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1.
Org Lett ; 26(21): 4475-4479, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767291

RESUMO

Genome mining of Emericella sp. XL-029 achieved a new type E sesterterpene synthase, EmES, which affored a novel bipolyhydroindenol sesterterpene, emerindanol A. Heterologous coexpression with the upstream P450 oxidase revealed C-4 hydroxylated product, emerindanol B. Notably, emerindanols A and B represented the first sesterterpenes featuring a unique 5/6-6/5 coupled ring system. EmES was postulated to initiate through C1-IV-V pathway and convert the fused ring intermediate into the final coupled ring product through a spiro skeleton.


Assuntos
Sesterterpenos , Sesterterpenos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Emericella/química
2.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 129, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sesterterpenoids are rare species among the terpenoids family. Ophiobolins are sesterterpenes with a 5-8-5 tricyclic skeleton. The oxidized ophiobolins exhibit significant cytotoxic activity and potential medicinal value. There is an urgent need for large amounts of ophiobolins supplication for drug development. The synthetic biology approach has been successfully employed in lots of terpene compound production and inspired us to develop a cell factory for ophiobolin biosynthesis. RESULTS: We developed a systematic metabolic engineering strategy to construct an ophiobolin biosynthesis chassis based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The whole-cell biotransformation methods were further combined with metabolic engineering to enhance the expression of key ophiobolin biosynthetic genes and improve the supply of precursors and cofactors. A high yield of 5.1 g/L of ophiobolin F was reached using ethanol and fatty acids as substrates. To accumulate oxidized ophiobolins, we optimized the sources and expression conditions for P450-CPR and alleviated the toxicity of bioactive compounds to cells through PDR engineering. We unexpectedly obtained a novel ophiobolin intermediate with potent cytotoxicity, 5-hydroxy-21-formyl-ophiobolin F, and the known bioactive compound ophiobolin U. Finally, we achieved the ophiobolin U titer of 128.9 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS: We established efficient cell factories based on S. cerevisiae, enabling de novo biosynthesis of the ophiobolin skeleton ophiobolin F and oxidized ophiobolins derivatives. This work has filled the gap in the heterologous biosynthesis of sesterterpenoids in S. cerevisiae and provided valuable solutions for new drug development based on sesterterpenoids.


Assuntos
Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Sesterterpenos , Sesterterpenos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 63(23): e202405140, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584136

RESUMO

Little is known about the structures and catalytic mechanisms of sesterterpene synthases (StTSs), which greatly hinders the structure-based engineering of StTSs for structural diversity expansion of sesterterpenes. We here report on the crystal structures of the terpene cyclization (TC) domains of two fungal StTSs: sesterfisherol synthase (NfSS) and sesterbrasiliatriene synthase (PbSS). Both TC structures contain benzyltriethylammonium chloride (BTAC), pyrophosphate (PPi), and magnesium ions (Mg2+), clearly defining the catalytic active sites. A combination of theory and experiments including carbocationic intermediates modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, and isotope labeling provided detailed insights into the structural basis for their catalytic mechanisms. Structure-based engineering of NfSS and PbSS resulted in the formation of 20 sesterterpenes including 13 new compounds and four pairs of epimers with different configurations at C18. These results expand the structural diversity of sesterterpenes and provide important insights for future synthetic biology research.


Assuntos
Sesterterpenos , Sesterterpenos/química , Sesterterpenos/metabolismo , Ciclização , Terpenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/química , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/química , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Engenharia de Proteínas , Domínio Catalítico , Modelos Moleculares , Cristalografia por Raios X
4.
J Nat Med ; 78(3): 702-708, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662303

RESUMO

Two new sesterterpenoids, atractylodes japonica terpenoid acid I (1) and atractylodes japonica terpenoid aldehyde I (2), were isolated from the rhizomes of Atractylodes japonica Koidz. ex Kitam together with ten known compounds (3-12). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis (1D/2D NMR, HRESIMS and IR). In addition, all of these isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against human gastric cancer cell MGC-803 and human hepatocellular cancer cell HepG-2. Most of them exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory effects with IC50 values in the range of 25.15-88.85 µM except for 9-12.


Assuntos
Atractylodes , Rizoma , Sesterterpenos , Atractylodes/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sesterterpenos/química , Sesterterpenos/farmacologia , Sesterterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Rizoma/química , Células Hep G2 , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
5.
Org Biomol Chem ; 22(15): 3019-3024, 2024 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530279

RESUMO

An unusual pyridine-containing sesterterpenoid, leucosceptrodine (1), and five new nor-leucosceptrane sesterterpenoids, including bisnor- (C23, 2), tetranor- (C21, 3) and pentanor- (C20, 4-6) skeletons, were isolated from the leaves of Tibetan Leucosceptrum canum. Their structures including their absolute configurations were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses and quantum chemical calculations. A single crystal of one epimer (5) was crystallized from a pair of inseparable epimers, and its structure including its absolute configuration was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The immunosuppressive activities of compounds 1-4 with different potencies were evaluated by inhibiting the secretion of cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages.


Assuntos
Lamiaceae , Sesterterpenos , Sesterterpenos/química , Tibet , Lamiaceae/química , Cristalografia por Raios X , Piridinas/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6991, 2024 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38523180

RESUMO

Gout and hyperuricemia are characterized by high uric acid levels, and their treatment involves medications that have adverse effects. In this study, we evaluated oral liposomal formulations with eremantholide C and goyazensolide as a novel approach to reduce the toxicity associated with these substances while maintaining their anti-hyperuricemic activity. We characterized the formulations and evaluated them based on encapsulation efficiency and stability over 12 months and under simulated physiological environments. We determined the toxicity of the liposomal formulations in Caco-2 cells and the anti-hyperuricemic activity in rats. The formulations exhibited nanometric size, a narrow size distribution, and a negative zeta potential, indicating their stability and uniformity. The efficient encapsulation of the sesquiterpene lactones within the liposomes emphasizes their potential for sustained release and therapeutic efficacy. Stability evaluation revealed a small decrease in the eremantholide C concentration and a remarkable stability in the goyazensolide concentration. In Caco-2 cells, the liposomes did not exert toxicity, but did exhibit an antiproliferative effect. In vivo assays demonstrated that the liposomes reduced serum uric acid levels. Our study represents an advancement in gout and hyperuricemia treatment. The liposomal formulations effectively reduced the toxicity associated with the sesquiterpene lactones while maintaining their therapeutic effects.


Assuntos
Artrite Gotosa , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes , Furanos , Gota , Hiperuricemia , Sesquiterpenos , Sesterterpenos , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Lipossomos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Úrico/uso terapêutico , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Células CACO-2 , Gota/tratamento farmacológico , Lactonas/farmacologia , Lactonas/uso terapêutico
7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 63(19): e202401539, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372063

RESUMO

Mining of two multiproduct sesterterpene synthases from Lentzea atacamensis resulted in the identification of the synthases for lentzeadiene (LaLDS) and atacamatriene (LaATS). The main product of LaLDS (lentzeadiene) is a new compound, while one of the side products (lentzeatetraene) is the enantiomer of brassitetraene B and the other side product (sestermobaraene F) is known from a surprisingly distantly related sesterterpene synthase. LaATS produces six new compounds, one of which is the enantiomer of the known sesterterpene Bm1. Notably, for both enzymes the products cannot all be explained from one and the same starting conformation of geranylfarnesyl diphosphate, demonstrating the requirement of conformational flexibility of the substrate in the enzymes' active sites. For lentzeadiene an intriguing thermal [1,5]-sigmatropic rearrangement was discovered, reminiscent of the biosynthesis of vitamin D3. All enzyme reactions and the [1,5]-sigmatropic rearrangement were investigated through isotopic labeling experiments and DFT calculations. The results also emphasize the importance of conformational changes during terpene cyclizations.


Assuntos
Sesterterpenos , Terpenos , Terpenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/química , Sesterterpenos/química , Sesterterpenos/metabolismo , Conformação Molecular , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/química , Estereoisomerismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(7): 3549-3559, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325810

RESUMO

Bipoladiens A-E (1-5), five new ophiobolin-derived sesterterpenoids, and a known compound 6 (bipolaricin R) were isolated from the cultures of the phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris maydis. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, HRESIMS, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Notably, compound 1 has an undescribed tetracyclic 5/8/5/7 fused carbon skeleton, and compound 2 possesses a rare multicyclic caged ring system. The biosynthetic pathway of 1 was proposed starting from 6 via a series of oxidation and cyclization reactions. Compound 6 showed excellent antiproliferation and apoptosis induction effects against A549 cell line. Additionally, compounds 5 and 6 exhibited noticeable antimicrobial ability against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. These findings not only developed the chemical and bioactivities diversities of ophiobolin-sesterterpenoid but also provided an idea to boost the application of natural products in the control of food pathogens.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Sesterterpenos , Sesterterpenos/farmacologia , Sesterterpenos/química , Bipolaris , Estrutura Molecular
9.
Nat Prod Rep ; 41(3): 434-468, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131643

RESUMO

Covering: 2000 to 2023This review presents the exceptional story of ophiobolin A (OphA) and sphaeropsidin A (SphA), a sesterterpene and a diterpene, respectively, which were initially isolated as fungal phytotoxins and subsequently shown to possess other interesting biological activities, including promising anticancer activities. Ophiobolin A is a phytotoxin produced by different fungal pathogens, all belonging to the Bipolaris genus. Initially, it was only known as a very dangerous phytotoxin produced by fungi attacking essential cereals, such as rice and barley. However, extensive and interesting studies were carried out to define its original carbon skeleton, which is characterized by a typical 5 : 8 : 5 ring system and shared with fusicoccins and cotylenins, and its phytotoxic activity on host and non-host plants. The biosynthesis of OphA was also defined by describing the different steps starting from mevalonate and through the rearrangement of the acyclic C-25 precursor lead the toxin is obtained. OphA was also produced as a bioherbicide from Drechslera gigantea and proposed for the biocontrol of the widespread and dangerous weed Digitaria sanguinaria. To date, more than sixty ophiobolins have been isolated from different fungi and their biological activities and structure-activity relationship investigated, which were also described using their hemisynthetic derivatives. In the last two decades, thorough studies have been performed on the potential anticancer activity of OphA and its original mode of action, attracting great interest from scientists. Sphaeropsidin A has a similar story. It was isolated as the main phytotoxin from Diplodia cupressi, the causal agent of Italian cypress canker disease, resulting in the loss of millions of plants in a few years in the Mediterranean basin. The damage to the forest, environment and ornamental heritage are noteworthy and economic losses are also suffered by tree nurseries and the wood industry. Six natural analogues of SphA were isolated and several interesting hemisynthetic derivatives were prepared to study its structure-activity relationship. Surprisingly, sphaeropsidin A showed other interesting biological activities, including antibiotic, antifungal, and antiviral. In the last decade, extensive studies have focused on the anticancer activity and original mode of action of SphA. Furthermore, specific hemisynthetic studies enable the preparation of derivatives of SphA, preserving its chromophore, which showed a noteworthy increase in anticancer activity. It has been demonstrated that ophiobolin A and sphaeropsidin A are promising natural products showing potent activity against some malignant cancers, such as brain glioblastoma and different melanomas.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Diterpenos , Sesterterpenos , Toxinas Biológicas , Terpenos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
Eur J Neurosci ; 59(7): 1441-1459, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38151481

RESUMO

Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is expressed in striatopallidal neurons and decreases forskolin-stimulated cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release. Dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) mRNA is expressed in a population of striatal D2R-expressing neurons. Also, D3R protein and binding have been reported in the neuropil of globus pallidus. We explore whether D2R and D3R colocalize in striatopallidal terminals and whether D3R modulates the D2R effect on forskolin-stimulated [3H]cAMP accumulation in pallidal synaptosomes and high K+ stimulated-[3H]GABA release in pallidal slices. Previous reports in heterologous systems indicate that calmodulin (CaM) and CaMKII modulate D2R and D3R functions; thus, we study whether this system regulates its functional interaction. D2R immunoprecipitates with CaM, and pretreatment with ophiobolin A or depolarization of synaptosomes with 15 mM of K+ decreases it. Both treatments increase the D2R inhibition of forskolin-stimulated [3H]cAMP accumulation when activated with quinpirole, indicating a negative modulation of CaM on D2R function. Quinpirole also activates D3R, potentiating D2R inhibition of cAMP accumulation in the ophiobolin A-treated synaptosomes. D2R and D3R immunoprecipitate in pallidal synaptosomes and decrease after the kainic acid striatal lesion, indicating the striatal origin of the presynaptic receptors. CaM-kinase II alfa (CaMKIIα) immunoprecipitates with D3R and increases after high K+ depolarization. In the presence of KN62, a CaMKIIα blocker, D3R potentiates D2R effects on cAMP accumulation in depolarized synaptosomes and GABA release in pallidal slices, indicating D3R function regulation by CaMKIIα. Our data indicate that D3R potentiates the D2R effect on cAMP accumulation and GABA release at pallidal terminals, an interaction regulated by the CaM-CaMKIIα system.


Assuntos
Calmodulina , Receptores de Dopamina D3 , Sesterterpenos , Receptores de Dopamina D3/metabolismo , Quimpirol/farmacologia , Calmodulina/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Colforsina , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 28(21)2023 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37959666

RESUMO

Four new sesterterpenes, arthproliferins A-D (1-4), together with four known derivatives, were isolated and characterized from the mangrove-sediment-derived fungus Arthrinium sp. SCSIO41221. Their structures were determined using detailed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopic (MS) analyses. Some of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro. The results revealed that terpestacin (6) exhibited significant activity with an IC50 value of 20.3 µM, and compounds 2 and 5 were found to show weak inhibitory effects against U87MG-derived GSCs.


Assuntos
Sesterterpenos , Xylariales , Sesterterpenos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular
12.
Mar Drugs ; 21(10)2023 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37888442

RESUMO

Eight new scalarane sesterterpenes, phyllofenones F-M (1-8), together with two known analogues, carteriofenones B and A (9-10), were isolated from the marine sponge Phyllospongia foliascens collected from the South China Sea. The structures of these compounds were determined based on extensive spectroscopic and quantum chemical calculation analysis. The antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of these compounds was evaluated. Among them, only compounds 4 and 6 displayed weak inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, with MIC values of 16 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively. Compounds 1-10 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the HeLa, HCT-116, H460, and SW1990 cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 3.4 to 19.8 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Poríferos , Animais , Humanos , Sesterterpenos/química , Poríferos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Antineoplásicos/química , Células HeLa , Escherichia coli , Estrutura Molecular
13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 62(48): e202313789, 2023 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37846897

RESUMO

Mining of a terpene synthase from Streptomyces subrutilus resulted in the identification of the hexacyclic sesterterpene subrutilane, besides eight pentacyclic side products. Subrutilane represents the first case of a saturated sesterterpene hydrocarbon. Its structure, including the absolute configuration, was unambiguously determined through X-ray crystallographic analysis and stereoselective deuteration. The cyclisation mechanism to subrutilane and its side products was investigated in all detail by isotopic labelling experiments and DFT calculations. The subrutilane synthase (SrS) also converted (2Z)-GFPP into one major product. Additional compounds were obtained from the substrate analogues (7R)-6,7-dihydro-GFPP and (2Z,7R)-6,7-dihydro-GFPP with blocked reactivity at the C6-C7 bond. Interestingly, the early steps of the cyclisation cascade with (2Z)-GFPP and the saturated substrate analogues were analogous to those of GFPP, but then deviations from the natural cyclisation mode occur.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases , Streptomyces , Humanos , Sesterterpenos/química , Terpenos/química
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(31): 11982-11992, 2023 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37523321

RESUMO

An integrated purification procedure through the LC-MS/MS-based molecular networking strategy combined with bioactive evaluation was first ushered for discovering bioactive ophiobolins from Bipolaris eleusines. Ophiobolins were mainly dispersed in five clusters, which were classified based on different ring systems and functional groups. Nine undescribed ophiobolins (1-6 and 9-11) and an undescribed natural product (8) along with two known analogs (7 and 12) were isolated in target. The undescribed structures were characterized by HR-ESI-MS, NMR spectra, and X-ray diffraction experiments. Compounds 3-12 exhibited strong phytotoxic effects on green foxtails by producing visible lesions, and compounds 1-10 and 12 displayed different levels of cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines B16, Hep G2, and MCF-7, from which the possible structure-activity relationships were then suggested. The results have supported that bioactivity-guided molecular networking is an efficient strategy to expedite the discovery of undescribed bioactive natural products.


Assuntos
Sesterterpenos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Sesterterpenos/farmacologia , Sesterterpenos/química , Estrutura Molecular
15.
Mar Drugs ; 21(7)2023 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37504944

RESUMO

In reviewing a selection of recent case studies from our laboratory, we revealed some lessons learned and benefits accrued from the application of mass spectrometry (MS/MS) molecular networking in the field of marine sponge natural products. Molecular networking proved pivotal to our discovery of many new natural products and even new classes of natural product, some of which were opaque to alternate dereplication and prioritization strategies. Case studies included the discovery of: (i) trachycladindoles, an exceptionally rare class of bioactive indole alkaloid previously only known from a single southern Australia sample of Trachycladus laevispirulifer; (ii) dysidealactams, an unprecedented class of sesquiterpene glycinyl-lactam and glycinyl-imide from a Dysidea sp., a sponge genera often discounted as having been exhaustively studied; (iii) cacolides, an unprecedented family of sesterterpene α-methyl-γ-hydroxybutenolides from a Cacospongia sp., all too easily mischaracterized and deprioritized during dereplication as a well-known class of sponge sesterterpene tetronic acids; and (iv) thorectandrins, a new class of indole alkaloid which revealed unexpected insights into the chemical and biological properties of the aplysinopsins, one of the earliest and more extensively reported class of sponge natural products.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Poríferos , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Sesterterpenos/química , Poríferos/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia
16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 62(31): e202306429, 2023 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37283082

RESUMO

A gene coding for a terpene synthase homolog from Kitasatospora viridis was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein possessed sesterterpene synthase activity and efficiently converted geranylfarnesyl diphosphate (GFPP) with 19 % yield into the sesterterpene hydrocarbon sesterviridene A. Large scale enzymatic conversions also allowed for the isolation of two side products that are generated with very low yields of ca. 0.1 %. Several derivatives of sesterviridene A were obtained by chemical transformations, securing the NMR-based structural assignments. The absolute configuration of sesterviridene A was determined by chemical correlation using stereoselectively deuterated precursors and by anomalous dispersion X-ray crystallography. The cyclisation mechanism from GFPP to sesterviridene A was extensively studied through isotopic labelling experiments and DFT calculations.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases , Streptomycetaceae , Sesterterpenos/química , Streptomycetaceae/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes
17.
J Nat Prod ; 86(7): 1754-1760, 2023 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37335557

RESUMO

Phyllospongianes A-E (1-5), five new scalarane derivatives featuring an unprecedented 6/6/6/5 tetracyclic dinorscalarane scaffold, along with the known probable biogenetic precursor, 12-deacetylscalaradial (6), were isolated from the marine sponge Phyllospongia foliascens. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism experiments. Compounds 1-5 are the first 6/6/6/5 tetracyclic scalarane derivatives to be reported within the scalarane family. Compounds 1, 2, and 4 exhibited antibacterial activity against Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC values ranging from 1 to 8 µg/mL. Furthermore, compound 3 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity on MDA-MB-231, HepG2, C4-2-ENZ, MCF-7, H460, and HT-29 cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range between 0.7 and 13.2 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Poríferos , Animais , Sesterterpenos/química , Poríferos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis , Escherichia coli , Estrutura Molecular
18.
J Nat Prod ; 86(2): 330-339, 2023 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36734533

RESUMO

Sarcotragusolides A-D (1-4), four new butenolide sesterterpenes featuring a rare methyl-transferred 6/6/6-tricyclic fused ring system with a butyrolactone moiety, and echinohalimane B (8), an unprecedented monocyclic diterpenoid featuring a 2,7-ring-opened halimane-type skeleton, were isolated from the sponge Sarcotragus sp. A γ-hydroxybutenolide sesterterpene derivative (5), a new scalarane sesterterpene (7), a new subersin-type diterpenoid (10), and two known terpenoids were also isolated and identified. The discovery of sarcotragusolides C and D (3 and 4) with an unprecedented inversion of configuration implied a distinct biosynthetic pathway. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on their spectroscopic data, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, chemical derivatization, and quantum chemical calculations. Compounds 1a, 1b, and 2 presented modest cytotoxic activities against several human cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Diterpenos , Poríferos , Humanos , Animais , Terpenos , Sesterterpenos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Lactonas , Estrutura Molecular
19.
Mar Drugs ; 21(2)2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36827148

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a highly contagious human pathogen that poses a significant threat to children under the age of two, and there is a current need for new small molecule treatments. The Antarctic sponge Suberites sp. is a known source of sesterterpenes, and following an NMR-guided fractionation procedure, it was found to produce several previously unreported metabolites. Neosuberitenone (1), with a new carbon scaffold herein termed the 'neosuberitane' backbone, six suberitenone derivatives (2-7), an ansellane-type terpenoid (8), and a highly degraded sesterterpene (9), as well as previously reported suberitenones A (10) and B (11), were characterized. The structures of all of the isolated metabolites including absolute configurations are proposed on the basis of NMR, HRESIMS, optical rotation, and XRD data. The biological activities of the metabolites were evaluated in a range of infectious disease assays. Suberitenones A, B, and F (3) were found to be active against RSV, though, along with other Suberites sp. metabolites, they were inactive in bacterial and fungal screens. None of the metabolites were cytotoxic for J774 macrophages or A549 adenocarcinoma cells. The selectivity of suberitenones A, B, and F for RSV among other infectious agents is noteworthy.


Assuntos
Poríferos , Suberites , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios , Regiões Antárticas , Terpenos/química , Sesterterpenos/química
20.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 65(5): 1170-1182, 2023 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647626

RESUMO

Terpenes are the largest and most diverse class of plant specialized metabolites. Sesterterpenes (C25), which are derived from the plastid methylerythritol phosphate pathway, were recently characterized in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four genes encoding geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase (GFPPS) (AtGFPPS1 to 4) are responsible for the production of GFPP, which is the common precursor for sesterterpene biosynthesis. However, the interplay between sesterterpenes and other known terpenes remain elusive. Here, we first provide genetic evidence to demonstrate that GFPPSs are responsible for sesterterpene production in Arabidopsis. Blockage of the sesterterpene pathway at the GFPPS step increased the production of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP)-derived terpenes. Interestingly, co-expression of sesterTPSs in GFPPS-OE (overexpression) plants rescued the phenotypic changes of GFPPS-OE plants by restoring the endogenous GGPP. We further demonstrated that, in addition to precursor (DMAPP/IPP) competition by GFPPS and GGPP synthase (GGPPS) in plastids, GFPPS directly decreased the activity of GGPPS through protein-protein interaction, ultimately leading to GGPP deficiency in planta. Our study provides a new regulatory mechanism of the plastidial terpenoid network in plant cells.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Dimetilaliltranstransferase , Terpenos/metabolismo , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/genética , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/metabolismo , Sesterterpenos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Plastídeos/metabolismo
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