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1.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38648371

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) induces oxidative stress in plants, which results in different responses, including the production of antioxidants and changes in the profile of secondary metabolites. In this study, the responses of Scrophularia striata exposed to 250mgL-1 Pb (NO3 )2 in a hydroponic environment were determined. Growth parameters, oxidative and antioxidative responses, redox status, and the concentration of Pb were analysed in roots and shoots. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels in the roots were significantly increased and reached their highest value at 72h after Pb treatment. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase, as an enzymatic antioxidant system, were responsible for reactive oxygen species scavenging, where their activities were increased in the shoot and root of Pb-treated plants. Enzymatic antioxidant activities were probably not enough to remove a significant H2 O2 content in response to Pb treatment. Therefore, other defence responses were activated. The results stated that the flavonoid components of S. striata progressed towards the increase of isoflavone, flavanol, and stilbenoid contents under Pb treatment. In general, S. striata stimulates the enzymatic defence system and activates the non-enzymatic system by modulating the profile of flavonoids toward the production of flavonoids with high antioxidant activity, such as quercetin and myricetin in response to Pb stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Chumbo , Estresse Oxidativo , Raízes de Plantas , Scrophularia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Chumbo/toxicidade , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Scrophularia/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo
2.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 38(1): e5757, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37814466

RESUMO

Nephrogenic edema (NE) is a type of edema with hypoproteinemia and water and sodium retention as a result of renal injury. Traditional Chinese medicine has proved that Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. has an effect on NE, but its mechanism is not clear. In this study, the main components and blood components of S. ningpoensis were identified using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Pathological section and blood biochemical analysis were used to estimate the therapeutic effect of S. ningpoensis on NE. Network pharmacology was used to predict the potential pathways of S. ningpoensis. The metabolomics method was used to study the changes in small-molecule metabolites in the body. The results showed that S. ningpoensis could relieve NE by regulating relative to renal function and body edema, and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of energy metabolism, recovery of renal injury, and reduction in inflammation. The active component harpagoside may be one of the important compounds of S. ningpoensis in the treatment of NE. We confirmed that S. ningpoensis has a therapeutic effect on NE, which provides a solid scientific research basis for the clinical application of S. ningpoensis.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Scrophularia , Scrophularia/química , Scrophularia/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química
3.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 44(4): 371-377, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38124628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Liver cirrhosis is one of the most important causes of death from liver diseases. Nowadays, the use of herbal medicines has increased due to its availability, less side effects and cheapness for the treatment of liver diseases. The present study was conducted to examine therapeutic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Scrophularia striata (S. striata) on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats through evaluate its effects on oxidative stress markers and the expression of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP 1), toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), and Mitofusin (MFN2) genes. METHODS: 24 male rats were selected by simple random sampling. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: group I: healthy rats, group II: thioacetamide (TAA) injected rats, group III: TAA injected rats+100 mg/kg bw of S. striata and group IV: TAA injected rats+200 mg/kg bw of S. striata. Liver cirrhosis was induced in rats by a 300 mg/kg bw TAA administration twice with an interval of 24 h. After 8 weeks of treatment by S. striata at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg bw, biochemical factors and oxidative stress markers (SOD, TAC, GPX, CAT and MDA) were measured using spectrophotometric methods. Also, gene expression of TIMP 1, TLR-4, and MFN2 were analyzed using real-time PCR. ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test analysis were applied to evaluate the data. RESULTS: The results showed the S. striata extract significantly improve the serum ALT, AST and ALP levels, TIMP 1, TLR-4, and MFN2 genes and oxidative stress markers (SOD, TAC, GPX, CAT and MDA) in the liver tissues when compared to control group (p<0.05). Also, it was found that the beneficial effects of the S. striata were dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results obtained S. striata by reducing the expression of TIMP 1, TLR-4, and MFN2 genes and improving oxidative stress might be used as adjuvant treatment for liver cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , Scrophularia , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Tioacetamida/metabolismo , Tioacetamida/farmacologia , Scrophularia/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(16): 4302-4319, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37802857

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine Scrophulariae Radix, which is also called Yuan Shen, black Shen, is the dried root of Scrophularia ningpoensis of the Scrophulariaceae family. Research has indicated that the chemical constituents of Scrophulariae Radix mainly include terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, organic acids, volatile oils, steroids, sugars, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenols, among which iridoids and phenylpropanoids were the main active constituents. It has been reported that extracts of Scrophulariae Radix or its active substances have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, anti-fatigue, uric acid-lowering, anti-depression, myocardial cell-protective and other pharmacological activities, and can regulate cardiovascular system, central nervous system and immune system. This paper reviewed the present research achievements of Scrophulariae Radix in chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, processing methods, toxicity and other aspects, and the clinical application of Scrophulariae Radix in ancient and modern times was illustrated. This paper aimed to provide reference for further research of Scrophulariae Radix and facilitated its clinical application.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Scrophularia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Raízes de Plantas/química , Scrophularia/química
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 202: 107936, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37647821

RESUMO

Plants respond to water shortage by regulating biochemical pathways which result in the biosynthesis of osmotic compounds. Active metabolites and compatible osmolytes control the inhibition of oxygen free radicals and dehydration. The physiological response of scrophularia striata to drought stress, a factorial completely randomized design (FCRD) experiment was conducted in three replication. Drought stress was induced at two levels (100% and 50% field capacity), and salicylic acid (SA) and silicon (Si) and Ecotype were also used at two levels of (0 and 100 PPM), (0 and 1 g/L) and (Ilam and Abdanan) respectively. Data analysis results indicated that the H2O2 content, Malondialdehyde (MDA), glycine betaine (GB) and the activity of the enzyme glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) of aerial parts increased during the entire stress exposure period. Although the SA + Si + stress + ecotype interaction increased the content of soluble carbohydrate s and the GR activity in aerial parts of Ilam and Abdanan ecotypes, this interaction led to a decrease in MDA, H2O2 in Ilam ecotypes. The interaction between the stress + SA + Si + ecotype led to an increase in the phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) activity in the Abdanan ecotype, but no important difference was observed. As compared to the control treatment, the content of Polyphenol increased, The interaction between ecotype + stress + Si caused to increased the of proline content in the Abadanan ecotype. The results showed that the increase in antioxidant defense and compatible osmolytes due to the use of SA and Si can improve the drought tolerance in S.striata.


Assuntos
Secas , Scrophularia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Silício/farmacologia , Glutationa Redutase , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta
6.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(10): 323, 2023 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37594529

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the association of factors associated with soil fertility and composition with the structure of microbial communities in the rhizosphere and endosphere. Hence, this study aimed to explore the effects of geographical differences on fungal communities in the roots of Scrophularia ningpoensis and the relationship between the fungal communities and secondary metabolic components in the host plant. We found that there was greater diversity in the fungal communities of the rhizosphere compartment than in endosphere communities. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were dominant among the endosphere fungi, whereas Mortierellomycota was distributed in the rhizosphere. The composition of bulk soil obtained from different producing areas was significantly different, and the correlation between the rhizospheric and physicochemical compartments of the soil was higher than that observed with the endophytic compartment. Redundancy analysis and canonical correspondence analysis of the rhizospheric and endophytic samples revealed that the organic matter, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and Hg levels were adequately correlated with the composition of rhizospheric and endophytic fungal communities. Multiple linear regression analyses facilitated the identification of potentially beneficial fungi whose abundance was correlated with levels of secondary metabolites, such as harpagide and harpagoside. These fungi could potentially provide valuable information regarding the use of S. ningpoensis in the medicinal plant industry.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Microbiota , Micobioma , Scrophularia , Solo
7.
Environ Toxicol ; 38(11): 2741-2750, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37471627

RESUMO

Increased drug resistance has reduced efficiency of chemotherapic drugs such as Doxorubicin (Dox). Scrophularia amplexicaulis (Scr) is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran that has anti-cancer activity. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel approach to enhance therapeutic efficacy of Dox (as a chemotherapeutic agent) by co-administration of Scr (as a bioactive herbal compound) in gastric cancer treatment. In the present study, effects of Dox, Scr, and their combinations (Scr-Dox) were evaluated on viability and proliferation of two gastric cancer cell lines (AGS and MKN28). Moreover, morphological changes, invasion, migration, colony formation, and apoptosis rate in the treated cancer cells were evaluated. Expression of BAX, BCL2, SAMC, SURVIVIN, CASP9, P53, MMP9, and MMP2 in the treated cancer cells and untreated controls were evaluated by Real-Time PCR method. Treatments of cancer cells by Scr, Dox, and Scr-Dox significantly decreased proliferation, invasion, migration, and colony formation of gastric cancer cells. Treatments of cancer cells by Scr, Dox, and Scr-Dox significantly increased apoptosis rate as well as decreased cells mobility through modification of apoptosis- and metastasis-related genes expression. However, anti-cancer activity of Scr-Dox combination was significantly more than Scr and Dox treatments alone. In general, we demonstrated that Scr-Dox combination therapy exerts more profound anti-cancer effects on AGS and MKN28 cell lines than Scr and Dox monotherapy.


Assuntos
Scrophularia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Apoptose
8.
Chem Biodivers ; 20(8): e202300427, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37439445

RESUMO

Medicinal plants used in European folk medicine attached to Lamiales, Gentianales or Asterales orders are used to treat inflammatory disorders. Many targets have been identified but to date, implication of purinergic receptor P2X7 activation has not yet been investigated. We managed to evaluate the protective effect on P2X7 activation by plant extracts used as anti-inflammatory in European folk medicine by the YO-PRO-1 uptake dye in vitro bioassay. Results revealed that among our selected plants, species from Scrophularia and Plantago genus were able to decrease significantly P2X7 activation (>50 % at 0.1 and 1 µg/mL). UPLC/MS, dereplication and metabolomic analysis of Scrophularia extracts, allowed us to identify the cinnamoyl-iridoid harpagoside as putative inhibitor of P2X7 activation. These results open a new research field regarding the anti-inflammatory mechanism of cinnamoyl-iridoids bearing plants, which may involve the P2X7 receptor.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Scrophularia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7 , Iridoides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(12)2023 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37373180

RESUMO

Scrophularia ningpoensis, a perennial medicinal plant from the Scrophulariaceae family, is the original species of Scrophulariae Radix (SR) in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. This medicine is usually deliberately substituted or accidentally contaminated with other closely related species including S. kakudensis, S. buergeriana, and S. yoshimurae. Given the ambiguous identification of germplasm and complex evolutionary relationships within the genus, the complete chloroplast genomes of the four mentioned Scrophularia species were sequenced and characterized. Comparative genomic studies revealed a high degree of conservation in genomic structure, gene arrangement, and content within the species, with the entire chloroplast genome spanning 153,016-153,631 bp in full length, encoding 132 genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 4 rRNA genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 18 duplicated genes. We identified 8 highly variable plastid regions and 39-44 SSRs as potential molecular markers for further species identification in the genus. The consistent and robust phylogenetic relationships of S. ningpoensis and its common adulterants were firstly established using a total of 28 plastid genomes from the Scrophulariaceae family. In the monophyletic group, S. kakudensis was determined to be the earliest diverging species, succeeded by S. ningpoensis. Meanwhile, S. yoshimurae and S. buergeriana were clustered together as sister clades. Our research manifestly illustrates the efficacy of plastid genomes in identifying S. ningpoensis and its counterfeits and will also contribute to a deeper understanding of the evolutionary processes within Scrophularia.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Plantas Medicinais , Scrophularia , Scrophulariaceae , Scrophularia/genética , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Filogenia
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 233: 115464, 2023 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37209496

RESUMO

Hypertension is one of the most challenging public health problems worldwide. Previous studies suggested that the Uncaria rhynchophylla Scrophularia Formula (URSF), a medical institution preparation of the affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, is effective for essential hypertension. However, the efficacy of URSF for hypertension remains unclear. We aimed to clarify the anti-hypertensive mechanism of the URSF. The material basis of URSF was identified by the LC-MS. We also evaluated the antihypertensive efficacy of URSF on SHR rats by body weight, blood pressure and biochemical indicators. The LC-MS spectrometry-based serum non-targeted metabolomics was used to seek potential biomarkers and relevant pathways for URSF in the treatment of SHR rats. 56 biomarkers were metabolically disturbed in SHR rats in the model group compared with the control group. After URSF intervention, 13 biomarkers showed a recovery in the optimal method compared with the other three groups. We identified 3 metabolic pathways in which URSF is involved: the arachidonic acid metabolism pathway, the niacin and nicotinamide metabolism pathway, and the purine metabolism pathway. These discoveries offer a basis for the study of URSF for the treatment of hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Scrophularia , Uncaria , Ratos , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Metabolômica/métodos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Biomarcadores
11.
J Med Food ; 26(5): 328-341, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37092995

RESUMO

Microglia-induced neuroinflammation is one of the causative factors in cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative disorders. Our previous studies have revealed several benefits of Scrophularia buergeriana extract (Brainon®) in the central nervous system, but the underlying mechanism of action has not been elucidated. This study is purposed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective mechanisms of Brainon in the BV-2 condition SH-SY5Y model. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV-2 conditioned media (CM) were used to treat SH-SY5Y cells to investigate neuroprotective effects of the extract against microglial cytotoxicity. Results demonstrated that pretreated Brainon decreased nitric oxide release, the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression level, and expression of cytokines like interleukin-6, interleukin-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor-α by blocking expression of TLR4/MyD88 and NLRP3 and suppressing nuclear factor κB/AP-1 and p38/JNK signaling pathways in LPS-induced BV-2 cells. In addition, when SH-SY5Y cells were treated with CM, pretreatment with Brainon increased neuronal viability by upregulating expression of antioxidant proteins like as SODs and Gpx-1. Increased autophagy and mitophagy-associated proteins also provide important clues for SH-SY5Y to prevent apoptosis by Brainon. Brainon also modulated mTOR/AMPK signaling to clear misfolded proteins or damaged mitochondria via auto/mitophagy to protect SH-SY5Y cells from CM. Taken together, these results indicate that Brainon could reduce inflammatory mediators secreted from BV-2 cells and prevent apoptosis by increasing antioxidant and auto/mitophagy mechanisms by regulating mTOR/AMPK signaling in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, Brainon has the potential to be developed as a natural product in a brain health functional food to inhibit cognitive decline and neuronal death.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Scrophularia , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Microglia , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Scrophularia/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Phytochem Anal ; 34(7): 816-829, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36704818

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Scrophulariae Radix (SR) has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. However, the processing methods and production areas of Scrophularia ningpoensis have undergone notable historic changes. Thus, their effects on the bioactive constituents of SR still need to be studied further. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to establish an objective and comprehensive method to identify the correlation of bioactive constituents of SR with variety, place of origin and processing method for evaluating their qualities. METHODOLOGY: An accurate and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method for the simultaneous determination of 11 marker components (aucubin, harpagide, 6-O-methyl-catalpol, harpagoside, verbascoside, isoverbascoside, angoroside C, cinnamic acid, l-tyrosine, l-phenylalanine, and l-tryptophan) was established to evaluate the quality of SR for the first time. In addition, the effects of different production areas and processed methods on the target compounds were studied by analysing 66 batches of SR samples with chemometrics methods, including similarity evaluation of chromatographic fingerprints of TCM, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). RESULTS: Compared with "sweating", short-term "steaming" and "slice-drying" could largely preserve the bioactive constituents of SR. When using the model established through PLS-DA, five components were identified as the most significant variables for discrimination. Furthermore, the score plots of PCA and the similarity evaluation revealed that variety had a more notable influence on the quality of SR than the place of origin. CONCLUSION: An objective approach of HPLC fingerprint coupled with chemometrics analysis and quantitative assessment could be applied to discriminate different processed SR and evaluate the qualities of SR rapidly.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Scrophularia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Quimiometria , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Scrophularia/química , China
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(4): 1832-1845, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36271763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scrophularia ningpoensis is a well-known medicinal crop. Continuous cropping seriously affects the yield and quality, but little is known about the influence of continuous cropping on metabolic pathways. In this study, the difference in protein abundance between continuous cropping and non-continuous cropping of S. ningpoensis roots was studied by proteomics, and the molecular mechanism that protects S. ningpoensis against continuous cropping was explored. RESULTS: The results suggested that continuous cropping in S, ningpoensis altered the expression of proteins related to starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, citric acid cycle, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, monoterpenoid biosynthesis, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis, and steroid biosynthesis. Among these processes, the most affected were phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and starch and sucrose metabolism, which may be important for continuous cropping resistance. CONCLUSION: The effect of continuous cropping on S. ningpoensis was demonstrated at the proteome level in this work, and identified candidate proteins that may cause continuous cropping reactions. The paper provides the theoretical foundation and scientific reference for enhancing the continuous cropping resistance of S. ningpoensis. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Scrophularia , Scrophularia/química , Proteômica , Sacarose
14.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1008685

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine Scrophulariae Radix, which is also called Yuan Shen, black Shen, is the dried root of Scrophularia ningpoensis of the Scrophulariaceae family. Research has indicated that the chemical constituents of Scrophulariae Radix mainly include terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, organic acids, volatile oils, steroids, sugars, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenols, among which iridoids and phenylpropanoids were the main active constituents. It has been reported that extracts of Scrophulariae Radix or its active substances have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, anti-fatigue, uric acid-lowering, anti-depression, myocardial cell-protective and other pharmacological activities, and can regulate cardiovascular system, central nervous system and immune system. This paper reviewed the present research achievements of Scrophulariae Radix in chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, processing methods, toxicity and other aspects, and the clinical application of Scrophulariae Radix in ancient and modern times was illustrated. This paper aimed to provide reference for further research of Scrophulariae Radix and facilitated its clinical application.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Raízes de Plantas/química , Scrophularia/química
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292576

RESUMO

The Scrophularia incisa complex is a group of closely related desert and steppe subshrubs that includes S. incisa, S. kiriloviana and S. dentata, which are the only S. sect. Caninae components found in Northwest China. Based on earlier molecular evidence, the species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within this complex remain poorly resolved. Here, we characterized seven complete chloroplast genomes encompassing the representatives of the three taxa in the complex and one closely related species, S. integrifolia, as well as three other species of Scrophularia. Comparative genomic analyses indicated that the genomic structure, gene order and content were highly conserved among these eleven plastomes. Highly variable plastid regions and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The robust and consistent phylogenetic relationships of the S. incisa complex were firstly constructed based on a total of 26 plastid genomes from Scrophulariaceae. Within the monophyletic complex, a S. kiriloviana individual from Pamirs Plateau was identified as the earliest diverging clade, followed by S. dentata from Tibet, while the remaining individuals of S. kiriloviana from the Tianshan Mountains and S. incisa from Qinghai-Gansu were clustered into sister clades. Our results evidently demonstrate the capability of plastid genomes to improve phylogenetic resolution and species delimitation, particularly among closely related species, and will promote the understanding of plastome evolution in Scrophularia.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Scrophularia , Scrophulariaceae , Humanos , Filogenia , Scrophularia/genética , Scrophulariaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular
16.
Phytomedicine ; 104: 154308, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. is a commonly used medicinal plant in China for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM), but its mechanism of action remains poorly described. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for > 90% of all DM cases and is characterized by insulin resistance. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the insulin sensitivity can be improved by treatment with aqueous extract of S. ningpoensis (AESN) and further explore its mechanism(s) of activity. METHODS: Primary mouse hepatocytes and human HepG2 hepatocytes were used to investigate the effects of AESN on cell viability, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glucose output under normal culture conditions. To mimic hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in vitro, hepatocytes were exposed to high glucose (HG), and the influences of AESN on AMPK phosphorylation, NLRP3 inflammation activation, insulin signaling, lipid accumulation and glucose output were investigated. Increasing doses of AESN (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) were administered by gavage to db/db mice for 8 weeks, and then biochemical analysis and histopathological examinations were performed. RESULTS: AESN significantly activated AMPK and inhibited glucose output in hepatocytes, but did not impact cell viability under normal culture conditions. Moreover, in HG-treated hepatocytes, AESN protected against aberrant AMPK activity, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, insulin signaling, and lipid accumulation. AMPK inhibition abolished the regulatory effects of AESN on the NLRP3 inflammasome, insulin signaling, lipid accumulation, and glucose output of hepatocytes following HG exposure. Furthermore, AESN administration reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels, improved lipid profiles and insulin resistance, and corrected the aberrant AMPK activity and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in liver tissues. CONCLUSION: AESN improves insulin sensitivity via AMPK-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Scrophularia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9813, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697707

RESUMO

One of the factors that causes severe metabolic imbalance and abnormal changes in many tissues, especially in the pancreas, is the pathological disease of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, in this study, the therapeutic effects of Scrophularia striata were investigated using an animal model in the control of diabetic injury and pancreatic complications caused by diabetes. A total of 66 rats (weight 220-250 g) were randomly divided into: Healthy Control group (rats without diabetes receiving Propylene glycol as solvent); Diabetic control group; 3 experimental healthy groups (receiving the extract with doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw/day); 3 treatment groups; and3 pretreatment groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal STZ (60 mg/kg bw). FBS, HbA1c and insulin were measured after 4 weeks. Pdx1 and Ins1 gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR. The histological evaluation was also performed with H&E staining. The data were analyzed by SPSS ver20 using ANOVA and Tukey tests. By treatment with S. striata ethanolic extract, these factors were close to the normal range. The expression of the Pdx1 and Ins1 genes increased in the treated rats with S. striata extract. Analysis of the obtained data indicates the effect of S. striata in improving the complications of diabetes in rats and can be considered for therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Scrophularia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Etanol , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Scrophularia/metabolismo
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 296: 115499, 2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752262

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: According to the Compendium of Materia Medica, honey has been used as a traditional medicine in treatment against mucositis, tinea, hemorrhoids and psoriasis. In complementary medicine, due to its significant antimicrobial activity, honey has been widely used as a remedy for skin wounds and gastrohelcosis for thousands of years. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is aimed at exploring the antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of honey sourced from medicinal plants, and revealing the composition-activity relationship, to facilitate their complementary and alternative application in the therapy of bacterial infectious diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight kinds of medicinal plant-derived uniflorous honey, native to China, were gathered. Their antimicrobial activities were evaluated in vitro, and then in vivo with the systemically infected mouse model and the acute skin infection model. SYTOX uptake assay, scanning electron microscopy, DNA binding assay, and quantitative real-time PCR, were carried out to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms. This was followed by an investigation of the componential profile with the UPLC-MS/MS technique. RESULTS: It was found that Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (figwort) honey (S. ningpoensis honey) exhibited broad-spectrum and the strongest antibacterial potency (MICs of 7.81-125.00%, w/v), comparable to manuka honey. In the in vivo assays, S. ningpoensis honey significantly decreased the bacterial load of the muscles under the acute MRSA-infected skin wounds; the sera level of TNF-α in the S. aureus and P. aeruginosa-infected mice decreased by 45.38% and 51.75%, respectively, after the treatment of S. ningpoensis honey (125 mg/10 g). It was capable of killing bacteria through disrupting the cell membranes and the genomic DNA, as well as down-regulating the expression of genes associated with virulence, biofilm formation and invasion, including icaA, icaD, eno, sarA, agrA, sigB, fib and ebps in S. aureus, and lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR and algC in P. aeruginosa. Apart from H2O2, some other nonperoxide compounds such as adenosine, chavicol, 4-methylcatechol, trehalose, palmitoleic acid and salidroside, might play a vital role in the antibacterial properties of S. ningpoensis honey. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to thoroughly investigate the antibacterial activity, mode of action, and componential profile of S. ningpoensis honey. It suggested that S. ningpoensis honey might be a potential supplement or substitute for manuka honey, for the prevention or treatment of bacterial infections. It will facilitate the precise application of medicinal plant-sourced honey, provide a new thread for the development of antibacterial drugs, and assist in the distinction of different kinds of honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Plantas Medicinais , Scrophularia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Mel/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Scrophularia/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8128, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581313

RESUMO

The phenylpropanoid pathway serves as a rich source of metabolites in plants, and it is considered as a starting point for the production of many other important compounds such as the flavonoids, flavonols, coumarins, and lignans. Scrophularia striata is a member of the Lamiaceae family with some biological activities similar to flavonoid compounds such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and Chalcone synthase (CHS) are key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, leading to the biosynthesis of several secondary metabolites. In this study, two S. striata CHS and C4H were isolated and then analyzed. The investigation of the expression of these genes was performed under the effects of three salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and gibberellic acid (GA) at concentrations of 100 and 300 ppm with a completely randomized design at the transcript level using Real Time PCR method. These have different expression patterns at developmental stages. Moreover, these genes present different sensitivities to hormonal treatment. Considering the total results, it was found that the amount of expression of these genes during the reproductive phase is higher than that of the vegetative phase. Additionally, the treatment of 300 ppm SA in the reproductive phase is the most effective treatment on increasing the corresponding phenylpropanoid compounds. A correlation analysis was performed between the phenylpropanoid compounds content and both CHS and C4H expression values at different phenological development stages. The results indicate that the expression variations of both CHS and C4H are significantly related to the changes in total phenolic content. We believe that the isolation of CHS and C4H can be helpful in better understanding phenylpropanoid metabolis.


Assuntos
Scrophularia , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Scrophularia/metabolismo , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
20.
J Org Chem ; 87(11): 7229-7238, 2022 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549261

RESUMO

A synthesis of new-to-nature aza-iridoids via ynamides is presented. ZrCl4 proved to be the best acid to perform this transformation. Various ynamides were accommodated, and seco-iridoids could be obtained as well. Aza-iridoids were infiltrated into leaves of Scrophularia Nodosa, an iridoid-producing plant species. High-resolution mass spectrometry coupled to computational metabolomic approaches was employed for the detection of aza-iridoid bioconversion products.


Assuntos
Iridoides , Scrophularia , Iridoides/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta , Scrophularia/química
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