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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292576

RESUMO

The Scrophularia incisa complex is a group of closely related desert and steppe subshrubs that includes S. incisa, S. kiriloviana and S. dentata, which are the only S. sect. Caninae components found in Northwest China. Based on earlier molecular evidence, the species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within this complex remain poorly resolved. Here, we characterized seven complete chloroplast genomes encompassing the representatives of the three taxa in the complex and one closely related species, S. integrifolia, as well as three other species of Scrophularia. Comparative genomic analyses indicated that the genomic structure, gene order and content were highly conserved among these eleven plastomes. Highly variable plastid regions and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. The robust and consistent phylogenetic relationships of the S. incisa complex were firstly constructed based on a total of 26 plastid genomes from Scrophulariaceae. Within the monophyletic complex, a S. kiriloviana individual from Pamirs Plateau was identified as the earliest diverging clade, followed by S. dentata from Tibet, while the remaining individuals of S. kiriloviana from the Tianshan Mountains and S. incisa from Qinghai-Gansu were clustered into sister clades. Our results evidently demonstrate the capability of plastid genomes to improve phylogenetic resolution and species delimitation, particularly among closely related species, and will promote the understanding of plastome evolution in Scrophularia.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Scrophularia , Scrophulariaceae , Humanos , Filogenia , Scrophularia/genética , Scrophulariaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular
2.
Phytomedicine ; 104: 154308, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. is a commonly used medicinal plant in China for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM), but its mechanism of action remains poorly described. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for > 90% of all DM cases and is characterized by insulin resistance. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the insulin sensitivity can be improved by treatment with aqueous extract of S. ningpoensis (AESN) and further explore its mechanism(s) of activity. METHODS: Primary mouse hepatocytes and human HepG2 hepatocytes were used to investigate the effects of AESN on cell viability, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and glucose output under normal culture conditions. To mimic hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in vitro, hepatocytes were exposed to high glucose (HG), and the influences of AESN on AMPK phosphorylation, NLRP3 inflammation activation, insulin signaling, lipid accumulation and glucose output were investigated. Increasing doses of AESN (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) were administered by gavage to db/db mice for 8 weeks, and then biochemical analysis and histopathological examinations were performed. RESULTS: AESN significantly activated AMPK and inhibited glucose output in hepatocytes, but did not impact cell viability under normal culture conditions. Moreover, in HG-treated hepatocytes, AESN protected against aberrant AMPK activity, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, insulin signaling, and lipid accumulation. AMPK inhibition abolished the regulatory effects of AESN on the NLRP3 inflammasome, insulin signaling, lipid accumulation, and glucose output of hepatocytes following HG exposure. Furthermore, AESN administration reduced blood glucose and serum insulin levels, improved lipid profiles and insulin resistance, and corrected the aberrant AMPK activity and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in liver tissues. CONCLUSION: AESN improves insulin sensitivity via AMPK-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Scrophularia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Lipídeos , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 296: 115499, 2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752262

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: According to the Compendium of Materia Medica, honey has been used as a traditional medicine in treatment against mucositis, tinea, hemorrhoids and psoriasis. In complementary medicine, due to its significant antimicrobial activity, honey has been widely used as a remedy for skin wounds and gastrohelcosis for thousands of years. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is aimed at exploring the antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of honey sourced from medicinal plants, and revealing the composition-activity relationship, to facilitate their complementary and alternative application in the therapy of bacterial infectious diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight kinds of medicinal plant-derived uniflorous honey, native to China, were gathered. Their antimicrobial activities were evaluated in vitro, and then in vivo with the systemically infected mouse model and the acute skin infection model. SYTOX uptake assay, scanning electron microscopy, DNA binding assay, and quantitative real-time PCR, were carried out to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms. This was followed by an investigation of the componential profile with the UPLC-MS/MS technique. RESULTS: It was found that Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (figwort) honey (S. ningpoensis honey) exhibited broad-spectrum and the strongest antibacterial potency (MICs of 7.81-125.00%, w/v), comparable to manuka honey. In the in vivo assays, S. ningpoensis honey significantly decreased the bacterial load of the muscles under the acute MRSA-infected skin wounds; the sera level of TNF-α in the S. aureus and P. aeruginosa-infected mice decreased by 45.38% and 51.75%, respectively, after the treatment of S. ningpoensis honey (125 mg/10 g). It was capable of killing bacteria through disrupting the cell membranes and the genomic DNA, as well as down-regulating the expression of genes associated with virulence, biofilm formation and invasion, including icaA, icaD, eno, sarA, agrA, sigB, fib and ebps in S. aureus, and lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR and algC in P. aeruginosa. Apart from H2O2, some other nonperoxide compounds such as adenosine, chavicol, 4-methylcatechol, trehalose, palmitoleic acid and salidroside, might play a vital role in the antibacterial properties of S. ningpoensis honey. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to thoroughly investigate the antibacterial activity, mode of action, and componential profile of S. ningpoensis honey. It suggested that S. ningpoensis honey might be a potential supplement or substitute for manuka honey, for the prevention or treatment of bacterial infections. It will facilitate the precise application of medicinal plant-sourced honey, provide a new thread for the development of antibacterial drugs, and assist in the distinction of different kinds of honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Plantas Medicinais , Scrophularia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Mel/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Scrophularia/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9813, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697707

RESUMO

One of the factors that causes severe metabolic imbalance and abnormal changes in many tissues, especially in the pancreas, is the pathological disease of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, in this study, the therapeutic effects of Scrophularia striata were investigated using an animal model in the control of diabetic injury and pancreatic complications caused by diabetes. A total of 66 rats (weight 220-250 g) were randomly divided into: Healthy Control group (rats without diabetes receiving Propylene glycol as solvent); Diabetic control group; 3 experimental healthy groups (receiving the extract with doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw/day); 3 treatment groups; and3 pretreatment groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal STZ (60 mg/kg bw). FBS, HbA1c and insulin were measured after 4 weeks. Pdx1 and Ins1 gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR. The histological evaluation was also performed with H&E staining. The data were analyzed by SPSS ver20 using ANOVA and Tukey tests. By treatment with S. striata ethanolic extract, these factors were close to the normal range. The expression of the Pdx1 and Ins1 genes increased in the treated rats with S. striata extract. Analysis of the obtained data indicates the effect of S. striata in improving the complications of diabetes in rats and can be considered for therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Scrophularia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Etanol , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Scrophularia/metabolismo
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8128, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581313

RESUMO

The phenylpropanoid pathway serves as a rich source of metabolites in plants, and it is considered as a starting point for the production of many other important compounds such as the flavonoids, flavonols, coumarins, and lignans. Scrophularia striata is a member of the Lamiaceae family with some biological activities similar to flavonoid compounds such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and Chalcone synthase (CHS) are key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, leading to the biosynthesis of several secondary metabolites. In this study, two S. striata CHS and C4H were isolated and then analyzed. The investigation of the expression of these genes was performed under the effects of three salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and gibberellic acid (GA) at concentrations of 100 and 300 ppm with a completely randomized design at the transcript level using Real Time PCR method. These have different expression patterns at developmental stages. Moreover, these genes present different sensitivities to hormonal treatment. Considering the total results, it was found that the amount of expression of these genes during the reproductive phase is higher than that of the vegetative phase. Additionally, the treatment of 300 ppm SA in the reproductive phase is the most effective treatment on increasing the corresponding phenylpropanoid compounds. A correlation analysis was performed between the phenylpropanoid compounds content and both CHS and C4H expression values at different phenological development stages. The results indicate that the expression variations of both CHS and C4H are significantly related to the changes in total phenolic content. We believe that the isolation of CHS and C4H can be helpful in better understanding phenylpropanoid metabolis.


Assuntos
Scrophularia , Aciltransferases/genética , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Scrophularia/metabolismo , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Transcinamato 4-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
6.
J Org Chem ; 87(11): 7229-7238, 2022 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549261

RESUMO

A synthesis of new-to-nature aza-iridoids via ynamides is presented. ZrCl4 proved to be the best acid to perform this transformation. Various ynamides were accommodated, and seco-iridoids could be obtained as well. Aza-iridoids were infiltrated into leaves of Scrophularia Nodosa, an iridoid-producing plant species. High-resolution mass spectrometry coupled to computational metabolomic approaches was employed for the detection of aza-iridoid bioconversion products.


Assuntos
Iridoides , Scrophularia , Iridoides/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta , Scrophularia/química
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 177: 23-31, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231684

RESUMO

Increasing pollutants such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from industrial activities is an ecological challenge for plants, which seriously affects their health and productivity. Scrophularia striata is a plant endemic to Iran growing in the province of Ilam, wherein a gas refinery releases toxic agents such as H2S whose detrimental effects on the function and tolerability of medicinal plants in this region have yet to be elucidated. Thus, we initiated a hydroponic study into hormetic effect of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) concentrations (0, 3 and 7 mM) as H2S-donor at different time points on oxidative status and phenolic compounds, focusing more on phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) in S. striata. Our results indicated that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increased significantly at 3 mM NaHS after 48 h, while its peak at 7 mM occurred after 24 h. Nitric oxide (NO) level peaked at 3 mM and 7 mM after 24 h. Treatment with NaHS also resulted in a dose-dependent induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL) enzyme activities, phenolic acids production (cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and salicylic acid) and acteoside accumulation, ultimately leading to an increase in antioxidant capacity. Modulation of soluble sugars contents including glucose, mannose and rhamnose/xylose, occurred after the treatment with NaHS, likely increasing plant tolerance due to their biological activity and structural effects. Overall, our results suggest that dose-dependent accumulation of phenolics, notably acteoside, leads to an augmentation in antioxidant system to deal with H2S stress in S. striata.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Scrophularia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(1): 111-121, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178917

RESUMO

The present study investigated the chemical constituents of Scrophulariae Radix and their antitumor activities in vitro. The compounds in the ethyl acetate extract were separated and purified by conventional column chromatographies(such as silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and ODS column) and semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), and their structures were identified by various spectral techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR) and mass spectrometry(MS). Twenty-three compounds were isolated and identified as benzyl-ß-D-(3',6'-di-O-acetyl) glucoside(1), 5-O-p-methoxybenzoyl kojic acid(2), 5-O-methoxybenzoyl kojic acid(3), 7-O-methylbenzoyl kojic acid(4), 5-O-benzoyl kojic acid(5), methyl ferulate ethyl ether(6), trans-ferulic acid(7), trans-isoferulic acid(8), trans-caffeic acid(9), trans-caffeic acid methyl ester(10), caffeic acid ethyl ester(11), trans-cinnamic acid(12), trans-p-methoxycinnamic acid(13), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid(14), trans-p-hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester(15), 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl) alcohol(16),(p-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid(17), coniferaldehyde(18), sinapaldehyde(19), benzyl ß-primeveroside(20), 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural(21), furan-2-carboxylic acid(22), and decanedioic acid(23). Among them, compound 1 is a new benzyl glucoside, compounds 2-4 are new pyranone compounds, compound 5 is a new natural product of pyranone. The NMR data of compounds 5 and 6 are reported for the first time. Compounds 6 and 20 were isolated from the Scrophularia plant for the first time. Compounds 8, 11, 14, 16, 18, 19, 22, and 23 were isolated from this plant for the first time. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of these compounds against three tumor cell lines(HepG2, A549, and 4 T1) were evaluated. The results showed that compounds 10 and 15 showed cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cells with IC_(50) values of(19.46±0.48) µmol·L~(-1) and(46.10±1.21) µmol·L~(-1).


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Scrophularia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Scrophularia/química
9.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 60(3): 232-242, 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100538

RESUMO

Scrophulariae Radix is one of the widely used traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was established for the simultaneous determination of multiple bioactive constituents including four iridoid glycosides, two phenylpropanoid glycosides, six organic acids, 11 nucleosides and 16 amino acids in Scrophulariae Radix. The validated method was used to analyze nine Scrophulariae Radix samples processed by different processing methods. In addition, Grey relational analysis and DTOPSIS were used to evaluate the samples according to the content of 39 ayalytes. The results showed that the quality of Scrophulariae Radix processed by cutting into slices, sun drying and "sweating" methods were better. All the results proved that the developed method was available and could be used to evaluate the quality of Scrophulariae Radix.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Scrophularia , Aminoácidos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos Iridoides/química , Nucleosídeos , Scrophularia/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Cell Tissue Bank ; 23(2): 261-269, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34173897

RESUMO

Since using tissue transplantation has faced limitations all over the world, regenerative medicine has introduced decellularized tissues as natural scaffolds and researchers are trying to improve their efficiency and function. In this study, to increase cell attachment and ultimately cell proliferation on decellularized bovine pericardia, scrophularia striata extract was used. Scrophularia striata is an Iranian traditional medicinal plant. For this aim after decellularization of bovine pericardium and analysis of its morphology, it was incubated in scrophularia striata solution. Next, isolated human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the tissue. Finally, MTT assay, nitric oxide assay, and scanning electron microscopy observation were performed. MTT showed an increase in cell survival after treating the tissue with the plant extract after 48 h in a dose dependent manner significantly. The survival of cells in 0.5%, 2.5%, and 5% groups was about 5, 10 and 15 folds higher in comparison to control groups, respectively. Additionally, nitric oxide secretion in 2.5% and 5% samples was three and five folds higher than that in control group, respectively. Moreover, SEM observation indicated an impressive and dose-dependent effect of using Scrophularia striata on tissue biocompatibility. The results of this study showed that using Scrophularia striata increased cell viability and cell attachment on decellularized pericardia which could pave the way for the use of natural extracts of medicinal plants to reduce unwanted effects and make desired changes in decellularized tissues.


Assuntos
Scrophularia , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Óxido Nítrico , Pericárdio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 285: 114864, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822958

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Scrophularia buergeriana has been used for traditional medicine as an agent for reducing heat in the blood and for nourishing kidney 'Yin'. Therefore, S. buergeriana might be a potential treatment for mental illness, especially schizophrenia, which may be attenuated by supplying kidney Yin and reducing blood heat. In a pilot study, we found that S. buergeriana alleviated sensorimotor gating dysfunction induced by MK-801. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we attempted to reveal the active component(s) of S. buergeriana as a candidate for treating sensorimotor gating dysfunction, and we identified 4-methoxycinnamic acid. We explored whether 4-methoxycinnamic acid could affect schizophrenia-like behaviors induced by hypofunction of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were treated with 4-methoxycinnamic acid (3, 10, or 30 mg/kg, i.g.) under MK-801-induced schizophrenia-like conditions. The effect of 4-methoxycinnamic acid on schizophrenia-like behaviors were explored using several behavioral tasks. We also used Western blotting to investigate which signaling pathway(s) is involved in the pharmacological activities of 4-methoxycinnamic acid. RESULTS: 4-Methoxycinnamic acid ameliorated MK-801-induced prepulse inhibition deficits, social interaction disorders and cognitive impairment by regulating the phosphorylation levels of PI3K, Akt and GSK-3ß signaling in the prefrontal cortex. And there were no adverse effects in terms of catalepsy and motor coordination impairments. CONCLUSION: Collectively, 4-methoxycinnamic acid would be a potential candidate for treating schizophrenia with fewer adverse effects, especially the negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions.


Assuntos
Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Maleato de Dizocilpina/toxicidade , Esquizofrenia/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Western Blotting , Catalepsia/induzido quimicamente , Catalepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Cinamatos/química , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Scrophularia/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 120: 111-121, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801674

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of figwort on the growth and immunohematological parameters of common carp (14.20 ± 0.53 g). Four experimental diets were developed to feed fish for eight weeks: control, Figw10 (10 g/kg figwort), Figw20 (20 g/kg figwort), and Figw30 (30 g/kg figwort). The results showed that fish fed dietary Figw10 gained more weight (38.25 g) than control (P < 0.05). Regarding immunohematological parameters, fish fed dietary Figw30 had a higher level of white blood cells (31.2 103/mm3), hematocrit (35.82%), blood performance (14.63), total protein (1.96 g/dL), albumin (0.79 g/dL), globulin (1.17 g/dL), lymphocyte (70.53%), monocyte (3.03%), alternative hemolytic complement activity (ACH50) (147.76 u/mL), lysozyme (62.19 u/mL), and bactericidal activities (135.24) than the control group (P < 0.05). After 14 days of the challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila, the Figw30 treatment had the highest survival ratio (61.76%) compared to the control with 26.46%. Further, after the challenge, fish fed dietary Figw30 had a higher value of immunoglobulin M (42.00 µg/mL), antibody titer (19.23), complement component 3 (296.39 µg/mL), and complement component 4 (97.91 µg/mL) when compared with those fed control diet (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the optimum dosage for providing the best immune response was 30 g/kg in diet.


Assuntos
Carpas/imunologia , Dieta , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Scrophularia , Aeromonas hydrophila , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Resistência à Doença , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Scrophularia/química
13.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 225: 112326, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736067

RESUMO

Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) are important medicinal compounds found in Scrophularia striata, one of the plant species native to Iran. Since almost all aspects of plant life are controlled by night/light cycle, studying its relationship to valuable plant metabolites production will help us to determine the right time for their extraction. Therefore, the aim of this investigation is to figure out whether the diel light oscillations control PhGs production and how it relates to daily changes in upstream metabolic reactions and circadian clock in S. striata. For this, daily rhythms of metabolic pathways were examined every 4 h during a day/night cycle in 3 groups of control (16 h light/8 h dark), continuous light and darkness. The results showed that acteoside and echinacoside levels in each group peaked during the night and day, respectively. Thus, the PhGs production follows a rhythmic behavior in S. striata, which is probably controlled by circadian clock. Also, the levels of photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates, amino acids, phenolic acids, phytohormones and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and tyrosine ammonia-lyase (TAL) enzyme activities varied diel in a similar or different way among study groups. The observations revealed that light/dark cycle controls the carbon and energy flow from light reception to the production and consumption of starch, biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine, cinnamic acid and coumaric acid, activation of hormonal signaling pathways and enzymes involved in phenylpropanoid pathway. Overall, it can be concluded that PhGs accumulation time-dependent patterns is likely due to daily fluctuations in upstream metabolic reactions induced by light/dark cycle.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/biossíntese , Fotoperíodo , Scrophularia/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Scrophularia/fisiologia
14.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 40(12_suppl): S676-S683, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787011

RESUMO

The species belonging to Scrophularia genus grow mainly in Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean regions and have been used as folk remedy for inflammatory-related diseases since ancient times. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts of Scrophularia kotschyana as well as the isolated compounds. The aerial parts and the roots of the plant were separately extracted with methanol. Anti-inflammatory activities of both extracts were evaluated with formalin test in mice. As the methanolic extract of the aerial parts significantly (p < .05) inhibited inflammation, it was then submitted to successive solvent extractions with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol to yield subextracts. Anti-inflammatory activities of the subextracts were evaluated within the same test system. Among the subextracts tested, the n-butanol subextract produced a significant (p < .05) anti-inflammatory activity at all doses (5, 10, and 30 mg/kg, ip.). Sequential chromatographic separation of the n-butanol subextract yielded 8-O-acetyl-4'-O-(E)-p-coumaroylharpagide, 8-O-acetyl-4'-O-(Z)-p-coumaroylharpagide, ß-sitosterol 3-O-ß-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, luteolin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside and luteolin 7-O-rutinoside. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated at 5 mg/kg dose. Luteolin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside and apigenin 7-O-rutinoside caused a significant (p < .05) inhibition of oedema formation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Scrophularia/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
15.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443358

RESUMO

Plants are the everlasting source of a wide spectrum of specialized metabolites, characterized by wide variability in term of chemical structures and different biological properties such antiviral activity. In the search for novel antiviral agents against Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) from plants, the phytochemical investigation of Scrophularia trifoliata L. led us to isolate and characterize four flavonols glycosides along with nine iridoid glycosides, two of them, 5 and 13, described for the first time. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the contents of a methanol extract of S. trifoliata leaves, in order to explore the potential antiviral activity against HIV-1. The antiviral activity was evaluated in biochemical assays for the inhibition of HIV-1Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-associated Ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity and HIV-1 Integrase (IN). Three isolated flavonoids, rutin, kaempferol-7-O-rhamnosyl-3-O-glucopyranoside, and kaempferol-3-O-glucopyranoside, 8-10, inhibited specifically the HIV-1 IN activity at submicromolar concentration, with the latter being the most potent, showing an IC50 value of 24 nM.


Assuntos
Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/farmacologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Iridoides/química , Iridoides/farmacologia , Scrophularia/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Folhas de Planta/química
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(9): 2207-2214, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047122

RESUMO

By establishing the preparation process of Scrophulariaceae Radix reference extract(SRRE) and calibrating it, we discussed its feasibility as a substitute for single reference substance in the quality control of Scrophulariae Radix. The SRREs were prepared by solvent extraction method and chromatographic separation technology, and then calibrated with the reference substances of harpagide, angoroside C and harpagoside. The HPLC content determination method of Scrophulariae Radixl was established with SRREs of the known content and the reference substances of harpagide, angoroside C and harpagoside respectively as the control ones. Then the content of three components in Scrophulariae Radix was determined, and the t-test method was used to compare the results of the two methods. With SRRE as references, harpagide, angoroside C and harpagoside were in a good linear relationship(r≥0.999 8) within each range, and the average recovery rate was 98.55% to 100.6%. The t-test results showed that the P values of two determination methods were 0.493, 0.155 and 0.171 for harpagide, angoroside C and harpagoside respectively, indicating no significant diffe-rence between the two methods of content determination. The SRRE can be used as a substitute for the reference in the quality control of Scrophulariaceae Radix. The SRRE can replace the corresponding reference substance for the quality control of Scrophulariae Radix. The results of this study provide new methods and new ideas for the quality evaluation of Scrophulariae Radix, and provide a scientific basis for the application of reference extracts in the quality research of traditional Chinese medicine.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Scrophularia , Scrophulariaceae , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Controle de Qualidade
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 293: 109417, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819905

RESUMO

Poultry coccidiosis is an important disease affecting performance which is characterized by intestinal epithelium damageand increased mortality and is caused by the protozoa parasites of the genus Eimeria. This study evaluated the growth-promoting (experiment 1), protective, and immunostimulatory effects (experiment 2) of salinomycin and Scrophularia striata hydroalcoholic extract (SSE) against coccidiosis in broilers. Two experiments were conducted with 300 1-day-old broiler chickens, which were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 6 replicate pens of 10 birds (experiment 1) or 10 replicate cages of 6 birds (experiment 2). In both experiments, treatments were: negative control (NC: untreated, and uninfected); positive control (PC: untreated, infected); or PC supplemented with salinomycin (Sal); 200 mg/kg of SSE (SSE200); or 400 mg/kg of SSE (SSE400). All these groups (except NC) were challenged via oral gavage with of sporulated oocysts of Eimeria species (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella) on d 10 (experiment 1) or d 14 (experiment 2). In the first trial, all treatments improved growth and feed conversion compared with the PC group, where the best values were noticed in the NC, SAL, and SSE400 groups throughout the entire experimental period (d 1-42). Further, a lower mortality rate (P < 0.05) was observed in the NC, Sal, and SSE400 groups as compared to that in the PC group. In the second trial, intestinal lesion scores and total oocyst numbers were reduced in the Sal and SSE400 groups compared to the PC group, although all coccidiosis-challenged groups had higher intestinal lesion scores (P < 0.05) compared to NC group. Immune responses revealed that among challenged birds, those fed diets Sal and SSE400 had significantly higher Eimeria-specific cecum IgG and IgM levels, but lower serum IFN-γ concentration than the PC group. Among the experimental treatments, broiler chickens fed diet SSE400 had greater (P < 0.05) Eimeria-specific serum IgG and TGF-ß levels, but lower (P < 0.05) serum IL-6 concentration than those fed the PC diet at d 24. Considering the results, dietary SSE, especially at high levels of inclusion in broiler diet (400 mg/kg), could result in a comparable growth performance and a better immune response, compared to a salinomycin supplement under coccidiosis challenge.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Sistema Imunitário , Intestinos , Extratos Vegetais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Piranos , Scrophularia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Piranos/farmacologia , Scrophularia/química
18.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(5): 573-600, 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl (SNH) is a commonly used medicinal plant in East Asia. Scrophulariae Radix (SR) is the dried roots of SNH, and is one of the most commonly used medicinal parts of SNH, and is an essential traditional medicine and widely used in East Asia for more than 2000 years. SR is used for clearing away heat and cooling blood, nourishing Yin and reducing fire, detoxicating and resolving a mass. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control and pharmacokinetics of SNH based on the surveyed and summarized literature. KEY FINDINGS: Up to now, iridoids, phenolic glycosides, phenolic acids, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes and other compounds have been isolated and identified from SNH. The extract and chemical components of SNH exerts multiple pharmacological effects, such as hepatoprotective effect, anti-inflammatory effect, neuroprotective effect, anti-ventricular remodeling effect and other activities. Various methods have been developed for the quality control of SNH, mainly for SR. Some bioactive compounds in SNH exhibited different pharmacokinetic behaviours and individual metabolic transformation profiles. SUMMARY: This review will contribute to understanding the correlation between the pharmacological activities and the traditional usage of SNH, and useful to rational use and drug development in the future.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Scrophularia/química , Animais , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais , Controle de Qualidade
19.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500684

RESUMO

Scrophulariae Radix (SR) has an important role as a medicinal plant, the roots of which are recorded used to cure fever, swelling, constipation, pharyngitis, laryngitis, neuritis, sore throat, rheumatism, and arthritis in Asia for more than two thousand years. In this paper, the studies published on Scrophularia buergeriana (SB) and Scrophularia ningpoensis (SN) in the latest 20 years were reviewed, and the biological activities of SB and SN were evaluated based on in vitro and in vivo studies. SB presented anti-inflammatory activities, immune-enhancing effects, bone disorder prevention activity, neuroprotective effect, anti-amnesic effect, and anti-allergic effect; SN showed a neuroprotective effect, anti-apoptotic effect, anti-amnesic effect, and anti-depressant effect; and SR exhibited an immune-enhancing effect and cardioprotective effects through in vitro and in vivo experiments. SB and SN are both known to exert neuroprotective and anti-amensice effects. This review investigated their applicability in the nutraceutical, functional foods, and pharmaceutical industries. Further studies, such as toxicological studies and clinical trials, on the efficacy and safety of SR, including SB and SN, need to be conducted.


Assuntos
Raízes de Plantas/química , Scrophularia/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 269: 113688, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338592

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. (known as Xuanshen) has been used in China for centuries as a traditional medicinal plant to treat numerous diseases including inflammation, hypertension, cancer, and diabetes. AIM OF REVIEW: In this review, we provide an update on the botany, pharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, traditional uses, and safety of S. ningpoensis to highlight future research needs and potential uses of this plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All information on S. ningpoensis was obtained from scientific databases including ScienceDirect, Springer, PubMed, Sci Finder, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Google Scholar, and Baidu Scholar. Additional information was collected from Chinese herbal medicine books, Ph.D. dissertations, and M.Sc. Theses. Plant taxonomy was verified by "The Plant List" database (http://www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS: S. ningpoensis displays fever reducing, detoxifying, and nourishing 'Yin' effects in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). More than 162 compounds have been identified and isolated from S. ningpoensis, including iridoids and iridoid glycosides, phenylpropanoid glycosides, organic acids, volatile oils, terpenoids, saccharides, flavonoids, sterols, and saponins. These compounds possess a diverse variety of pharmacological properties that affect the cardiovascular, hepatic, and nervous systems, and protect the body against inflammation, oxidation, and carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Modern pharmacological studies have confirmed that S. ningpoensis is a valuable Chinese medicinal herb with many pharmacological uses in the treatment of cardiovascular, diabetic, and liver diseases. Most of the S. ningpoensis activity may be attributed to iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides; however, detailed information on the molecular mechanisms, metabolic activity, toxicology, and structure-function relationships of active components is limited. Further comprehensive research to evaluate the medicinal properties of S. ningpoensis is needed.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Scrophularia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
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