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1.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 35(1): 8-13, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people experience higher levels of stigma, discrimination, and interpersonal violence due to their gender identity and/or expression, particularly TGD people with a migration background. This study aimed to conduct and evaluate group psychotherapy for TGD migrants to provide opportunities for exploring and developing interpersonal skills and relationships. METHOD: The group therapy included five individuals who identified as TGD and originated from the Middle East. The TGD group therapy consisted of 12 weekly sessions of 90 minutes each and was facilitated by a psychiatrist. All sessions were conducted online and in Turkish. The sessions were guided by the group process and discussions. RESULTS: After completing 12 group therapy sessions, members of the group reported benefiting from observing and emulating others who shared their problem constellation. Through the interpersonal skills that they built up throughout the sessions, they became more open to share their feelings experiencing fewer social barriers, and reduced anxiety. CONCLUSION: This observational study indicates the significance of offering group-based psychotherapy to enhance affirmation and social connection within gender minority groups and emphasizes the need to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of group psychotherapy with TGD individuals, with special attention to the unique needs of TGD migrants.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Migrantes , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Vergonha , Ansiedade
2.
Nutrients ; 16(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38613032

RESUMO

Weight bias and weight stigma pose significant challenges in healthcare, particularly affecting obesity management practices and patient care quality. Our study evaluates their prevalence and impact among healthcare professionals in Poland. Using the Fat Phobia Scale and custom questions, we surveyed 686 professionals via Computer-Assisted Web Interview (CAWI). Results reveal a moderate level of explicit weight bias (mean score: 3.60 ± 0.57), with significant variations across professional groups: physicians (3.70 ± 0.48), dietitians (3.51 ± 0.48), and others (3.44 ± 0.77). Common feelings towards individuals with obesity include willingness to help (57.0%) and compassion (37.8%), yet 29.9% perceive obesity as shameful. The results also vary depending on the respondent's sex or BMI. These findings underscore the need for evidence-based interventions to mitigate weight stigma and enhance understanding of obesity among healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Nutricionistas , Médicos , Preconceito de Peso , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Polônia , Vergonha , Obesidade/epidemiologia
3.
Lancet ; 403(10429): 781, 2024 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431338
4.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0289664, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442107

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic event exposure is a risk factor for the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Social-affective responses to trauma exposure (e.g. shame, guilt, revenge, social alienation) could moderate this relationship, but little is known about their relevance for different types of psychopathology. Moreover, the interplay of different social-affective responses to trauma exposure in predicting psychopathology is poorly understood. METHODS: In a sample of N = 1321 trauma-exposed German soldiers, we examined cross-sectional associations of trauma-related social alienation, revenge, guilt and shame with depressive disorder, alcohol use disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and dimensional measures of depression and anxiety. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify possible patterns of social-affective responses to trauma exposure, and their relation to psychopathology. RESULTS: All social-affective responses to trauma exposure predicted current posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorder, alcohol use disorder and higher depressive and anxiety symptoms. Three latent classes fitted the data best, reflecting groups with (1) low, (2) moderate and (3) high risk for social-affective responses to trauma exposure. The low-risk group demonstrated the lowest expressions on all psychopathology measures. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma-related social alienation, shame, guilt, and revenge are characteristic of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorder, alcohol use disorder, and with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. There was little evidence for distinctive patterns of social-affective responses to trauma exposure despite variation in the overall proneness to show social-affective responses. Social-affective responses to trauma exposure could represent promising treatment targets for both cognitive and emotion-focused interventions.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Ansiedade , Culpa , Vergonha
5.
Int Wound J ; 21(3): e14793, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453161

RESUMO

Shame has an important impact on the mental health and quality of life of patients. The shame in patients with ureterostomy after cystectomy remains unclear. This survey aimed to evaluate the status quo and influencing factors of shame in patients with ureterostomy after cystectomy, to provide support for the clinical care. Patients with ureterostomy after cystectomy treated in the wound stomy clinic of a third-class hospital from 1 June 2022 to 31 July 2023 were included. General data questionnaire and social impact scale (SIS) were used for data collection. Univariate and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to evaluate the influencing factors of shame in patients with ureterostomy after cystectomy. One hundred and sixty four patients with ureterostomy after cystectomy were included. The total score of shame in patients with ureterostomy was (60.75 ± 6.31), which was in the high level. Age (r = 0.442), home place (r = 0.427), per capita monthly household income (r = 0.605), self-care ability (r = 0.597) and complications of stoma (r = 0.542) were correlated with the SIS score in patients with ureterostomy after cystectomy (all p < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that age, home place, per capita monthly household income, self-care ability and complications of stoma were the influencing factors of SIS score in patients with ureterostomy after cystectomy (all p < 0.05). The five variables explained 64.5% of the patients' sense of shame variation. Patients with ureterostomy after cystectomy have a serious sense of shame in the early stage after operation and there are many influencing factors. Health care providers should take early nursing interventions targeted on those influencing factors to reduce the patients' sense of shame.


Assuntos
Ureterostomia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Vergonha
6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2308439, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38323870

RESUMO

Background: Trauma-related guilt and shame are crucial for the development and maintenance of PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). We developed an intervention combining cognitive techniques with loving-kindness meditations (C-METTA) that specifically target these emotions. C-METTA is an intervention of six weekly individual treatment sessions followed by a four-week practice phase.Objective: This study examined C-METTA in a proof-of-concept study within a randomized wait-list controlled trial.Method: We randomly assigned 32 trauma-exposed patients with a DSM-5 diagnosis to C-METTA or a wait-list condition (WL). Primary outcomes were clinician-rated PTSD symptoms (CAPS-5) and trauma-related guilt and shame. Secondary outcomes included psychopathology, self-criticism, well-being, and self-compassion. Outcomes were assessed before the intervention phase and after the practice phase.Results: Mixed-design analyses showed greater reductions in C-METTA versus WL in clinician-rated PTSD symptoms (d = -1.09), guilt (d = -2.85), shame (d = -2.14), psychopathology and self-criticism.Conclusion: Our findings support positive outcomes of C-METTA and might contribute to improved care for patients with stress-related disorders. The study was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00023470).


C-METTA is an intervention that addresses trauma-related guilt and shame and combines cognitive interventions with loving-kindness meditations.A proof-of-concept study was conducted examining C-METTA in a wait-list randomized controlled trialC-METTA led to reductions in trauma-related guilt and shame and PTSD symptoms.


Assuntos
Meditação , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Culpa , Vergonha , Cognição
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397672

RESUMO

The phenomenon of some patients with schizophrenia withdrawing and becoming hikikomori needs to be resolved. In some countries, outreach methods are being employed. In Japan, psychiatric home-visit nursing for patients with schizophrenia and hikikomori is being implemented. However, it is not based on sufficient evidence and relies on the experience and intuition of individual nurses. This study explored the underlying themes in the nursing practices of psychiatric home-visit nurses via semi-structured interviews with 10 nurses and a thematic analysis. Nine key themes emerged. Four themes-(i) understanding the patient's world, (ii) supporting the patients as they are, (iii) providing a sense of relief, and (iv) having equal relationships-highlighted the nurses' commitment to respecting patients' individuality while building and sustaining relationships. Two themes-(v) exploring the right timing and (vi) waiting for the appropriate timing-illustrated the nurses' anticipation of proactive patient engagement. Finally, three themes-(vii) working together on things, (viii) continuing care for expanding the patient's world, and (ix) nursing care for the patient's future-underscored the nurses' gradual and methodical approach to working alongside patients. Nursing practices based on these nine themes cultivated meaningful relationships and secured a sense of relief for the patients. Additionally, they awaited patients' proactive engagement and delivered timely support to facilitate positive daily life changes. These findings contribute to the establishment of evidence-based nursing practices for patients with schizophrenia and hikikomori.


Assuntos
Fobia Social , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Pacientes , Japão , Vergonha
9.
J Couns Psychol ; 71(2): 89-103, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38376929

RESUMO

Every year, millions of Americans do not receive needed mental health (MH) services. Although Pacific Islanders (PI) have a high need for MH services, this group has the lowest rate of MH care help seeking. This is especially concerning as the rate of suicide has been increasing within the PI community. This study explored how Pacific Islanders think about MH supports, including their attitudes toward and perceptions of barriers to receiving MH services. An interpretative phenomenological analysis focus group study was conducted with cross-generational Pacific Islanders residing in one western state. The findings include (a) PI perceptions that MH help seeking results in family burdensomeness, stigma, and shame; (b) negotiating PI social customs and beliefs related to MH help seeking, care, and support; and (c) PI mistrust of institutional resources. These themes seemed to interact with each other and create perpetuate barriers which prevent help-seeking behaviors. Clinical and research implications will be provided. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cultura , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Vergonha , População das Ilhas do Pacífico
10.
Women Health ; 64(3): 250-260, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38343133

RESUMO

Women experiencing homelessness are marginalized not only through their housing status but also through their access and ability to manage their menstrual health. Currently, there are no existing published reviews exploring this topic. This study aimed to begin closing that gap, by systematically reviewing the literature examining women's experiences of menstruation whilst being homeless. In June 2020 (and updated in December 2022), we conducted comprehensive and systematic searches of four electronic databases: Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsychINFO, from which nine studies were found. The findings were thematically analyzed, using the enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research tools (ENTREQ) guidelines. Three themes related to menstrual experiences were found: (1) challenges in the logistics of managing menstruation while homeless, (2) feelings of embarrassment, shame, and dignity linked to maintaining menstrual health, and (3) making do: how people experiencing homelessness manage challenges related to menstruation. We discuss barriers women face in getting necessary products and in accessing private, safe, and clean facilities to manage menstrual health. The study found that women living with homelessness often abandon other basic needs in favor of managing menstruation (i.e. using unsuitable materials, stealing, etc.), which furthers their risk. The findings highlight the need for future research to investigate the experiences of women who are menstruating while being homeless and what support they would find helpful. Results show that it is high time for commissioners and policy-makers to address the provision of menstrual resources as a basic human right.


Assuntos
Pessoas Mal Alojadas , Humanos , Feminino , Problemas Sociais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vergonha , Menstruação
11.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0292691, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among young people worldwide. Research indicates that negative social contexts involving familial and peer relationships have far-reaching influences on levels of suicidality in later life. While previous systematic reviews have focused on evaluating associations between negative life events such as abuse and bullying in childhood and subsequent suicidality, this systematic review examines the prevalence of, and association between the processes of humiliation and shame in later self-harm, suicidal ideation, and suicide among adolescents and young adults. METHODS: A systematic literature search of databases including MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Embase was conducted to identify potential studies. ProQuest was searched to identify relevant grey literature research. A combination of MESH terms and keywords was used. All original quantitative studies published in English that examined the prevalence, or association between humiliation or shame and suicidal behaviours and/or death by suicide were included. Studies were assessed for methodological quality using Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools. The protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) [CRD42022289843]. RESULTS: Narrative synthesis was performed. A total of 33 studies reporting the prevalence of, or association between humiliation (n = 10) or shame (n = 23) and suicidal thoughts/behaviours were included. The prevalence of humiliation among those with any suicidality ranged from 18% to 28.1%, excluding an outlier (67.1%), with two studies presenting a significant association between humiliation and self-harm in their fully adjusted analyses. The studies that outlined humiliation and suicidal thinking (intent/suicide plan) had no association after adjustment for confounders. For shame, half of the studies found an association in adjusted models (n = 10), and this was evident for both suicidal ideation and self-harm. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to attempt a systematic review on this topic. The dearth of research in this field of enquiry is reflective of unique challenges associated with assessments of humiliation and shame in various clinical settings amongst adolescent and young adult populations. Nonetheless, given the importance and relevance of the psychological imprint of humiliation in youth morbidity and mortality in the field of mental health, it is timely to attempt such a systematic review. In light of the associated role of humiliation and shame in self-harm and suicidality among young people, we recommend that these processes need to be explored further via prospective studies and assessed as part of a comprehensive bio-psycho-social assessment when focusing on life stressors for adolescent and young adults presenting with suicidality to emergency departments and mental health services.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Vergonha
12.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 518, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hikikomori refers to the extreme isolation of individuals in their own homes, lasting at least six months. In recent years social isolation has become an important clinical, social, and public health problem, with increased awareness of hikikomori around the globe. Portuguese is one of the six most spoken languages in the world, but no studies have analysed the content regarding this phenomenon expressed in Portuguese. OBJECTIVE: To explore the hikikomori phenomenon on Twitter in Portuguese, utilising a mixed-methods approach encompassing content analysis, emotional analysis, and correlation analysis. METHODS: A mixed methods analysis of all publicly available tweets in the Portuguese language using a specific keyword (hikikomori) between 1st January 2008 and 19th October 2022. The content analysis involved categorising tweets based on tone, content, and user types, while correlation analysis was used to investigate user engagement and geographical distribution. Statistical analysis and artificial intelligence were employed to classify and interpret the tweet data. RESULTS: Among the total of 13,915 tweets generated, in terms of tone 10,731 were classified as "negative", and 3184 as "positive". Regarding content, "curiosities" was the most posted, as well as the most retweeted and liked topic. Worldwide, most of the hikikomori related tweets in Portuguese were posted in Europe, while "individuals with hikikomori" were the users most active posting. Regarding emotion analysis, the majority of tweets were "neutral". CONCLUSIONS: These findings show the global prevalence of the discourse on hikikomori phenomenon among Portuguese speakers. It also indicates an increase in the number of tweets on this topic in certain continents over the years. These findings can contribute to developing specific interventions, support networks, and awareness-raising campaigns for affected individuals.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Fobia Social , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Infodemiologia , Portugal , Idioma , Vergonha
13.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 96(1): 11-17, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With few psychometrically evaluated HIV-related stigma measures for adolescents and young adults living with HIV, we examined the developmental applicability (ie, validity) of 2 subscales of the commonly used stigma measure, the Social Impact Scale, among a cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired HIV. SETTING: Data were obtained from a New York City longitudinal study (N = 340). This study primarily comprised Black and Latinx adolescents and young adults with either perinatally acquired HIV or those with perinatal exposure but who are uninfected. Data for this analysis were obtained from the population with perinatally acquired HIV and spanned approximately a 15-year survey period (2003-2018). METHODS: A confirmatory factor analysis was used at 7 time points to assess whether the Social Rejection and Internalized Shame subscales were consistent in this cohort over time. Overall and individual Cronbach alphas were reported to show the strength of the internal consistency. RESULTS: The mean age from baseline to follow-up 6 ranged from 12 to 23 years over the study period. The Social Rejection subscale was acceptably valid across follow-up periods with strong factor loadings and Cronbach alphas higher than 0.70. However, the Internalized Shame subscale was less valid among younger adolescents. Starting at follow-up 2, we observed better validity with the Internalized Shame subscale performance. CONCLUSION: Future research must consider mechanisms for developing and adapting measures from a developmental perspective to best measure the experiences of HIV-related stigma among younger populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Criança , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Mudança Social , Estigma Social , Vergonha
14.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2315794, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38372268

RESUMO

Background: Victims of physical/sexual violence or sexual abuse commonly experience defense responses that result in feelings of guilt and shame. Although trauma-focused interventions are effective in treating post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, the presence of trauma-related shame and guilt can potentially hinder the process of disclosure during treatment, thus diminishing their overall effectiveness. It is hypothesized that providing psychoeducation about common defense responses will reduce feelings of shame and guilt, thereby increasing receptivity to trauma-focused treatment.Objective: This paper describes the rationale, study design, and methods of the BLAME-LESS study. The effects of a brief online psychoeducation program will be compared with a waiting-list control group. The intervention aims to reduce feelings of trauma-related shame and guilt that adolescents experience regarding their own defense responses during and after physical/sexual violence or sexual abuse.Methods: Adolescents (12 - 18 years old) with a history of physical/sexual violence or sexual abuse who suffer from trauma-related feelings of shame and guilt can participate in the study. The study follows a two-arm RCT that includes 34 participants. The primary outcomes includes trauma-related feelings of shame and guilt. The secondary outcomes includes PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression symptoms, traumatic cognitions, readiness to disclose details of memories of the trauma, and motivation to engage in trauma-focused therapy. Assessments take place after screening, at baseline, two weeks after allocation to the intervention or waiting-list, and, only for the waiting-list participants, seven weeks after allocation to the intervention.Conclusions: There is a need for treatment approaches that target trauma-related feelings of shame and guilt. A recently developed brief online psychoeducation program on defense responses during and after trauma offers victims of physical/sexual violence or sexual abuse a free and accessible way to obtain reliable and valid information. The proposed RCT will evaluate the effectiveness of this online psychoeducation program.Trial Registration: Request is pending.


Some defense responses to physical/sexual violence or sexual abuse, such as tonic immobility and appeasement behaviour, are common but unknown and raise feelings of shame and guilt.BLAME-LESS (In Dutch: On(t)schuldig) is a newly developed online psychoeducation programme that aims to reduce feelings of trauma-related shame and guilt. This programme includes explanatory animations, in-depth interviews with experts and victims, and written information accompanied by case reports.The proposed study examines the effectiveness of the brief online psychoeducation programme BLAME-LESS in a well-controlled study.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Culpa , Vergonha , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Psicoterapia
15.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 37(3): 177-184, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38415743

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Social withdrawal syndrome, known as "hikikomori," has been highlighted since the late 1990 s in Japan. Hikikomori is more common in urban areas, and often comorbid with mental disorders, and now spreading throughout the world. In the post-COVID-19 era, not outing is no longer considered pathological in itself as the "new normal," and a novel concept of hikikomori is needed. This review summarizes the concept of hikikomori, and presents the latest methods for identification of hikikomori. RECENT FINDINGS: The novel definition can distinguish between pathological and non-pathological hikikomori using the scale of "Hikikomori Diagnostic Evaluation (HiDE)," which has been developed in the hikikomori research lab at Kyushu University. An online survey among non-working adults has revealed that persons who have become pathological hikikomori for less than three months showed a particularly strong tendency toward gaming disorder and depression. SUMMARY: Now, physical isolation itself is not pathological, but when dysfunction and distress are present, rapid mental health support should be provided. In the novel urban society, the establishment of a checkup system to assess whether persons who stay home are happy or suffering is important for prevention against mental disorders triggered by social isolation.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Fobia Social , Adulto , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Comorbidade , Vergonha
16.
BMJ ; 384: q152, 2024 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38253394
17.
Psicothema ; 36(1): 36-45, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body compassion is a protective factor in the field of eating disorders (ED) that has been associated with higher body appreciation and lower body shame. However, more studies are needed in order to disentangle the protective role of compassion in regard to the risk of ED. The study's aims were to (1) analyze the psychometric properties of the Spanish adaptation of the Body Compassion Scale (BCS) and (2) determine whether body appreciation and body shame were mediators in the relationship between body compassion and the risk of ED. METHOD: 288 women (range: 18-40 years old; M = 24.65 ± 5.02) from the general Spanish population completed online questionnaires. RESULTS: The Spanish adaptation of the BCS was reliable and valid. Results of a serial and parallel mediation model confirmed the protective role of body compassion and body appreciation on body shame and the risk of ED, accounting for 68.88% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that women who present higher body compassion tend to show higher body appreciation, which in turn leads to lower internal body shame and lower risk of ED. These results support the need to develop a positive and compassionate relationship with one's body, in order to prevent ED.


Assuntos
Empatia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Fatores de Proteção , Psicometria , Vergonha
18.
Schizophr Res ; 264: 435-447, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between interpersonal trauma and psychosis is well established, and research is now focused on identifying mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Models of trauma and psychosis increasingly emphasize a broad range of affective processes, yet the overall effect of these affective processes is not well understood. AIM: This review systematically examined the effect of any form of long-term affective dysfunction on the relationship between interpersonal trauma and psychosis. Where possible, it used meta-analytic techniques to quantify the overall magnitude of this effect. METHOD: Searches were conducted using PsychINFO, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases, and eligible studies were appraised for methodological quality. Narrative synthesis and meta-analytic methods were used to evaluate evidence. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies met criteria for inclusion. Five affective mediators were found; depression, anxiety, affective dysregulation, loneliness and attachment. Findings from both the narrative synthesis (n = 29) and meta-analysis (n = 8) indicated that, overall, affect is a small but significant mediator of the relationship between interpersonal trauma and psychosis (pooled Cohen's d = 0.178; pooled 95 % CI: 0.022-0.334). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings support affective pathways to psychosis, though highlight the need for further research on broader affective mediators (loneliness, shame). The small effect size found in the meta-analysis also points to the potential importance of non-affective mediators. Clinically, these findings highlight the value of treatment modalities that attend to multiple mechanisms in the relationship between interpersonal trauma and psychosis. Future research should focus on the interplay and causal sequence between these mechanisms to further understand pathways between interpersonal trauma and psychosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Ansiedade , Vergonha , Transtornos de Ansiedade
20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 171: 171-176, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38290235

RESUMO

Non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) is the use of opioids without a prescription or in a way different from how they were prescribed and is the fourth most common type of drug use in the United States. Separate research has shown that trauma-related shame is linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and, respectively, opioid use. However, no study to date has empirically examined the association between trauma-related shame and NMPOU among individuals with PTSD symptoms. Forty adults with clinical or subclinical PTSD who reported engaging in NMPOU at least one day in the prior month before the study completed 28 days of daily surveys. Trauma-related shame was measured at baseline. NMPOU and underlying motives to engage in NMPOU were assessed once daily via a smartphone app. Twenty-four participants (60 %) reported NMPOU over the 28-day period. After controlling for PTSD symptoms and covariates, mixed models showed that higher trauma-related shame significantly predicted higher risk of daily NMPOU (B = 0.06, SE = 0.03, t = 2.14, p=.03). After controlling for false discovery rates, trauma-related shame also significantly predicted NMPOU due to the following motives (p's < 0.031): to manage depression/sadness, to manage anxiety, to manage other stress/worry, and to get high. Among individuals with PTSD, higher baseline trauma-related shame prospectively and positively predicted greater NMPOU over a four-week daily monitoring period. Findings suggest a need to attend to trauma-related shame and its impact on subsequent motivations to engage in NMPOU. Future research should examine how treatments may effectively target trauma-related shame to reduce NMPOU and more severe PTSD symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Vergonha , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia
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