terms of ocular biological parameters, the risk of myopia for boys in 2019 was lower.


Assuntos
Miopia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 122, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TransformUs was a four-arm school-based intervention to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour among primary school children. Pedagogical and environmental strategies targeted the classroom, school grounds and family setting. The aims of this study were to evaluate program fidelity, dose, appropriateness, satisfaction and sustainability, and associations between implementation level and outcomes among the three intervention arms. METHODS: At baseline, 18-months (mid-intervention) and 30-months (post-intervention), teachers, parents and children completed surveys, and children wore GT3X ActiGraph accelerometers for 8 days at each time point to determine physical activity and sedentary time. Implementation data were pooled across the three intervention groups and teachers were categorised by level of implementation: (i) 'Low' (< 33% delivered); (ii) 'Moderate' (33-67% delivered); and (iii) 'High' (> 67% delivered). Linear and logistic mixed models examined between group differences in implementation, and the association with children's physical activity and sedentary time outcomes. Qualitative survey data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Among intervention recipients, 52% (n = 85) of teachers, 29% (n = 331) of parents and 92% (n = 407) of children completed baseline evaluation surveys. At 18-months, teachers delivered on average 70% of the key messages, 65% set active/standing homework, 30% reported delivering > 1 standing lesson/day, and 56% delivered active breaks per day. The majority of teachers (96%) made activity/sports equipment available during recess and lunch, and also used this equipment in class (81%). Fidelity and dose of key messages and active homework reduced over time, whilst fidelity of standing lessons, active breaks and equipment use increased. TransformUs was deemed appropriate for the school setting and positively received. Implementation level and child behavioural outcomes were not associated. Integration of TransformUs into existing practices, children's enjoyment, and teachers' awareness of program benefits all facilitated delivery and sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that intervention dose and fidelity increased over time, and that children's enjoyment, senior school leadership and effective integration of interventions into school practices facilitated improved intervention delivery and sustainability. Teacher implementation level and child behavioural outcomes were unrelated, suggesting intervention efficacy was achieved irrespective of implementation variability. The potential translatability of TransformUs into practice contexts may therefore be increased. Findings have informed scale-up of TransformUs across Victoria, Australia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN83725066; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number ACTRN12609000715279. Registered 19 August 2009. Available at: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=308387&isReview=true.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Criança , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Vitória
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1658, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The public health benefits of physical activity for children are well known including contributions to metabolic and cardiorespiratory health. Along with physical benefits, engaging in physical activity can support the social and emotional health of youth and promote health and well-being into adulthood. This cluster-randomized controlled trial assesses the impact of an after-school curriculum aimed at improving physically active and inclusive play to promote physical, social, and emotional health. A secondary focus is on the implementation (appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity, sustainability) of the curriculum. METHODS: The PLAYground (Play and Learning Activities for Youth) project utilizes a social-ecological approach, targeting personal, behavioral, and environmental conditions, and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to study how a playground curriculum impacts children's health. All elementary schools with an existing after-school program in a large, public school district in Mesa, Arizona will be eligible to participate. Seven schools will be allocated to the intervention arm in year one using random sampling stratified by school-income. In year two, the seven control schools will receive the intervention. Intervention schools will implement the research-based PlayOn!® playground curriculum to promote active and inclusive play. After-school staff will be trained to teach activities that address social and emotional skills (e.g., conflict resolution) through physical activity. Participating students will be trained as peer leaders to extend the playground activities to the recess setting. This trial will assess between-group differences in physical activity, social and emotional health indicators, and number of health and behavior incidents among students attending intervention schools and control schools. Implementation outcomes will also be assessed among program facilitators at each school site. DISCUSSION: Enhancement of physical activity opportunities at schools has the potential for high impact and reach due to practicality. Enhancements can also improve quality pedagogy and curricula in after-school settings. Results of this project can inform practical strategies to improve existing after-school programs to prepare leaders (adults and children) to facilitate physical activity, positive social interactions, and emotional well-being. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT ID NCT05470621 , Registered July 22, 2022.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Currículo , Exercício Físico , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estudantes/psicologia
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