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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149790, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined whether air pollution is associated with adverse births outcomes, but it is not clear if socioeconomic status (SES) modifies this relationship. OBJECTIVES: We investigated if maternal education and area-level socioeconomic status modified the relationship between ozone, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10) on preterm births (PTB; gestational age <37 weeks) and term low birth weight (TLBW; weight < 2500 g on term deliveries). METHODS: Analyses were based on almost 1 million singleton live births in São Paulo municipality between 2011 and 2016. The final sample included 979,306 births for PTB analysis and 888,133 for TLBW analysis. Exposure to PM10, NO2 and O3 were based on date of birth and estimated for the entire gestation and for each trimester. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to examine the effect of air pollutants on both adverse birth outcomes and whether it was modified by individual and area-level SES. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, over the entire pregnancy, a 10 µg/m3 increase in O3 and PM10 was associated with increased chance of PTB (odds ratio; OR = 1.14 CI 1.13, 1.16 and 1.08 CI = 1.02, 1.15 respectively) and PM10 with TLBW (OR = 1.08 CI 1.03, 1.14). Associations were modified by maternal educational and area-level SES for both outcomes. Mothers of lower education had an additional chance of PTB and TLBW due to PM10 exposure (OR = 1.04 CI 1.04, 1.05 and 1.10 CI 1.08, 1.14 respectively), while mothers living in low SES areas have an additional chance for TLBW (OR = 1.05 CI 1.03, 1.06). Similar modification effects were found for O3 exposure. Trimester specific associations were weaker but followed a similar pattern. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status modifies the effect of air pollution on adverse birth outcomes. Results indicate that mothers with lower SES may be more susceptible to air pollution effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez , Classe Social
2.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 23-31, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801192

RESUMO

Significant disparities exist in lung cancer incidence and screening. Geographic, racial, gender, and socioeconomic disparities affect lung cancer incidence. As the leading cause of lung cancer, smoking varies among different racioethnic groups, genders, and socioeconomic statuses. In addition, environmental pollutants, such as radon, industrial toxins, and air pollution, are significant risk factors for lung cancer development that is disproportionately seen in working-class communities, as well as underserved and disabled populations. Lung cancer incidence depends on diagnosis. Literature examining lung cancer incidence and screening disparities have its limitations, as most studies are methodologically limited and do not adjust for important risk factors.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Classe Social
3.
Thorac Surg Clin ; 32(1): 33-42, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801193

RESUMO

Social disparities in lung cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survival have been studied using national databases, statewide registries, and institution-level data. Some disparities emerge consistently, such as lower adherence to treatment guidelines and worse survival by race and socioeconomic status, whereas other disparities are less well studied. A critical appraisal of current data is essential to increasing equity in lung cancer care.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Sistema de Registros , Classe Social
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27506, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731134

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that obesity might be associated with chronic periodontitis (CP); however, no clear conclusions have been reached so far. In this retrospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the association between obesity and CP by using a large population-based dataset in Taiwan.A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2010 (LHID2010) derived from the National Health Insurance Research database in Taiwan, from 2000 to 2013. Obesity and non-obesity groups were matched with sex, age, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, and the related comorbidities by using the propensity score method at a 1:2 ratio.An obese cohort (n = 4140) and a non-obese cohort (n = 8280) were included in this study, with an average age of 41.7 ±â€Š13.8 years and 42.0 ±â€Š14.0 years, respectively. The risk of CP for the patients with obesity was 1.12-fold compared with those without obesity (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.25). In the subgroup analysis according to age and sex, the hazard ratio of CP were 1.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.22) in the subgroup of age equal to or older than 65 years. The risk of CP showed no difference between obesity and non-obesity groups in both sex.This population-based cohort study demonstrated that obesity was associated with the development of CP in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Classe Social , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769728

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is crucial for human flourishing and strongly influences having meaning in life. We investigated the association between local public library density as a shared resource and motivational orientation toward their occupation in Japanese adolescents. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted using data from a nationwide birth cohort survey in Japan (n = 12,184). At age 7, their caregivers answered questionnaires on children including the number of books read. Library density (low, moderate, or high) in each municipality was obtained from national statistics. At age 15, the adolescents indicated whether they had decided on an occupation and selected motivational orientations from among intrinsic (own ability and interest), extrinsic (high earnings, social class, or job stability), and altruistic (social contribution) orientations. Multilevel linear probability models were fitted, adjusting for confounders, including household socioeconomic status and city size. RESULTS: Intrinsic, extrinsic, and altruistic motivations for desired occupation were reported by 40.7%, 31.9% and 41.8% of participants, respectively. Living in a municipality with a high library density at age 7 was associated with having intrinsic motivation at age 15 than low density by 3.1 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35, 5.85). The association was more prominent for those with lower income (P for interaction = 0.026). Neither extrinsic nor altruistic motivations were associated with library density (coefficient: -0.13; 95% CI: -2.81, 2.56; coefficient: 0.08; 95% CI: -2.72, 2.88 percentage points, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Developing libraries in communities could encourage intrinsic motivation in adolescents, specifically for those in low-income households.


Assuntos
Motivação , Classe Social , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Renda , Estudos Longitudinais , Ocupações
7.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 248, 2021 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic shows the presence of health disparities, especially in terms of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence on the association of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) with health outcomes and access to healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrieved published evidence from late December 2019 through March 1, 2021. The target population was the population of the countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. The exposures were defined as belonging to racial/ethnic minority groups and/or low SES. The primary outcomes of interest include (1) death from COVID-19, (2) COVID-19 incidence/infection, (3) COVID-19 hospitalization, (4) ICU admission, (5) need for mechanical ventilation, (6) confirmed diagnosis, and (7) access to testing. We systematically synthesized the findings from different studies and provided a narrative explanation of the results. RESULTS: After removing the duplicate results and screening for relevant titles and abstracts, 77 studies were selected for full-text review. Finally, 52 studies were included in the review. The majority of the studies were from the United States (37 studies). Despite the significant incongruity among the studies, most of them showed that racial/ethnic minority groups had higher risks of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, confirmed diagnosis, and death. Additionally, most of the studies cited factors such as low level of education, poverty, poor housing conditions, low household income, speaking in a language other than the national language in a country, and living in overcrowded households as risk factors of COVID-19 incidence/infection, death, and confirmed diagnosis. However, findings in terms of the association of lack of health insurance coverage and unemployment with the outcome measures as well as the association of requiring mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and access to testing for COVID-19 with race/ethnicity were limited and inconsistent. CONCLUSION: It is evident that racial/ethnic minority groups and those from low SES are more vulnerable to COVID-19; therefore, public health policymakers, practitioners, and clinicians should be aware of these inequalities and strive to narrow the gap by focusing on vulnerable populations. This systematic review also revealed a major incongruity in the definition of the racial/ethnic minority groups and SES among the studies. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020190105.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Grupos Étnicos , Teste para COVID-19 , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Classe Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259580, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748585

RESUMO

A lockdown implies a shift from the public to the private sphere, and from market to non-market production, thereby increasing the volume of unpaid work. Already before the pandemic, unpaid work was disproportionately borne by women. This paper studies the effect of working from home for pay (WFH), due to a lockdown, on the change in the division of housework and childcare within couple households. While previous studies on the effect of WFH on the reconciliation of work and family life and the division of labour within the household suffered from selection bias, we are able to identify this effect by drawing upon the shock of the first COVID-19 lockdown in Austria. The corresponding legal measures left little choice over WFH. In any case, WFH is exogenous, conditional on a small set of individual and household characteristics we control for. We employ data from a survey on the gendered aspects of the lockdown. The dataset includes detailed information on time use during the lockdown and on the quality and experience of WFH. Uniquely, this survey data also includes information on the division, and not only magnitude, of unpaid work within households. Austria is an interesting case in this respect as it is characterized by very conservative gender norms. The results reveal that the probability of men taking on a larger share of housework increases if men are WFH alone or together with their female partner. By contrast, the involvement of men in childcare increased only in the event that the female partner was not able to WFH. Overall, the burden of childcare, and particularly homeschooling, was disproportionately borne by women.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cuidado da Criança , Emprego , Quarentena , Teletrabalho , Áustria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134147, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762110

RESUMO

Importance: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minority groups, and race and ethnicity have been associated with disease severity. However, the association of socioeconomic determinants with racial disparities in COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. Objective: To evaluate the association of race and ethnicity with COVID-19 outcomes and to examine the association between race, ethnicity, COVID-19 outcomes, and socioeconomic determinants. Data Sources: A systematic search of PubMed, medRxiv, bioRxiv, Embase, and the World Health Organization COVID-19 databases was performed for studies published from January 1, 2020, to January 6, 2021. Study Selection: Studies that reported data on associations between race and ethnicity and COVID-19 positivity, disease severity, and socioeconomic status were included and screened by 2 independent reviewers. Studies that did not have a satisfactory quality score were excluded. Overall, less than 1% (0.47%) of initially identified studies met selection criteria. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Associations were assessed using adjusted and unadjusted risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs), combined prevalence, and metaregression. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main measures were RRs, ORs, and combined prevalence values. Results: A total of 4 318 929 patients from 68 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, 370 933 patients (8.6%) were African American, 9082 (0.2%) were American Indian or Alaska Native, 101 793 (2.4%) were Asian American, 851 392 identified as Hispanic/Latino (19.7%), 7417 (0.2%) were Pacific Islander, 1 037 996 (24.0%) were White, and 269 040 (6.2%) identified as multiracial and another race or ethnicity. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, African American individuals (RR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.38-9.07; P = .008) and Hispanic individuals (RR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.28-17.20; P = .02) were the most likely to test positive for COVID-19. Asian American individuals had the highest risk of intensive care unit admission (RR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.60-2.34, P < .001). The area deprivation index was positively correlated with mortality rates in Asian American and Hispanic individuals (P < .001). Decreased access to clinical care was positively correlated with COVID-19 positivity in Hispanic individuals (P < .001) and African American individuals (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, members of racial and ethnic minority groups had higher risks of COVID-19 positivity and disease severity. Furthermore, socioeconomic determinants were strongly associated with COVID-19 outcomes in racial and ethnic minority populations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(46)2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750264

RESUMO

COVID-19 has had worse health, education, and labor market effects on groups with low socioeconomic status (SES) than on those with high SES. Little is known, however, about whether COVID-19 has also had differential effects on noncognitive skills that are important for life outcomes. Using panel data from before and during the pandemic, we show that COVID-19 affects one key noncognitive skill, that is, prosociality. While prosociality is already lower for low-SES students prior to the pandemic, we show that COVID-19 infections within families amplify the prosociality gap between French high school students of high and low SES by almost tripling its size in comparison to pre-COVID-19 levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/transmissão , Família , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Social , Classe Social , Adolescente , Humanos
11.
Zootaxa ; 5033(1): 1-230, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811105

RESUMO

This paper provides a taxonomic revision and reviews natural history for 35 South American species of the seed-harvesting ant genus Pogonomyrmex. Species treated herein mostly comprise the P. rastratus-group; four species are revived from synonomy, three taxa are elevated from subspecies to species, five taxa are synonymized, and 20 new species are described. The following taxa are revived from synonomy: P. intermedia Menozzi, P. semistriata Emery, P. spinolae Emery, and P. weiseri Santschi. The following taxa are raised from subspecies to species: P. leonis Kusnezov, P. pulchellus Santschi, and P. sanmartini Kusnezov. The following new synonymies are proposed, with the senior synonym listed first, and the junior synonym(s) in parentheses: P. carbonarius Mayr (= P. kusnezovi Cuezzo Claver, = P. weiseri var. neuquensis Santschi, = P. variabilis Santschi); P. vermiculatus Emery (= P. vermiculatus var. chubutensis Forel, = P. vermiculatus var. jorgenseni Forel). The following new species are described: P. apterogenos, P. araucania, P. atacama, P. bolivianus, P. colca, P. cusquena, P. excelsior, P. forelii, P. granulatus, P. lagunabravensis, P. loaensis, P. mapuche, P. maulensis, P. pichachen, P. propinqua, P. santschii, P. strioligaster, P. tafi, P. varicolor, and P. wilsoni. One species treated herein has brachypterous queens (P. atacama), one species has dimorphic queens (winged and brachypterous in P. longibarbis), and two species have ergatoid (permanently wingless) queens and ergatoid males (P. apterogenos, P. laguanbravensis); the latter two are the only known ant species in which both sexual castes are only ergatoid. I also provide keys for workers and queens (in English and Spanish), diagnoses for males, photographs of known castes, distribution maps, and a summary of known biology.


Assuntos
Formigas , Gorgulhos , Animais , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social
12.
Zootaxa ; 5055(1): 1-137, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811227

RESUMO

This paper provides a taxonomic revision of the Neotropical ant genus Hylomyrma Forel (1912) (Myrmicinae: Pogonomyrmecini). Morphological traits combined with geographical data and natural history information led to the recognition of 30 species, fourteen of them described here as new: Hylomyrma adelae sp. n., Hylomyrma dandarae sp. n., Hylomyrma jeronimae sp. n., Hylomyrma lispectorae sp. n., Hylomyrma lopesi sp. n., Hylomyrma macielae sp. n., Hylomyrma margaridae sp. n., Hylomyrma mariae sp. n., Hylomyrma marielleae sp. n., Hylomyrma mitiae sp. n., Hylomyrma peetersi sp. n., Hylomyrma primavesi sp. n., Hylomyrma virginiae sp. n. and Hylomyrma wachiperi sp. n. Lectotypes for H. speciosa (junior synonym of H. balzani) and H. reitteri are here designated from syntypes to improve nomenclatural stability. Except for the three species most recently described (H. montana, H. plumosa, and H. villemantae), the external morphology of workers is described or redescribed, as well as for the known males and queens, most described here for the first time. Of the 30 recognized species herein, 11 present intercastes; at least three of them present female specimens with queen-like traits that may be understood as ergatoids. An updated identification key for Hylomyrma workers is provided, as well as high resolution photographs of all known sexes and castes, species distribution maps, and a summary of what is known from the biology of all species.


Assuntos
Formigas , Ortópteros , Animais , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Classe Social
13.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604107, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819829

RESUMO

Objectives: This study investigated the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES), diet quality and overweight and obesity in adults aged 40-59 years in Inner Mongolia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on the survey of Chronic Disease and Nutrition Monitoring in Adults in Inner Mongolia in 2015. Diet quality was evaluated by the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMeds). SES was measured by household annual income. Generalized estimating equations and path analysis were performed to determine the association of SES, diet quality and overweight and obesity. Results: Among participants, 63.0% had overweight and obesity. In high SES group, 66.4% had overweight and obesity. Higher SES was associated with a higher risk of overweight and obesity (OR = 1.352, 95%CI: 1.020-1.793). And higher aMeds was associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity (OR = 0.597, 95%CI: 0.419-0.851). There was a positive correlation between SES and the intake of red and processed meat (r = 0.132, p < 0.05). Higher intake of red and processed meat was associated with lower diet quality (ß = -0.34). And lower diet quality was associated with a higher risk of overweight and obesity (ß = -0.10). Conclusion: In Inner Mongolia, during the period of economic transition, people aged 40-59 years in high SES had poor diet quality, which was related to a higher risk of overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Sobrepeso , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Zootaxa ; 5067(2): 279-284, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810742

RESUMO

Ebogotermes raphaeli gen. n. sp. n., is described from workers collected in Cameroon. This soil-feeding termite is the largest soldierless termite from central Africa and aligns with the Anoplotermes subgroup. The enteric valve armature is weakly armed and, as with most apicotermitine species, is uniquely diagnostic.


Assuntos
Isópteros , Animais , Classe Social , Solo
15.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 645513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744593

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess time trends in the social class inequalities and in total inequality in disability and self-rated health (SRH) in two oldest old populations. Methods: The data came from the Finnish Vitality 90+ Study (2001, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2014 and 2018; n = 5,440) and from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (2002, 2004, 2011 and 2014; n = 1,645). Inequalities in mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) disability and SRH were examined cross-sectionally and over time using relative and absolute measures. Results: Lower social classes had greater mobility and ADL disability and worse SRH than higher social classes and the inequalities tended to increase over time. Findings were remarkably similar in both studies and with absolute and relative measures. Total inequality, referring to the variance in health outcome in the total population, remained stable or decreased. Conclusion: The study suggests that the earlier findings of improved mobility and ADL are largely driven by the positive development in higher social classes while findings of decline in SRH are related to the worsening of SRH in lower social classes.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Pessoas com Deficiência , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Classe Social , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Finlândia , Humanos , Suécia
16.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the debate on the determinants of social class variation in health, it has been suggested that social mobility and associated factors play an important role in this variation. Social mobility describes changes or stability between social class positions. The aim of this paper was to identify studies on the association between social mobility and health. METHODS: The databases consulted were MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO, CRD. The keywords used (in English), through the MeSH methodology, were: Health (MajorTerm), Class mobility, Vertical mobility, Social position, Socioeconomic factors, Social class, Social conditions, Social environment, Poverty and Social marginalisation (MeSHTerm). The search period was from January 2010 to December 2019. The STROBE statement has been used to develop the checklist. Finally, the evaluation of the studies has been carried out by means of a qualitative systematic review. RESULTS: The search identified 1,092 potentially relevant studies. After analysis, 376 studies were retained and their full texts were reviewed in depth, resulting in a final set of 42 studies. Of these, 2 studies were identified on Class Mobility and Health; 5 studies were also identified on Poverty and Health, showing evidence of effect on Health by Social Mobility; 9 studies on Social Class and Health, showing effect of Social Mobility on Health and 8 studies showing effect of Social Position on Health. CONCLUSIONS: Social mobility measures convey additional information to that of poverty indices. Using indices of social position and their impact on health inequalities could be empirically useful. More research is needed on this issue.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Mobilidade Social , Humanos , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
17.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E439-E446, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604585

RESUMO

Background: Antenatal care is essential care given during pregnancy, to diagnose and treat complications that could endanger both the lives of mother and child. The risk of dying from pregnancy-related issues is often associated with a lack of access to antenatal care services. This issue is a prominent matter in developing countries such as Somaliland which has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the frequency and timing of antenatal care utilization and factors influencing it among reproductive-age women. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey is conducted among 330 randomly selected mothers who gave birth in the past two years in Borama, Somaliland. Result: Although a significant number of women utilized antenatal care in their pregnancy only 31.1% initiated the first visit within the first trimester and 48.3% received less than the recommended four visits. Fewer antenatal care visits are significantly associated with age (OR = 3.018; CI = 1.264-7.207), gravida (OR = 3.295; CI = 1.200-9.045), and gestation age (OR = 1.737; CI = 1.013-2.979). Early marriage (OR=0.495; CI = 0.252-0.973), and large family size (OR = 3.952; CI = 1.330-11.742) are associated with delay in the commencement of the first antenatal care visit. Conclusion: Young women, women with multiple pregnancies, women married at a young age, and women with a large family size have a higher probability of delaying prenatal care and having fewer visits. Based on the findings, uplifting the socioeconomic status and literacy level of women through community-based education and developing strategies that would take the determining factors into account may contribute to improved and adequate utilization of antenatal care.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Somália
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682633

RESUMO

Although the health and economic risks of COVID-19 may differ for higher- and lower-socioeconomic-status (SES) populations, some studies found that people with lower SES do not necessarily experience more psychological panic. In this research, we examine how SES is related with psychological panic during the COVID-19 pandemic using a large nationwide Chinese sample. Participants were 933 adults (mean age = 30.04, SD = 8.19) who completed an online questionnaire between 11 and 12 February 2020. Lower SES individuals have higher trust in government and thus experience less psychological panic, and the indirect effect of this trust suppresses the direct negative association between SES and psychological panic. In addition to this difference in trust in government between lower- and higher-status individuals, the indirect effect of the trust only exists among people with low (not high) authoritarian personalities. This study provides evidence that political trust may serve as a buffer, suppressing the negative association between SES and psychological panic; thus, policies and actions enhancing political trust are vital to support the mental health of individuals with lower SES during the pandemic, especially for citizens with low authoritarian personalities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Confiança , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Governo , Humanos , Pandemias , Personalidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Classe Social
19.
Braz Dent J ; 32(2): 72-79, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614063

RESUMO

The objective was assess the influence of untreated caries and socioeconomic status (SES) on school dropout among adolescents. A six-year cohort study was conducted with random sample of adolescents (12 years-old) who had been evaluated initially in 2012 from Santa Maria, Brazil. Sex, socioeconomic status (mother's education and household income), and untreated caries were collected at the baseline. The outcome variable was collected at the follow-up through self-report and was divided into three categories: adolescents who only studied, who studied and employed, and who school dropouts. A multinomial regression model was performed to assess the influence of oral disease and SES on school leaving, through relative risk ratio (RRR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). From of 1,134 adolescents evaluated at the baseline, 768 participants with a mean age of 17.5 years were re-evaluated at follow-up (67.8% response rate). Male (RRR: 2.31; 95%CI: 1.19-4.48) and adolescents with untreated caries at the baseline had an increment in school-leaving (RRR: 2.26; 95%CI: 1.12-4.56). Mothers with low education (RRR: 2.24; 95%CI: 1.09-4.61) had a higher probability of having children who leave school. Untreated caries and low SES in early adolescence can influence the tendency to school dropouts.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social
20.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(9): e00168918, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669771

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between social position and anthropometric status in women and men Brazilian adult. This was a cross-sectional study that used baseline data collected from 2008 to 2010 for the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, in Portuguese), in the six major Brazilian state capital cities. A total of 15,105 active and retired civil servants aged from 35 to 74 years. Two latent variables were defined by latent class analysis, social position and anthropometric status. Both constructs and the analyses were separately evaluated by sex. Associations were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, self-reported skin color/race, and marital status. Around 44% of the women and 26% of the men were classified as overweight or obese. Social position tended to be lower in women (43.2%) and higher among men (40.4%). Heavier women were more likely to be black and brown-skinned, whereas slimmer women were more likely to be white. After adjustment, women's weight increased as social position decreased (OR = 1.52; 95%CI: 1.36-1.70), whereas in men weight decreased as social position decreased (OR = 0.87; 95%CI: 0.76-0.99). Social position affected the anthropometric status of women and men differently, with body patterns also being affected by ethnicity/skin color, showing the potentiality of taking the intersectional perspective when investigating the possible social determinants of the phenomenon.


Assuntos
Classe Social , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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