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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8824, 2024 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627563

RESUMO

Understanding the physiological and biochemical responses of tree seedlings under extreme drought stress, along with recovery during rewatering, and potential intra-species differences, will allow us to more accurately predict forest responses under future climate change. Here, we selected seedlings from four provenances (AH (Anhui), JX (Jiangxi), HN (Hunan) and GX (Guangxi)) of Schima superba and carried out a simulated drought-rewatering experiment in a field-based rain-out shelter. Seedlings were progressively dried until they reached 50% and 88% loss of xylem hydraulic conductivity (PLC) (i.e. P50 and P88), respectively, before they were rehydrated and maintained at field capacity for 30 days. Leaf photosynthesis (Asat), water status, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and proline (Pro) concentration were monitored and their associations were determined. Increasing drought significantly reduced Asat, relative water content (RWC) and SOD activity in all provenances, and Pro concentration was increased to improve water retention; all four provenances exhibited similar response patterns, associated with similar leaf ultrastructure at pre-drought. Upon rewatering, physiological and biochemical traits were restored to well-watered control values in P50-stressed seedlings. In P88-stressed seedlings, Pro was restored to control values, while SOD was not fully recovered. The recovery pattern differed partially among provenances. There was a progression of recovery following watering, with RWC firstly recovered, followed by SOD and Pro, and then Asat, but with significant associations among these traits. Collectively, the intra-specific differences of S. superba seedlings in recovery of physiology and biochemistry following rewatering highlight the need to consider variations within a given tree species coping with future more frequent drought stress.


Assuntos
Secas , Superóxido Dismutase , Prolina , China , Folhas de Planta/química , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Plântula/fisiologia , Árvores , Água/análise
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e281286, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38629678

RESUMO

Salinity reduces feijão-caupi production, and the search for tolerant varieties becomes important within the agricultural context, as, in addition to being used in the field, they can be used in genetic improvement. The objective was to for a identify variety that is tolerant to salinity considering the physiological quality of seeds and seedling growth. A 2 × 4 factorial scheme was used, referring to the varieties Pingo-de-ouro and Coruja, and four electrical conductivities of water (0; 3.3; 6.6 and 9.9 dS m-1). The physiological quality of seeds and the growth of seedlings were analyzed, in addition to the cumulative germination. The Pingo-de-ouro variety showed no germination, length of the shoot and root, dry mass of the shoot and root compromised up to electrical conductivity of 6 dS m-1 in relation to 0.0 dS m-1. On the other hand, the Coruja variety showed reduced germination, increased shoot and root length. The creole variety Pingo-de-ouro proved to be tolerant to salinity.


Assuntos
Vigna , Vigna/genética , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio , Plântula , Germinação/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8679, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622223

RESUMO

Roots are crucial in plant adaptation through the exudation of various compounds which are influenced and modified by environmental factors. Buckwheat root exudate and root system response to neighbouring plants (buckwheat or redroot pigweed) and how these exudates affect redroot pigweed was investigated. Characterising root exudates in plant-plant interactions presents challenges, therefore a split-root system which enabled the application of differential treatments to parts of a single root system and non-destructive sampling was developed. Non-targeted metabolome profiling revealed that neighbour presence and identity induces systemic changes. Buckwheat and redroot pigweed neighbour presence upregulated 64 and 46 metabolites, respectively, with an overlap of only 7 metabolites. Root morphology analysis showed that, while the presence of redroot pigweed decreased the number of root tips in buckwheat, buckwheat decreased total root length and volume, surface area, number of root tips, and forks of redroot pigweed. Treatment with exudates (from the roots of buckwheat and redroot pigweed closely interacting) on redroot pigweed decreased the total root length and number of forks of redroot pigweed seedlings when compared to controls. These findings provide understanding of how plants modify their root exudate composition in the presence of neighbours and how this impacts each other's root systems.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Produtos Biológicos , Fagopyrum , Metaboloma , Meristema , Plântula , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8633, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622240

RESUMO

The study aimed to find the best Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) strain for cotton growth in Xinjiang's salinity and alkali conditions. Cotton (Xinluzao 45) was treated with Funneliformis mosseae (GM), Rhizophagus irregularis (GI), and Claroideoglomus etunicatum (GE) as treatments, while untreated cotton served as the control (CK). Salinity stress was applied post-3-leaf stage in cotton. The study analyzed cotton's reactions to diverse saline-alkali stresses, focusing on nutrient processes and metabolism. By analyzing the growth and photosynthetic characteristics of plants inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae to evaluate its salt tolerance. Saline-alkali stress reduced chlorophyll and hindered photosynthesis, hampering cotton growth. However, AMF inoculation mitigated these effects, enhancing photosynthetic rates, CO2 concentration, transpiration, energy use efficiency, and overall cotton growth under similar stress levels. GM and GE treatments yielded similar positive effects. AMF inoculation enhanced cotton plant height and biomass. In GM treatment, cotton exhibited notably higher root length than other treatments, showing superior growth under various conditions. In summary, GM-treated cotton had the highest infection rate, followed by GE-treated cotton, with GI-treated cotton having the lowest rate (GM averaging 0.95). Cotton inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus irregularis, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum juvenile showed enhanced chlorophyll and photosynthetic levels, reducing salinity effects. Funneliformis mosseae had the most significant positive impact.


Assuntos
Fungos , Micorrizas , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Plântula , Gossypium/metabolismo , Álcalis , Fotossíntese , Clorofila/metabolismo , Solução Salina
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 253, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many parts of the world, including Iran, walnut (Juglans regia L.) production is limited by late-spring frosts. Therefore, the use of late-leafing walnuts in areas with late-spring frost is the most important method to improve yield. In the present study, the phenotypic diversity of 141 seedling genotypes of walnut available in the Senejan area, Arak region, Markazi province, Iran was studied based on morphological traits to obtain superior late-leafing genotypes in the cropping seasons of 2022 and 2023. RESULTS: Based on the results of the analysis of variance, the studied genotypes showed a significant variation in terms of most of the studied morphological and pomological traits. Therefore, it is possible to choose genotypes for different values ​​of a trait. Kernel weight showed positive and significant correlations with leaf length (r = 0.32), leaf width (r = 0.33), petiole length (r = 0.26), terminal leaflet length (r = 0.34), terminal leaflet width (r = 0.21), nut length (r = 0.48), nut width (r = 0.73), nut weight (r = 0.83), kernel length (r = 0.64), and kernel width (r = 0.89). The 46 out of 141 studied genotypes were late-leafing and were analyzed separately. Among late-leafing genotypes, the length of the nut was in the range of 29.33-48.50 mm, the width of the nut was in the range of 27.51-39.89 mm, and nut weight was in the range of 8.18-16.06 g. The thickness of shell was in the range of 1.11-2.60 mm. Also, kernel length ranged from 21.97-34.84 mm, kernel width ranged from 21.10-31.09 mm, and kernel weight ranged from 3.10-7.97 g. CONCLUSIONS: Based on important and commercial traits in walnut breeding programs, such as nut weight, kernel weight, kernel percentage, kernel color, and ease of kernel removal from nuts, 15 genotypes, including no. 92, 91, 31, 38, 33, 18, 93, 3, 58, 108, 16, 70, 15, 82, and 32 were superior and could be used in walnut breeding programs in line with the introduction of new cultivars and the revival of traditional walnut orchards to commercialize them.


Assuntos
Juglans , Juglans/genética , Nozes/anatomia & histologia , Nozes/genética , Árvores , Plântula/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2795: 25-35, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594524

RESUMO

High ambient temperature affects various plant developmental and physiological processes, including senescence. Here, we present a protocol for assaying light-dependent high ambient temperature-induced senescence using whole seedlings. The protocol covers all steps, from inducing senescence by darkness at high ambient temperature to determining the degree of senescence, and includes experimental tips and notes. The onset of senescence is established by quantifying the increased expression of senescence marker genes by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). The degree of senescence is determined by measuring the loss of chlorophyll and the increase of ion leakage. This protocol can be adapted to study light-dependent high ambient temperature-induced senescence in other plant species by adjusting the temperature and duration of darkness.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/genética , Temperatura , Escuridão , Clorofila/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2795: 3-16, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594522

RESUMO

Temperature-induced elongation of hypocotyls, petioles, and roots, together with hyponastic leaf responses, constitute key model phenotypes that can be used to assess a plant's capacity for thermomorphogenesis. Phenotypic responses are often quantified at a single time point during seedling development at different temperatures. However, to capture growth dynamics, several time points need to be assessed, and ideally continuous measurements are taken. Here we describe a general experimental setup and technical solutions for recording and measuring seedling phenotypes at single and multiple time points. Furthermore, we present an R-package called "rootdetectR," which allows easy processing of hypocotyl, root or petiole length, and growth rate data and provides different options of data presentation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , 60485 , Hipocótilo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2795: 37-42, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594525

RESUMO

Due to global warming, it is important to understand how plants respond to high ambient temperature. Plant growth responses to high ambient temperature are termed thermomophogenesis and have been explored for more than a decade. However, this was mostly focused on the above-ground part of plants, the shoot. In this chapter, we describe a simple method to assess root growth phenotype to high ambient temperatures. In principle, this protocol can be applied for any other treatments to test overall seedling growth.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Temperatura , Arabidopsis/genética , Plântula , Raízes de Plantas/genética
9.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(5): 166, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592562

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution ranks first in soils (7.0%) and microplastics usually have a significant adsorption capacity for it, which could pose potential threats to agricultural production and human health. However, the joint toxicity of Cd and microplastics on crop growth remains largely unknown. In this study, the toxic effects of Cd2+ and two kinds of microplastic leachates, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE), on wheat seed germination and seedlings' growth were explored under single and combined conditions. The results showed that Cd2+ solution and two kinds of microplastic leachates stimulated the wheat seed germination process but inhibited the germination rate by 0-8.6%. The combined treatments promoted wheat seed germination but inhibited the seedlings' growth to different degrees. Specifically, the combination of 2.0 mg L-1 Cd2+ and 1.0 mgC L-1 PVC promoted both seed germination and seedlings' growth, but they synergistically increased the antioxidant enzyme activity of seedlings. The toxicity of the PVC leachate to wheat seedlings was stronger than LDPE leachate. The addition of Cd2+ could alleviate the toxicity of PVC leachate on seedlings, and reduce the toxicity of LDPE leachate on seedlings under the same concentration class combinations but aggravated stress under different concentration classes, consistent with the effect on seedlings' growth. Overall, Cd2+, PVC, and LDPE leachates have toxic effects on wheat growth, whether treated under single or combined treatments. This study has important implications for the joint toxicity of Cd2+ solution and microplastic leachates in agriculture.


Assuntos
Plântula , Triticum , Humanos , Germinação , Cádmio/toxicidade , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Polietileno , Sementes , Antioxidantes
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 245, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575879

RESUMO

Seed germination is an important development process in plant growth. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role during seed germination. However, the mechanism of rapeseed in response to ABA is still elusive. In order to understand changes of rapeseed under exogenous ABA treatment, we explored differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs) and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between mock- and ABA-treated seedlings. A widely targeted LC-MS/MS based metabolomics were used to identify and quantify metabolic changes in response to ABA during seed germination, and a total of 186 significantly DEMs were identified. There are many compounds which are involved in ABA stimuli, especially some specific ABA transportation-related metabolites such as starches and lipids were screened out. Meanwhile, a total of 4440 significantly DEGs were identified by transcriptomic analyses. There was a significant enrichment of DEGs related to phenylpropanoid and cell wall organization. It suggests that exogenous ABA mainly affects seed germination by regulating cell wall loosening. Finally, the correlation analysis of the key DEMs and DEGs indicates that many DEGs play a direct or indirect regulatory role in DEMs metabolism. The integrative analysis between DEGs and DEMs suggests that the starch and sucrose pathways were the key pathway in ABA responses. The two metabolites from starch and sucrose pathways, levan and cellobiose, both were found significantly down-regulated in ABA-treated seedlings. These comprehensive metabolic and transcript analyses provide useful information for the subsequent post-transcriptional modification and post germination growth of rapeseed in response to ABA signals and stresses.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Germinação/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Sementes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612797

RESUMO

Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolisms participate in N source-regulated secondary metabolism in medicinal plants, but the specific mechanisms involved remain to be investigated. By using nitrate (NN), ammonium (AN), urea (UN), and glycine (GN), respectively, as sole N sources, we found that N sources remarkably affected the contents of diterpenoid lactone components along with C and N metabolisms reprograming in Andrographis paniculata, as compared to NN, the other three N sources raised the levels of 14-deoxyandrographolide, andrographolide, dehydroandrographolide (except UN), and neoandrographolide (except AN) with a prominent accumulation of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). These N sources also raised the photosynthetic rate and the levels of fructose and/or sucrose but reduced the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). Conversely, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and malate enzyme (ME) activities were upregulated. Simultaneously, citrate, cis-aconitate and isocitrate levels declined, and N assimilation was inhibited. These results indicated that AN, UN and GN reduced the metabolic flow of carbohydrates from glycolysis into the TCA cycle and downstream N assimilation. Furthermore, they enhanced arginine and GABA metabolism, which increased C replenishment of the TCA cycle, and increased ethylene and salicylic acid (SA) levels. Thus, we proposed that the N sources reprogrammed C and N metabolism, attenuating the competition of N assimilation for C, and promoting the synthesis and accumulation of andrographolide through plant hormone signaling. To obtain a higher production of andrographolide in A. paniculata, AN fertilizer is recommended in its N management.


Assuntos
Andrographis paniculata , Diterpenos , Extratos Vegetais , Carbono , Plântula
12.
PeerJ ; 12: e17236, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618572

RESUMO

Purpose: Juniper (Juniperus procera) is a common forest tree species in Saudi Arabia. The decline in many populations of J. procera in Saudi Arabia is mainly due to seed dormancy and loss of natural regeneration. This study assessed the effects of chemical and hormonal treatments on seed germination and seedling growth in juniper plants. Methods: The seeds were subjected to either chemical scarification with 90% sulfuric acid and 20% acetic acid for 6 min or hormonal treatment by seed soaking in two concentrations (50 and 100 ppm) of three growth regulators, namely, indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GA3), and kinetin, for 72 h. A control group without any seed treatment was also prepared. The experiments were performed in an incubator maintained at room temperature and under a light and dark period of 12 h for 6 w. The germinated seeds for each treatment were counted and removed from the dishes. The selected germinated seeds from different treatments were planted in a greenhouse and irrigated with tap water for another 6 weeks. The hormone-treated seedlings were sprayed with their corresponding hormone concentrations 1 w after planting. Results: The highest percentage of seed germination was significantly recorded after seed soaking in 50 ppm GA3, whereas treatment with IAA (100 ppm) resulted in the best seedling growth. Seedlings treated with the three phytohormones showed a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments, total soluble sugars, proteins, percentage of oil, IAA, GA3, and kinetin contents of juniper seedlings compared with the control value, whereas abscisic acid content was decreased compared with chemical treatments. Conclusion: The investigated different treatments had an effective role in breaking seed dormancy and improving seedling growth of J. procera, which is facing a notable decline in its population worldwide. Moreover, such an effect was more pronounced in the three phytohormones that succeeded in breaking dormancy and growth of the Juniperus plant than in the other treatments.


Assuntos
Porcelana Dentária , Juniperus , Ligas Metalo-Cerâmicas , Plântula , Titânio , Germinação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Cinetina/farmacologia , Sementes , Hormônios
13.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14286, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618752

RESUMO

Shoot branching fundamentally influences plant architecture and agricultural yield. However, research on shoot branching in Dendrobium catenatum, an endangered medicinal plant in China, remains limited. In this study, we identified a transcription factor DcERF109 as a key player in shoot branching by regulating the expression of strigolactone (SL) receptors DWARF 14 (D14)/ DECREASED APICAL DOMINANCE 2 (DAD2). The treatment of D. catenatum seedlings with GR24rac/TIS108 revealed that SL can significantly repress the shoot branching in D. catenatum. The expression of DcERF109 in multi-branched seedlings is significantly higher than that of single-branched seedlings. Ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that overexpression of DcERF109 resulted in significant shoot branches increasing and dwarfing. Molecular and biochemical assays demonstrated that DcERF109 can directly bind to the promoters of AtD14 and DcDAD2.2 to inhibit their expression, thereby positively regulating shoot branching. Inhibition of DcERF109 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) resulted in decreased shoot branching and improved DcDAD2.2 expression. Moreover, overexpression of DpERF109 in A. thaliana, the homologous gene of DcERF109 in Dendrobium primulinum, showed similar phenotypes to DcERF109 in shoot branch and plant height. Collectively, these findings shed new insights into the regulation of plant shoot branching and provide a theoretical basis for improving the yield of D. catenatum.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Dendrobium , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Lactonas , Dendrobium/genética , Agricultura , Plântula , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 298, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607493

RESUMO

Radopholus similis is a destructive, migratory, and endophytoparasitic nematode. It has two morphologically indistinguishable pathotypes (or physiological races): banana and citrus pathotypes. At present, the only reliable method to differentiate the two pathotypes is testing the infestation and parasitism of nematodes on Citrus spp. via inoculation. However, differences in inoculation methods and conditions adopted by different researchers complicate obtaining consistent results. In this study, the parasitism and pathogenicity of 10 R. similis populations on rough lemon (Citrus limon) seedlings and the tropism and invasion of rough lemon roots were tested. It revealed that populations SWK, GJ, FZ, GZ, DBSR, and YJ were citrus pathotypes, which showed parasitism and pathogenicity on rough lemon and could invade rough lemon roots, whereas populations XIN, ML, HN6, and HL were banana pathotypes, having no parasitism and pathogenicity on rough lemon and they did not invade the rough lemon roots. Four pectate lyase genes (Rs-pel-2, Rs-pel-3, Rs-pel-4, and Rs-pel-5) belonging to the Class III family from these populations were amplified and analysed. The gene Rs-pel-3 could be amplified from six citrus pathotype populations and was stably expressed in the four developmental stages of the nematode, whereas it could not be amplified from the four banana pathotypes. Rs-pel-3 expression may be related to the parasitism and pathogenicity of R. similis on rough lemon. Hence, it can be used as a molecular marker to distinguish between banana and citrus pathotypes and as a target gene for the molecular identification of these two pathotypes. KEY POINTS: • Four pectate lyase genes (Rs-pels) from Radopholus similis were cloned and analysed. • The expression of Rs-pels is different in two pathotypes of Radopholus similis. • A molecular identification method for two pathotypes of Radopholus similis using pectate lyase gene Rs-pel-3 as the target gene was established.


Assuntos
Tylenchoidea , Animais , Tylenchoidea/genética , Raízes de Plantas , Polissacarídeo-Liases/genética , Plântula
15.
BMC Genom Data ; 25(1): 36, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil salinization is one of the vital factors threatening the world's food security. To reveal the biological mechanism of response to salt stress in wheat, this study was conducted to resolve the transcription level difference to salt stress between CM6005 (salt-tolerant) and KN9204 (salt-sensitive) at the germination and seedling stage. RESULTS: To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying salt tolerance in wheat, we conducted comprehensive transcriptome analyses at the seedling and germination stages. Two wheat cultivars, CM6005 (salt-tolerant) and KN9204 (salt-sensitive) were subjected to salt treatment, resulting in a total of 24 transcriptomes. Through expression-network analysis, we identified 17 modules, 16 and 13 of which highly correlate with salt tolerance-related phenotypes in the germination and seedling stages, respectively. Moreover, we identified candidate Hub genes associated with specific modules and explored their regulatory relationships using co-expression data. Enrichment analysis revealed specific enrichment of gibberellin-related terms and pathways in CM6005, highlighting the potential importance of gibberellin regulation in enhancing salt tolerance. In contrast, KN9204 exhibited specific enrichment in glutathione-related terms and activities, suggesting the involvement of glutathione-mediated antioxidant mechanisms in conferring resistance to salt stress. Additionally, glucose transport was found to be a fundamental mechanism for salt tolerance during wheat seedling and germination stages, indicating its potential universality in wheat. Wheat plants improve their resilience and productivity by utilizing adaptive mechanisms like adjusting osmotic balance, bolstering antioxidant defenses, accumulating compatible solutes, altering root morphology, and regulating hormones, enabling them to better withstand extended periods of salt stress. CONCLUSION: Through utilizing transcriptome-level analysis employing WGCNA, we have revealed a potential regulatory mechanism that governs the response to salt stress and recovery in wheat cultivars. Furthermore, we have identified key candidate central genes that play a crucial role in this mechanism. These central genes are likely to be vital components within the gene expression network associated with salt tolerance. The findings of this study strongly support the molecular breeding of salt-tolerant wheat, particularly by utilizing the genetic advancements based on CM6005 and KN9204.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Triticum , Triticum/genética , Giberelinas , Estresse Salino/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Plântula/genética , Glutationa
16.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14266, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558467

RESUMO

Plant growth is restricted by salt stress, which is a significant abiotic factor, particularly during the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying peanut adaptation to salt stress by transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis during the seedling stage. In this study, phenotypic variations of FH23 and NH5, two peanut varieties with contrasting tolerance to salt, changed obviously, with the strongest differences observed at 24 h. FH23 leaves wilted and the membrane system was seriously damaged. A total of 1470 metabolites were identified, with flavonoids being the most common (21.22%). Multi-omics analyses demonstrated that flavonoid biosynthesis (ko00941), isoflavones biosynthesis (ko00943), and plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075) were key metabolic pathways. The comparison of metabolites in isoflavone biosynthesis pathways of peanut varieties with different salt tolerant levels demonstrated that the accumulation of naringenin and formononetin may be the key metabolite leading to their different tolerance. Using our transcriptomic data, we identified three possible reasons for the difference in salt tolerance between the two varieties: (1) differential expression of LOC112715558 (HIDH) and LOC112709716 (HCT), (2) differential expression of LOC112719763 (PYR/PYL) and LOC112764051 (ABF) in the abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction pathway, then (3) differential expression of genes encoding JAZ proteins (LOC112696383 and LOC112790545). Key metabolites and candidate genes related to improving the salt tolerance in peanuts were screened to promote the study of the responses of peanuts to NaCl stress and guide their genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Arachis , Plântula , Arachis/genética , Plântula/genética , Cloreto de Sódio , Multiômica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7679, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561368

RESUMO

Allelopathy is a process whereby a plant directly or indirectly promotes or inhibits growth of surrounding plants. Perennial sugarcane root extracts from various years significantly inhibited Bidens pilosa, Digitaria sanguinalis, sugarcane stem seedlings, and sugarcane tissue-cultured seedlings (P < 0.05), with maximum respective allelopathies of - 0.60, - 0.62, - 0.20, and - 0.29. Allelopathy increased with increasing concentrations for the same-year root extract, and inhibitory effects of the neutral, acidic, and alkaline components of perennial sugarcane root extract from different years were significantly stronger than those of the control for sugarcane stem seedlings (P < 0.05). The results suggest that allelopathic effects of perennial sugarcane root extract vary yearly, acids, esters and phenols could be a main reason for the allelopathic autotoxicity of sugarcane ratoons and depend on the type and content of allelochemicals present, and that allelopathy is influenced by other environmental factors within the rhizosphere such as the presence of old perennial sugarcane roots. This may be a crucial factor contributing to the decline of perennial sugarcane root health.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Plântula , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Daninhas/fisiologia , Alelopatia , Extratos Vegetais/química
18.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14272, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566275

RESUMO

The Dehydration-Responsive Element Binding (DREB) subfamily of transcription factors plays crucial roles in plant abiotic stress response. Ammopiptanthus nanus (A. nanus) is an eremophyte exhibiting remarkable tolerance to environmental stress and DREB proteins may contribute to its tolerance to water deficit and low-temperature stress. In the present study, an A. nanus DREB A5 group transcription factor gene, AnDREB5.1, was isolated and characterized in terms of structure and function in abiotic stress tolerance. AnDREB5.1 protein is distributed in the nucleus, possesses transactivation capacity, and is capable of binding to DRE core cis-acting element. The transcription of AnDREB5.1 was induced under osmotic and cold stress. Tobacco seedlings overexpressing AnDREB5.1 displayed higher tolerance to cold stress, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress compared to wild-type tobacco (WT). Under osmotic and cold stress, overexpression of AnDREB5.1 increased antioxidant enzyme activity in tobacco leaves, inhibiting excessive elevation of ROS levels. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that overexpression of AnDREB5.1 raised the tolerance of transgenic tobacco seedlings to abiotic stress by regulating multiple genes, including antioxidant enzymes, transcription factors, and stress-tolerant related functional genes like NtCOR413 and NtLEA14. This study provides new evidence for understanding the potential roles of the DREB A5 subgroup members in plants.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Fabaceae , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Antioxidantes , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fabaceae/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Temperatura Baixa
19.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14275, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566267

RESUMO

Developing and cultivating rice varieties is a potent strategy for reclaiming salinity-affected soils for rice production. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms conferring salt tolerance, especially in conventional high-yield japonica rice varieties, remain obscure. In this study, Zhendao 23309 (ZD23309) exhibited significantly less grain yield reduction under a salt stress gradient than the control variety Wuyunjing 30 (WYJ30). High positive correlations between grain yield and dry matter accumulation at the jointing, heading and maturity stages indicated that early salt tolerance performance is a crucial hallmark for yield formation. After a mild salt stress (85 mM NaCl) of young seedlings, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of shoot and root separately identified a total of 1952 and 3647 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ZD23309, and 2114 and 2711 DEGs in WYJ30, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed numerous DEGs in ZD23309 that play pivotal roles in strengthening salt tolerance, encompassing the response to stimulus (GO:0050896) in shoots and nucleoside binding (GO:0001882) in roots. Additionally, distinct expression patterns were observed in a fraction of genes in the two rice varieties under salt stress, corroborating the efficacy of previously reported salt tolerance genes. Our research not only offers fresh insights into the differences in salt stress tolerance among conventional high-yield rice varieties but also unveils the intricate nature of salt tolerance mechanisms. These findings lay a solid groundwork for deciphering the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estresse Salino , Plântula/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética
20.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588711

RESUMO

Drought is a major obstacle to the development of naked oat industry. This work investigated mechanisms by which exogenous Streptomyces albidoflavus T4 and Streptomyces rochei D74 improved drought tolerance in naked oat (Avena nuda ) seedlings. Results showed that in the seed germination experiment, germination rate, radicle and hypocotyl length of naked oat seeds treated with the fermentation filtrate of T4 or D74 under PEG induced drought stress increased significantly. In the hydroponic experiment, the shoot and root dry weights of oat seedlings increased significantly when treated with the T4 or D74 fermentation filtrate under the 15% PEG induced drought stress (S15). Simultaneously, the T4 treatment also significantly increased the surface area, volume, the number of tips and the root activity of oat seedlings. Both T4 and D74 treatments elicited significant increases in proline and soluble sugar contents, as well as the catalase and peroxidase activities in oat seedlings. The results of comprehensive drought resistance capacity (CDRC) calculation of oat plants showed that the drought resistance of oat seedlings under the T4 treatment was better than that under the D74 treatment, and the effect was better under higher drought stress (S15). Findings of this study may provide a novel and effective approach for enhancing plant defenses against drought stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Streptomyces , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Plântula , Osmorregulação , Avena/metabolismo , Resistência à Seca , Estresse Fisiológico , Streptomyces/metabolismo
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