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1.
J Clin Invest ; 134(7)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557496

RESUMO

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint marker commonly expressed on memory T cells and enriched in latently HIV-infected CD4+ T cells. We engineered an anti-PD-1 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to assess the impact of PD-1 depletion on viral reservoirs and rebound dynamics in SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques (RMs). Adoptive transfer of anti-PD-1 CAR T cells was done in 2 SIV-naive and 4 SIV-infected RMs on antiretroviral therapy (ART). In 3 of 6 RMs, anti-PD-1 CAR T cells expanded and persisted for up to 100 days concomitant with the depletion of PD-1+ memory T cells in blood and tissues, including lymph node CD4+ follicular helper T (TFH) cells. Loss of TFH cells was associated with depletion of detectable SIV RNA from the germinal center (GC). However, following CAR T infusion and ART interruption, there was a marked increase in SIV replication in extrafollicular portions of lymph nodes, a 2-log higher plasma viremia relative to controls, and accelerated disease progression associated with the depletion of CD8+ memory T cells. These data indicate anti-PD-1 CAR T cells depleted PD-1+ T cells, including GC TFH cells, and eradicated SIV from this immunological sanctuary.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/terapia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Macaca mulatta/metabolismo , Centro Germinativo , Infecções por HIV/terapia
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(4): e1012135, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593120

RESUMO

The rebound competent viral reservoir (RCVR)-virus that persists during antiretroviral treatment (ART) and can reignite systemic infection when treatment is stopped-is the primary barrier to eradicating HIV. We used time to initiation of ART during primary infection of rhesus macaques (RMs) after intravenous challenge with barcoded SIVmac239 as a means to elucidate the dynamics of RCVR establishment in groups of RMs by creating a multi-log range of pre-ART viral loads and then assessed viral time-to-rebound and reactivation rates resulting from the discontinuation of ART after one year. RMs started on ART on days 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9 or 12 post-infection showed a nearly 10-fold difference in pre-ART viral measurements for successive ART-initiation timepoints. Only 1 of 8 RMs initiating ART on days 3 and 4 rebounded after ART interruption despite measurable pre-ART plasma viremia. Rebounding plasma from the 1 rebounding RM contained only a single barcode lineage detected at day 50 post-ART. All RMs starting ART on days 5 and 6 rebounded between 14- and 50-days post-ART with 1-2 rebounding variants each. RMs starting ART on days 7, 9, and 12 had similar time-to-measurable plasma rebound kinetics despite multiple log differences in pre-ART plasma viral load (pVL), with all RMs rebounding between 7- and 16-days post-ART with 3-28 rebounding lineages. Calculated reactivation rates per pre-ART pVL were highest for RMs starting ART on days 5, 6, and 7 after which the rate of accumulation of the RCVR markedly decreased for RMs treated on days 9 and 12, consistent with multiphasic establishment and near saturation of the RCVR within 2 weeks post infection. Taken together, these data highlight the heterogeneity of the RCVR between RMs, the stochastic establishment of the very early RCVR, and the saturability of the RCVR prior to peak viral infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Replicação Viral , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Viral
3.
Cell ; 187(5): 1223-1237.e16, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428396

RESUMO

While CD4+ T cell depletion is key to disease progression in people living with HIV and SIV-infected macaques, the mechanisms underlying this depletion remain incompletely understood, with most cell death involving uninfected cells. In contrast, SIV infection of "natural" hosts such as sooty mangabeys does not cause CD4+ depletion and AIDS despite high-level viremia. Here, we report that the CARD8 inflammasome is activated immediately after HIV entry by the viral protease encapsulated in incoming virions. Sensing of HIV protease activity by CARD8 leads to rapid pyroptosis of quiescent cells without productive infection, while T cell activation abolishes CARD8 function and increases permissiveness to infection. In humanized mice reconstituted with CARD8-deficient cells, CD4+ depletion is delayed despite high viremia. Finally, we discovered loss-of-function mutations in CARD8 from "natural hosts," which may explain the peculiarly non-pathogenic nature of these infections. Our study suggests that CARD8 drives CD4+ T cell depletion during pathogenic HIV/SIV infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Inflamassomos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/patologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/fisiologia , Viremia , HIV/fisiologia
4.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 25(1): 125, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519883

RESUMO

In the battle of the host against lentiviral pathogenesis, the immune response is crucial. However, several questions remain unanswered about the interaction with different viruses and their influence on disease progression. The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infecting nonhuman primates (NHP) is widely used as a model for the study of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) both because they are evolutionarily linked and because they share physiological and anatomical similarities that are largely explored to understand the disease progression. The HIHISIV database was developed to support researchers to integrate and evaluate the large number of transcriptional data associated with the presence/absence of the pathogen (SIV or HIV) and the host response (NHP and human). The datasets are composed of microarray and RNA-Seq gene expression data that were selected, curated, analyzed, enriched, and stored in a relational database. Six query templates comprise the main data analysis functions and the resulting information can be downloaded. The HIHISIV database, available at  https://hihisiv.github.io , provides accurate resources for browsing and visualizing results and for more robust analyses of pre-existing data in transcriptome repositories.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/genética , Progressão da Doença , Imunidade , Expressão Gênica
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397125

RESUMO

Alcohol misuse and HIV independently induce myopathy. We previously showed that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration, with or without simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), decreases differentiation capacity of male rhesus macaque myoblasts. We hypothesized that short-term alcohol and CBA/SIV would synergistically decrease differentiation capacity and impair bioenergetic parameters in female macaque myoblasts. Myoblasts from naïve (CBA-/SIV-), vehicle [VEH]/SIV, and CBA/SIV (N = 4-6/group) groups were proliferated (3 days) and differentiated (5 days) with 0 or 50 mM ethanol (short-term). CBA/SIV decreased differentiation and increased non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) versus naïve and/or VEH/SIV. Short-term alcohol decreased differentiation; increased maximal and non-mitochondrial OCR, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and aldolase activity; and decreased glycolytic measures, ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and pyruvate kinase activity. Mitochondrial ROS production was closely associated with mitochondrial network volume, and differentiation indices were closely associated with key bioenergetic health and function parameters. Results indicate that short-term alcohol and CBA non-synergistically decrease myoblast differentiation capacity. Short-term alcohol impaired myoblast glycolytic function, driving the bioenergetic deficit. Results suggest potentially differing mechanisms underlying decreased differentiation capacity with short-term alcohol and CBA, highlighting the need to elucidate the impact of different alcohol use patterns on myopathy.


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Doenças Musculares , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Feminino , Animais , Masculino , Macaca mulatta , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/complicações , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Etanol/farmacologia , Mioblastos , Metabolismo Energético , Doenças Musculares/complicações , Carga Viral
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1348, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355731

RESUMO

HIV-1 persistence during ART is due to the establishment of long-lived viral reservoirs in resting immune cells. Using an NHP model of barcoded SIVmac239 intravenous infection and therapeutic dosing of anti-TGFBR1 inhibitor galunisertib (LY2157299), we confirm the latency reversal properties of in vivo TGF-ß blockade, decrease viral reservoirs and stimulate immune responses. Treatment of eight female, SIV-infected macaques on ART with four 2-weeks cycles of galunisertib leads to viral reactivation as indicated by plasma viral load and immunoPET/CT with a 64Cu-DOTA-F(ab')2-p7D3-probe. Post-galunisertib, lymph nodes, gut and PBMC exhibit lower cell-associated (CA-)SIV DNA and lower intact pro-virus (PBMC). Galunisertib does not lead to systemic increase in inflammatory cytokines. High-dimensional cytometry, bulk, and single-cell (sc)RNAseq reveal a galunisertib-driven shift toward an effector phenotype in T and NK cells characterized by a progressive downregulation in TCF1. In summary, we demonstrate that galunisertib, a clinical stage TGF-ß inhibitor, reverses SIV latency and decreases SIV reservoirs by driving T cells toward an effector phenotype, enhancing immune responses in vivo in absence of toxicity.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Feminino , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Replicação Viral , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Carga Viral
7.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2315224, 2024 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection is associated with significant gut damage, similar to that observed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This pathology includes loss of epithelial integrity, microbial translocation, dysbiosis, and resultant chronic immune activation. Additionally, the levels of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) are dramatically attenuated. Data on the therapeutic use of anti-α4ß7 antibodies has shown promise in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Recent evidence has suggested that the microbiome and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites it generates may be critical for anti-α4ß7 efficacy and maintaining intestinal homeostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To determine whether the microbiome contributes to gut homeostasis after anti-α4ß7 antibody administered to SIV-infected rhesus macaques, faecal SCFA concentrations were determined, 16S rRNA sequencing was performed, plasma viral loads were determined, plasma retinoids were measured longitudinally, and gut retinoid synthesis/response gene expression was quantified. RESULTS: Our results suggest that anti-α4ß7 antibody facilitates the return of retinoid metabolism to baseline levels after SIV infection. Furthermore, faecal SCFAs were shown to be associated with retinoid synthesis gene expression and rebound viral loads after therapy interruption. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data demonstrate the therapeutic advantages of anti-α4ß7 antibody administration during HIV/SIV infection and that the efficacy of anti-α4ß7 antibody may depend on microbiome composition and SCFA generation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Macaca mulatta/genética , Macaca mulatta/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Integrinas/metabolismo , Integrinas/uso terapêutico , Retinoides/uso terapêutico
9.
J Virol ; 98(2): e0165223, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299866

RESUMO

CCR5-tropic simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) with clade C transmitted/founder envelopes represent a critical tool for the investigation of HIV experimental vaccines and microbicides in nonhuman primates, although many such isolates lead to spontaneous viral control post infection. Here, we generated a high-titer stock of pathogenic SHIV-C109p5 by serial passage in two rhesus macaques (RM) and tested its virulence in aged monkeys. The co-receptor usage was confirmed before infecting five geriatric rhesus macaques (four female and one male). Plasma viral loads were monitored by reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), cytokines by multiplex analysis, and biomarkers of gastrointestinal damage by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies and cell-mediated responses were also measured. Viral dissemination into tissues was determined by RNAscope. Intravenous SHIV-C109p5 infection of aged RMs leads to high plasma viremia and rapid disease progression; rapid decrease in CD4+ T cells, CD4+CD8+ T cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells; and wasting necessitating euthanasia between 3 and 12 weeks post infection. Virus-specific cellular immune responses were detected only in the two monkeys that survived 4 weeks post infection. These were Gag-specific TNFα+CD8+, MIP1ß+CD4+, Env-specific IFN-γ+CD4+, and CD107a+ T cell responses. Four out of five monkeys had elevated intestinal fatty acid binding protein levels at the viral peak, while regenerating islet-derived protein 3α showed marked increases at later time points in the three animals surviving the longest, suggesting gut antimicrobial peptide production in response to microbial translocation post infection. Plasma levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-15, and interleukin-12/23 were also elevated. Viral replication in gut and secondary lymphoid tissues was extensive.IMPORTANCESimian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) are important reagents to study prevention of virus acquisition in nonhuman primate models of HIV infection, especially those representing transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. However, many R5-tropic SHIV have limited fitness in vivo leading to many monkeys spontaneously controlling the virus post acute infection. Here, we report the generation of a pathogenic SHIV clade C T/F stock by in vivo passage leading to sustained viral load set points, a necessity to study pathogenicity. Unexpectedly, administration of this SHIV to elderly rhesus macaques led to extensive viral replication and fast disease progression, despite maintenance of a strict R5 tropism. Such age-dependent rapid disease progression had previously been reported for simian immunodeficiency virus but not for R5-tropic SHIV infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Replicação Viral , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Quimiocina CCL2/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Progressão da Doença , HIV/classificação , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , HIV/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucinas/imunologia , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Intestinos/virologia , Tecido Linfoide/virologia , Macaca mulatta/imunologia , Macaca mulatta/metabolismo , Inoculações Seriadas , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/patologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/virologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/classificação , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/patogenicidade , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Carga Viral , Tropismo Viral , Virulência , Receptores CCR5/metabolismo
10.
Science ; 383(6687): 1104-1111, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422185

RESUMO

The eradication of the viral reservoir represents the major obstacle to the development of a clinical cure for established HIV-1 infection. Here, we demonstrate that the administration of N-803 (brand name Anktiva) and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) results in sustained viral control after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in simian-human AD8 (SHIV-AD8)-infected, ART-suppressed rhesus macaques. N-803+bNAbs treatment induced immune activation and transient viremia but only limited reductions in the SHIV reservoir. Upon ART discontinuation, viral rebound occurred in all animals, which was followed by durable control in approximately 70% of all N-803+bNAb-treated macaques. Viral control was correlated with the reprogramming of CD8+ T cells by N-803+bNAb synergy. Thus, complete eradication of the replication-competent viral reservoir is likely not a prerequisite for the induction of sustained remission after discontinuation of ART.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Humanos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Imunoterapia , Macaca mulatta , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/terapia , Carga Viral , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Indução de Remissão , Quimioterapia Combinada
11.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400063

RESUMO

Although cells of the myeloid lineages, including tissue macrophages and conventional dendritic cells, were rapidly recognized, in addition to CD4+ T lymphocytes, as target cells of HIV-1, their specific roles in the pathophysiology of infection were initially largely neglected. However, numerous studies performed over the past decade, both in vitro in cell culture systems and in vivo in monkey and humanized mouse animal models, led to growing evidence that macrophages play important direct and indirect roles as HIV-1 target cells and in pathogenesis. It has been recently proposed that macrophages are likely involved in all stages of HIV-1 pathogenesis, including virus transmission and dissemination, but above all, in viral persistence through the establishment, together with latently infected CD4+ T cells, of virus reservoirs in many host tissues, the major obstacle to virus eradication in people living with HIV. Infected macrophages are indeed found, very often as multinucleated giant cells expressing viral antigens, in almost all lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues of HIV-1-infected patients, where they can probably persist for long period of time. In addition, macrophages also likely participate, directly as HIV-1 targets or indirectly as key regulators of innate immunity and inflammation, in the chronic inflammation and associated clinical disorders observed in people living with HIV, even in patients receiving effective antiretroviral therapy. The main objective of this review is therefore to summarize the recent findings, and also to revisit older data, regarding the critical functions of tissue macrophages in the pathophysiology of HIV-1 infection, both as major HIV-1-infected target cells likely found in almost all tissues, as well as regulators of innate immunity and inflammation during the different stages of HIV-1 pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Macrófagos , HIV-1/fisiologia , Inflamação , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Latência Viral , Replicação Viral
12.
Genome Med ; 16(1): 24, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes chronic inflammation and AIDS in humans, with variable rates of disease progression between individuals driven by both host and viral factors. Similarly, simian lentiviruses vary in their pathogenicity based on characteristics of both the host species and the virus strain, yet the immune underpinnings that drive differential Lentivirus pathogenicity remain incompletely understood. METHODS: We profile immune responses in a unique model of differential lentiviral pathogenicity where pig-tailed macaques are infected with highly genetically similar variants of SIV that differ in virulence. We apply longitudinal single-cell transcriptomics to this cohort, along with single-cell resolution cell-cell communication techniques, to understand the immune mechanisms underlying lentiviral pathogenicity. RESULTS: Compared to a minimally pathogenic lentiviral variant, infection with a highly pathogenic variant results in a more delayed, broad, and sustained activation of inflammatory pathways, including an extensive global interferon signature. Conversely, individual cells infected with highly pathogenic Lentivirus upregulated fewer interferon-stimulated genes at a lower magnitude, indicating that highly pathogenic Lentivirus has evolved to partially escape from interferon responses. Further, we identify CXCL10 and CXCL16 as important molecular drivers of inflammatory pathways specifically in response to highly pathogenic Lentivirus infection. Immune responses to highly pathogenic Lentivirus infection are characterized by amplifying regulatory circuits of pro-inflammatory cytokines with dense longitudinal connectivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our work presents a model of lentiviral pathogenicity where failures in early viral control mechanisms lead to delayed, sustained, and amplifying pro-inflammatory circuits, which in turn drives disease progression.


Assuntos
Infecções por Lentivirus , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/genética , Retroalimentação , Progressão da Doença , Imunidade , Interferons
13.
Viruses ; 16(2)2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400071

RESUMO

Metabolic-dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals, even those receiving optimal antiretroviral therapy. Here, we utilized the SIV rhesus macaque model and advanced laparoscopic techniques for longitudinal collection of liver tissue to elucidate the timing of pathologic changes. The livers of both SIV-infected (N = 9) and SIV-naïve uninfected (N = 8) macaques were biopsied and evaluated at four time points (weeks -4, 2, 6, and 16-20 post-infection) and at necropsy (week 32). SIV DNA within the macaques' livers varied by over 4 logs at necropsy, and liver SIV DNA significantly correlated with SIV RNA in the plasma throughout the study. Acute phase liver pathology (2 weeks post-infection) was characterized by evidence for fat accumulation (microvesicular steatosis), a transient elevation in both AST and cholesterol levels within the serum, and increased hepatic expression of the PPARA gene associated with cholesterol metabolism and beta oxidation. By contrast, the chronic phase of the SIV infection (32 weeks post-infection) was associated with sinusoidal dilatation, while steatosis resolved and concentrations of AST and cholesterol remained similar to those in uninfected macaques. These findings suggest differential liver pathologies associated with the acute and chronic phases of infection and the possibility that therapeutic interventions targeting metabolic function may benefit liver health in people newly diagnosed with HIV.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Macaca mulatta , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , DNA , Colesterol
14.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(730): eadl2162, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232137

RESUMO

Infused neutralizing antibodies to the fusion peptide of the HIV envelope glycoprotein protected macaques from mucosal viral challenge (Pegu et al.).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Macaca , Peptídeos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Anticorpos Antivirais
15.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(730): eadh9039, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38232141

RESUMO

The fusion peptide (FP) on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) trimer can be targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Here, we evaluated the ability of a human FP-directed bNAb, VRC34.01, along with two vaccine-elicited anti-FP rhesus macaque mAbs, DFPH-a.15 and DF1W-a.01, to protect against simian-HIV (SHIV)BG505 challenge. VRC34.01 neutralized SHIVBG505 with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.58 µg/ml, whereas DF1W-a.01 and DFPH-a.15 were 4- or 30-fold less potent, respectively. VRC34.01 was infused into four rhesus macaques at a dose of 10 mg/kg and four rhesus macaques at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. The animals were intrarectally challenged 5 days later with SHIVBG505. In comparison with all 12 control animals that became infected, all four animals infused with VRC34.01 (10 mg/kg) and three out of four animals infused with VRC34.01 (2.5 mg/kg) remained uninfected. Because of the lower potency of DF1W-a.01 and DFPH-a.15 against SHIVBG505, we infused both Abs at a higher dose of 100 mg/kg into four rhesus macaques each, followed by SHIVBG505 challenge 5 days later. Three of four animals that received DF1W-a.01 were protected against infection, whereas all animals that received DFPH-a.15 were protected. Overall, the protective serum neutralization titers observed in these animals were similar to what has been observed for other bNAbs in similar SHIV infection models and in human clinical trials. In conclusion, FP-directed mAbs can thus provide dose-dependent in vivo protection against mucosal SHIV challenges, supporting the development of prophylactic vaccines targeting the HIV-1 Env FP.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Peptídeos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 178, 2024 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212337

RESUMO

HIV remission can be achieved in some people, called post-treatment HIV controllers, after antiretroviral treatment discontinuation. Treatment initiation close to the time of infection was suggested to favor post-treatment control, but the circumstances and mechanisms leading to this outcome remain unclear. Here we evaluate the impact of early (week 4) vs. late (week 24 post-infection) treatment initiation in SIVmac251-infected male cynomolgus macaques receiving 2 years of therapy before analytical treatment interruption. We show that early treatment strongly promotes post-treatment control, which is not related to a lower frequency of infected cells at treatment interruption. Rather, early treatment favors the development of long-term memory CD8+ T cells with enhanced proliferative and SIV suppressive capacity that are able to mediate a robust secondary-like response upon viral rebound. Our model allows us to formally demonstrate a link between treatment initiation during primary infection and the promotion of post-treatment control and provides results that may guide the development of new immunotherapies for HIV remission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Viral
17.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 35(2): 185-196, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38288997

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to promote neurocognitive impairment, mood disorders, and brain atrophy, even in the modern era of viral suppression. Brain lipids are vulnerable to HIV-associated energetic strain and may contribute to HIV-associated neurologic dysfunction due to alterations in lipid breakdown and structural lipid composition. HIV neuropathology is region dependent, yet there has not been comprehensive characterization of the spatial heterogeneity of brain lipids during infection that possibly impacts neurologic function. To address this gap, we evaluated the spatial lipid distribution using matrix laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) across four brain regions (parietal cortex, midbrain, thalamus, and temporal cortex), as well as the kidney for a peripheral tissue control, in a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque treated with a course of antiretroviral therapies (ARTs). We assessed lipids indicative of fat breakdown [acylcarnitines (CARs)] and critical structural lipids [phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs)] across fatty acid chain lengths and degrees of unsaturation. CARs with very long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were more abundant across all brain regions than shorter chain, saturated, or monounsaturated species. We observed distinct brain lipid distribution patterns for the CARs and PCs. However, no clear expression patterns emerged for PEs. Surprisingly, the kidney was nearly devoid of ions corresponding to PUFAs common in brain. PEs and PCs with PUFAs had little intensity and less density than other species, and only one CAR species was observed in kidney at high intensity. Overall, our study demonstrates the stark variation in structural phospholipids and lipid-energetic intermediates present in the virally suppressed SIV-macaque brain. These findings may be useful for identifying regional vulnerabilities to damage due to brain lipid changes in people with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/metabolismo , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/patologia , Macaca mulatta , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Lipídeos
18.
Virus Res ; 341: 199313, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38244614

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection can cause chronic activation, exhaustion, and anergy of the immune system. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an immune checkpoint molecule, which plays an important role in immune homeostasis and disease. CTLA-4 expression is elevated in HIV-1-infected patients and is associated with disease progression. However, the mechanism controlling expression of CTLA-4 in HIV-1 infection is poorly characterized. In this study, we used a SIV-infected Chinese rhesus macaque (ChRM) model to explore CTLA-4 expression in SIV infection. Results showed that SIV infection significantly increased CTLA-4 expression in all T cell subsets, especially central memory T cells. CTLA-4+CD4+ T cell frequency was significantly associated with disease progression markers. Activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway regulated CTLA-4 expression in CD4+T cells, as confirmed by stimulation with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate, forskolin, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and inhibition with H-89 ex vivo. Simultaneously, cAMP concentration in PBMCs and PKA activity in both PBMCs and CD4+ T cells were increased in acute SIV-infected ChRMs, accompanied by an increase in adenylate cyclase 6 expression and a decrease in cAMP-phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A), PDE4B, and PDE5A expression in PBMCs. In addition, selective inhibition of PDE4B and PDE5A activity enhanced CTLA-4 expression in CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that SIV infection alters cAMP metabolism and increases cAMP-PKA signaling pathway activation, which up-regulates the expression of CTLA-4 in acute SIVmac239-infected ChRMs. Thus, regulation of the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway may be a potential strategy for the restoration of T cell function and therapy for AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Humanos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Macaca mulatta , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/fisiologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Regulação para Cima , Progressão da Doença , Transdução de Sinais , Monofosfato de Adenosina
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(1): e1011819, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252675

RESUMO

Fc-mediated antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), can contribute to the containment HIV-1 replication but whether such activities are sufficient for protection is unclear. We previously identified an antibody to the variable 2 (V2) apex of the HIV-1 Env trimer (PGT145) that potently directs the lysis of SIV-infected cells by NK cells but poorly neutralizes SIV infectivity. To determine if ADCC is sufficient for protection, separate groups of six rhesus macaques were treated with PGT145 or a control antibody (DEN3) by intravenous infusion followed five days later by intrarectal challenge with SIVmac239. Despite high concentrations of PGT145 and potent ADCC activity in plasma on the day of challenge, all animals became infected and viral loads did not differ between the PGT145- and DEN3-treated animals. To determine if PGT145 can protect against a neutralization-sensitive virus, two additional groups of six macaques were treated with PGT145 and DEN3 and challenged with an SIVmac239 variant with a single amino acid change in Env (K180S) that increases PGT145 binding and renders the virus susceptible to neutralization by this antibody. Although there was no difference in virus acquisition, peak and chronic phase viral loads were significantly lower and time to peak viremia was significantly delayed in the PGT145-treated animals compared to the DEN3-treated control animals. Env changes were also selected in the PGT145-treated animals that confer resistance to both neutralization and ADCC. These results show that ADCC is not sufficient for protection by this V2-specific antibody. However, protection may be achieved by increasing the affinity of antibody binding to Env above the threshold required for neutralization.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Macaca mulatta , Anticorpos Antivirais , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos
20.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 19(2): 62-68, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38167784

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite decades of insights about how CD8 + T cells and natural killer (NK) cells contribute to natural control of infection, additional hurdles (mutational escape from cellular immunity, sequence diversity, and hard-to-access tissue reservoirs) will need to be overcome to develop a cure. In this review, we highlight recent findings of novel mechanisms of antiviral cellular immunity and discuss current strategies for therapeutic deisgn. RECENT FINDINGS: Of note are the apparent converging roles of viral antigen-specific MHC-E-restricted CD8 + T cells and NK cells, interleukin (IL)-15 biologics to boost cytotoxicity, and broadly neutralizing antibodies in their native form or as anitbody fragments to neutralize virus and engage cellular immunity, respectively. Finally, renewed interest in myeloid cells as relevant viral reservoirs is an encouraging sign for designing inclusive therapeutic strategies. SUMMARY: Several studies have shown promise in many preclinical models of disease, including simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/SHIV infection in nonhuman primates and HIV infection in humanized mice. However, each model comes with its own limitations and may not fully predict human responses. We eagerly await the results of clinical trails assessing the efficacy of these strategies to achieve reductions in viral reservoirs, delay viral rebound, or ultimately elicit immune based control of infection without combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Carga Viral
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