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3.
Bioengineered ; 13(6): 14646-14666, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891620

RESUMO

Genome-editing tools for the development of traits to tolerate abiotic and biotic adversaries are the recently devised breeding techniques revolutionizing molecular breeding by addressing the issues of rapidness and precision. To that end, disease resistance development by disrupting disease susceptibility genes (S genes) to intervene in the biological mechanism of pathogenicity has significantly improved the techniques of molecular breeding. Despite the achievements in genome-editing aimed at the intervention of the function of susceptibility determinants or gene regulatory elements, off-target effects associated with yield-related traits are still the main setbacks. The challenges are attributed to the complexity of the inheritance of traits controlled by pleiotropic genes. Therefore, a more rigorous genome-editing tool with ultra-precision and efficiency for the development of broad-spectrum and durable disease resistance applied to staple crop plants is of critical importance in molecular breeding programs. The main objective of this article is to review the most impressive progresses achieved in resistance breeding against the main diseases of three Solanaceae crops (potato, Solanum tuberosum; tomato, Solanum lycopersicum and pepper, Capsicum annuum) using genome-editing by disrupting the sequences of S genes, their promoters, or pathogen genes. In this paper, we discussed the complexity and applicability of genome-editing tools, summarized the main disease of Solanaceae crops, and compiled the recent reports on disease resistance developed by S-gene silencing and their off-target effects. Moreover, GO count and gene annotation were made for pooled S-genes from biological databases. Achievements and prospects of S-gene-based next-generation breeding technologies are also discussed.


Most S genes are membrane ­anchored and are involved in infection and pre-penetration processS gene-editing is less likely to cause an off-target effectGene-editing has been considered a more acceptable engineering toolEditing S genes either from the pathogen or host ends has opened new possibilities.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Solanaceae , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genoma de Planta/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Solanaceae/genética , Verduras
4.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 1317-1330, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35811507

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Solanaceae glycoalkaloids (SGAs) possess cardiomodulatory activity. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the potential interaction between verapamil and glycoalkaloids. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cardioactivity of verapamil and glycoalkaloids (α-solanine and α-chaconine) was tested in adult beetle (Tenebrio molitor) myocardium in vitro using microdensitometric methods. The myocardium was treated with pure substances and mixtures of verapamil and glycoalkaloids for 9 min with saline as a control. Two experimental variants were used: simultaneous application of verapamil and glycoalkaloids or preincubation of the myocardium with one of the compounds followed by perfusion with a verapamil solution. We used 9 × 10-6-5 × 10-5 M and 10-9-10-5 M concentration for verapamil and glycoalkaloids, respectively. RESULTS: Verapamil, α-solanine and α-chaconine showed cardioinhibitory activity with IC50 values equal to 1.69 × 10-5, 1.88 × 10-7 and 7.48 × 10-7 M, respectively. When the glycoalkaloids were applied simultaneously with verapamil, an antagonistic effect was observed with a decrease in the maximal inhibitory effect and prolongation of t50 and the recovery time characteristic of verapamil. We also confirmed the expression of two transcript forms of the gene that encodes the α1 subunit of L-type calcium channels in the myocardium and brain with equal transcription levels of both forms in the myocardium and significant domination of the shorter form in the brain of the insect species tested. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results show that attention to the composition of the daily diet during therapy with various drugs is particularly important. In subsequent studies, the nature of interaction between verapamil and SGAs on the molecular level should be checked, and whether this interaction decreases the efficiency of cardiovascular therapy with verapamil in humans.


Assuntos
Solanaceae , Solanina , Solanum tuberosum , Solanina/análogos & derivados , Solanina/farmacologia , Verapamil/farmacologia
5.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897915

RESUMO

COVID-19, caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, emerged in late December 2019 in Wuhan, China. As of 8 April 2022, the virus has caused a global pandemic, resulting in 494,587,638 infections leading to 6,170,283 deaths around the world. Although several vaccines have received emergency authorization from USA and UK drug authorities and two more in Russia and China, it is too early to comment on the prolonged effectiveness of the vaccines, their availability, and affordability for the developing countries of the world, and the daunting task to vaccinate 7 billion people of the world with two doses of the vaccine with additional booster doses. As a result, it is still worthwhile to search for drugs and several promising leads have been found, mainly through in silico studies. In this study, we have examined the binding energies of several alkaloids and anthocyanin derivatives from the Solanaceae family, a family which contains common consumable vegetables and fruit items such as eggplant, pepper, and tomatoes. Our study demonstrates that Solanaceae family alkaloids such as incanumine and solaradixine, as well as anthocyanins and anthocyanidins, have very high predicted binding energies for the 3C-like protease of SARS-CoV-2 (also known as Mpro). Since Mpro is vital for SARS-CoV-2 replication, the compounds merit potential for further antiviral research towards the objective of obtaining affordable drugs.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , COVID-19 , Solanaceae , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antocianinas , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , SARS-CoV-2 , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
6.
Plant Physiol ; 189(2): 644-665, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35642548

RESUMO

The Solanaceae or "nightshade" family is an economically important group with remarkable diversity. To gain a better understanding of how the unique biology of the Solanaceae relates to the family's small RNA (sRNA) genomic landscape, we downloaded over 255 publicly available sRNA data sets that comprise over 2.6 billion reads of sequence data. We applied a suite of computational tools to predict and annotate two major sRNA classes: (1) microRNAs (miRNAs), typically 20- to 22-nucleotide (nt) RNAs generated from a hairpin precursor and functioning in gene silencing and (2) short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), including 24-nt heterochromatic siRNAs typically functioning to repress repetitive regions of the genome via RNA-directed DNA methylation, as well as secondary phased siRNAs and trans-acting siRNAs generated via miRNA-directed cleavage of a polymerase II-derived RNA precursor. Our analyses described thousands of sRNA loci, including poorly understood clusters of 22-nt siRNAs that accumulate during viral infection. The birth, death, expansion, and contraction of these sRNA loci are dynamic evolutionary processes that characterize the Solanaceae family. These analyses indicate that individuals within the same genus share similar sRNA landscapes, whereas comparisons between distinct genera within the Solanaceae reveal relatively few commonalities.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Solanaceae , Metilação de DNA , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Inativação Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Solanaceae/genética
7.
Am J Bot ; 109(7): 1074-1084, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686627

RESUMO

PREMISE: Plant defenses are shaped by many factors, including herbivory, lifespan, and mating system. Predictions about plant defense and resistance are often based on resource allocation trade-offs with plant growth and reproduction. Additionally, two types of plant resistance, constitutive and induced resistance, are predicted to be evolutionary alternatives or redundant strategies. Given the variety of plant trait combinations and non-mutually exclusive predictions, examining resistance strategies in related species with different combinations of growth and reproductive traits is important to tease apart roles of plant traits and evolutionary history on plant resistance. METHODS: Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to examine the potentially interacting influences of life history (annual/perennial), mating system (self-compatible/self-incompatible), and species growth rates on constitutive resistance and inducibility (additional resistance following damage) across Physalis species (Solanaceae). RESULTS: Resistance was evolutionarily labile, and there was no correlation between constitutive resistance and inducibility. Annual species with fast growth rates displayed higher constitutive resistance, but growth rate did not affect constitutive resistance in perennials. In contrast, inducibility was negatively associated with species growth rate regardless of life history or mating system. CONCLUSIONS: The different effects of plant life history and growth rate on constitutive resistance and inducibility indicate that defensive evolution is unconstrained by a trade-off between resistance types. The interactions among plant life history, growth, and herbivore resistance show that plant defense is shaped not only by herbivore environment, but also by plant traits that reflect a plant's evolutionary history and local selective pressures.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Solanaceae , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas
8.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 100: 131-172, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35659351

RESUMO

The Solanaceae family is considered one of the most important families among plant species because, on one hand encompasses many staple food crops of the human diet while, on the other hand, it includes species rich in powerful secondary metabolites that could be valorized in medicine or drug formulation as well as nutraceuticals and food supplements. The main genera are Solanum, Capsicum, Physalis, and Lycium which comprise several important cultivated crops (e.g., tomato, pepper, eggplant, tomatillo, and goji berry), as well as genera notable for species with several pharmaceutical properties (e.g., Datura, Nicotiana, Atropa, Mandragora, etc.). This chapter discusses the nutritional value of the most important Solanaceae species commonly used for their edible fruit, as well as those used in the development of functional foods, food supplements, and nutraceuticals due to their bioactive constituents. The toxic and poisonous effects are also discussed aiming to highlight possible detrimental consequences due to irrational use. Finally, considering the high amount of waste and by-products generated through the value chain of the main crops, the sustainable management practices implemented so far are presented with the aim to increase the added-value of these crops.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Solanaceae , Produtos Agrícolas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Verduras
9.
Am J Bot ; 109(5): 746-767, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35619567

RESUMO

PREMISE: The inflorescences of Solanaceae are unique and complex, which has led to long-standing disputes over floral symmetry mainly due to different interpretations of the cyme-like inflorescence structure. The main disagreements have been over how the phyllomes associated with the flower were arranged relative to the inflorescence axis especially during early flower initiation. METHODS: Here we investigated the evolution of inflorescences in Solanaceae by analyzing inflorescence structure in the context of phylogeny using ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) to determine the evolutionary transitions between loosely arranged and tightly clustered inflorescences and between monochasial-like and dichasial-like cymes. We also reconstructed two- and three-dimensional models for 12 solanaceous species that represent both inflorescence and phylogenetic diversity in the family. RESULTS: Our results indicate that the most recent common ancestor of Solanaceae had a loosely arranged and monochasial-like cyme, while tightly clustered inflorescences and dichasial-like cymes were derived. Compared to the known process of scorpioid cyme evolution, Solanaceae achieved their scorpioid cyme-like inflorescences through a previously undescribed way. Along the pedicel, the two flower-preceding prophylls are not in the typical transverse position of dicotyledonous plants; they frequently have axillary buds, and the main inflorescence axis continues in a sympodial fashion. As a result, the plane of symmetry of the flower is 36° from the median, and the inflorescence axis and the two flower-preceding prophylls are symmetrically located along that plane. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the morphological evolution of solanaceous inflorescence structure helped clarify the floral symmetry of Solanaceae.


Assuntos
Magnoliopsida , Solanaceae , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Inflorescência/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Solanaceae/genética
10.
Plant J ; 111(1): 183-204, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35481627

RESUMO

Solanaceae have important economic value mainly due to their edible fruits. Physalis organ size 1/cytokinin response factor 3 (POS1/CRF3), a unique gene in Solanaceae, is involved in fruit size variation in Physalis but not in Solanum. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we found that POS1/CRF3 was likely created via the fusion of CRF7 and CRF8 duplicates. Multiple genetic manipulations revealed that only POS1 and Capsicum POS1 (CaPOS1) functioned in fruit size control via the positive regulation of cell expansion. Comparative studies in a phylogenetic framework showed the directional enhancement of POS1-like expression in the flowers and fruits of Physaleae and the specific gain of certain interacting proteins associated with cell expansion by POS1 and CaPOS1. A lineage-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) caused the 68th amino acid histidine in the POS1 orthologs of non-Physaleae (Nicotiana and Solanum) to change to arginine in Physaleae (Physalis and Capsicum). Substituting the arginine in Physaleae POS1-like by histidine completely abolished their function in the fruits and the protein-protein interaction (PPI) with calreticulin-3. Transcriptomic comparison revealed the potential downstream pathways of POS1, including the brassinosteroid biosynthesis pathway. However, POS1-like may have functioned ancestrally in abiotic stress within Solanaceae. Our work demonstrated that heterometric expression and a SNP caused a single amino acid change to establish new PPIs, which contributed to the co-option of POS1 in multiple regulatory pathways to regulate cell expansion and thus fruit size in Physaleae. These results provide new insights into fruit morphological evolution and fruit yield control.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Physalis , Solanaceae , Arginina/metabolismo , Capsicum/genética , Citocininas/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Histidina/genética , Histidina/metabolismo , Filogenia , Physalis/genética , Physalis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanaceae/genética
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(6): 94, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35441989

RESUMO

Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl.) D. Don (Solanaceae), commonly known as manacá-de-cheiro, is widely distributed in Brazil and used by local indigenous peoples as an antirheumatic, antisyphilitic, depurative, emetic, vermifuge, and purgative agent. Several studies have examined the biological activities and phytochemical profile of Brunfelsia; however, few have focused on the diversity of endophytic microorganisms that colonize members of the genus. This study aimed to isolate and cryopreserve endophytic fungi from B. uniflora and determine their cellulase, laccase, and antioxidant activities. Endophytic fungi were isolated from B. uniflora stems, cultured on wheat grains, immersed in a 150 g L-1 aqueous sucrose solution, and cryopreserved at - 80 °C for 1 and 6 months. Cellulase activity was determined by a qualitative test using carboxymethylcellulose medium and laccase activity by a quantitative test based on the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate). Prior to antioxidant activity assays, fungi were grown in malt extract broth for production of mycelial biomass. A methanolic extract was prepared for evaluation of DPPH· scavenging activity, FRAP activity, and total phenolic content. A total of 46 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained from B. uniflora stems and classified into 24 groups according to morphological similarities. B. uniflora was shown to harbor different genera of ascomycete fungi as endophytic organisms. Mycelial viability was observed after 1 and 6 months of cryopreservation at - 80 °C. Fungi exhibited cellulase and laccase activities. Isolate CE23 had the highest laccase activity after 7 days of cultivation. Twelve isolates were found to have low total phenolic contents and DPPH· and FRAP activities.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Celulase , Solanaceae , Antioxidantes/química , Criopreservação , Endófitos/química , Fungos , Lacase , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais/química
12.
J Proteomics ; 261: 104578, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35398364

RESUMO

Capsicum belonging to the family Solanaceae is one of the most widely consumed crops in the world as a vegetable, spice and a raw salad and is distinctly valuable for its spicy pungent flavour. Proteomic investigation of crop plants is an essential step towards deciphering the functional basis of traits in an organism and to deepen our understanding on the regulation of various developmental patterns, biotic, and abiotic stress response and tolerance mechanisms. The differential proteome expression profiling of tissues during different developmental stages and under different conditions may indicate the specific proteome dynamics involved in the developmental programs and under stress conditions. Although substantial progress in proteomics of other Solanaceae plants has been made in the past two decades, a comprehensive review on Capsicum proteomics is still lacking. This review provides updated information on the advancement of Capsicum proteomic study in cytoplasmic male sterility, during fruit development and ripening, and under different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although limited information is available on the post translational protein modifications in Capsicum, a brief outline is given at the end detailing various post translational modifications. This proteomic update on Capsicum will be useful for future studies aimed at Capsicum improvement programs.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Solanaceae , Capsicum/fisiologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Estresse Fisiológico , Verduras
13.
Mol Ecol ; 31(10): 2847-2864, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332594

RESUMO

Speciation begins with the isolation of some individuals or subpopulations due to drivers promoting a diverging genetic distribution. Such isolation may occur, followed by different processes and pressures. Isolation-by-distance (IBD), isolation-by-adaptation (IBA), and isolation-by-colonization (IBC) have been recognized as the main divergence patterns. Still, it is not easy to distinguish which one is the main pattern as each one may act at different points in time or even simultaneously. Using an extensive genome coverage from a Petunia species complex with coastal and inland distribution and multiple analytical approaches on population genomics and phylogeography, we showed a complex interplay between neutral and selective forces acting on the divergence process. We found 18,887 SNPs potentially neutral and 924 potentially under selection (outlier) loci. All analyses pointed that each subspecies displays its own genetic component and evolutionary history. We suggested plausible ecological drivers for such divergence in a southernmost South Atlantic coastal plain in Brazil and Uruguay and identified a connection between adaptation and environment heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Solanaceae , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
14.
Fitoterapia ; 158: 105169, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259475

RESUMO

Pharmacophore-probe reaction guided purification strategy can reduce the workload of natural product chemistry and raise the probability of obtaining undescribed and high-bioactive target compounds. In this study, a probe of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was used to confirm the pharmacophore of Tubocapsicum anomalum (Franch. et Sav.) Makino. Furthermore, a thiol probe named 4-bromothiophenol (BTP) guided the discovery of three undescribed (1-3) and nine known (4-12) electrophilic withanolides (EWs) featured potential anti-triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) pharmacophore. Notably, co-incubation with BTP made the single crystals of EW conjugates much more accessible, which facilitated the absolute configuration determination of EWs. Electrophilic natural products with the potential of thio-alkylation modification and covalent inhibition key proteins in tumor cell signal transduction pathways may display significant antitumor activity. The MTT results indicated that most EWs showed anti-TNBC activity and were expected to develop anti-TNBC candidate drugs with high selectivity and novel mechanism.


Assuntos
Solanaceae , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Vitanolídeos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Transdução de Sinais , Solanaceae/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Vitanolídeos/química , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia
15.
Molecules ; 27(6)2022 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335224

RESUMO

Antifungal assay-guided fractionation of the methanolic crude extract of Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae), popular known as 'lady of the night', led the isolation and identification of the steroidal saponin named pennogenin tetraglycoside, which was identified for the first time in this plant species by spectroscopic means. The crude extract, fractions and pennogenin tetraglycoside exhibited mycelial growth inhibition of Fusarium solani and F. kuroshium. F. solani is a cosmopolitan fungal phytopathogen that affects several economically important crops. However, we highlight the antifungal activity displayed by pennogenin tetraglycoside against F. kuroshium, since it is the first plant natural product identified as active for this phytopathogen. This fungus along with its insect symbiont known as Kuroshio shot hole borer (Euwallacea kuroshio) are the causal agents of the plant disease Fusarium dieback that affects more than 300 plant species including avocado (Persea americana) among others of ecological relevance. Scanning electron microscopy showed morphological alterations of the fungal hyphae after exposure with the active fractions and 12 phenolic compounds were also identified by mass spectrometry dereplication as part of potential active molecules present in C. nocturnum leaves.


Assuntos
Cestrum , Fusarium , Solanaceae , Antifúngicos/química , Humanos , Espirostanos
16.
Plant J ; 110(4): 1128-1143, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293644

RESUMO

Pepino (Solanum muricatum, 2n = 2x = 24), a member of the Solanaceae family, is an important globally grown fruit. Herein, we report high-quality, chromosome-level pepino genomes. The 91.67% genome sequence is anchored to 12 chromosomes, with a total length of 1.20 Gb and scaffold N50 of 87.03 Mb. More than half the genome comprises repetitive sequences. In addition to the shared ancient whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in eudicots, an additional new WGT event was present in the pepino. Our findings suggest that pepinos experienced chromosome rearrangements, fusions, and gene loss after a WGT event. The large number of gene removals indicated the instability of Solanaceae genomes, providing opportunities for species divergence and natural selection. The paucity of disease-resistance genes (NBS) in pepino and eggplant has been explained by extensive loss and limited generation of genes after WGT events in Solanaceae. The outbreak of NBS genes was not synchronized in Solanaceae species, which occurred before the Solanaceae WGT event in pepino, tomato, and tobacco, whereas it was almost synchronized with WGT events in the other four Solanaceae species. Transcriptome and comparative genomic analyses revealed several key genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Although an extra WGT event occurred in Solanaceae, CHS genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in grapes were still significantly expanded compared with those in Solanaceae species. Proximal and tandem duplications contributed to the expansion of CHS genes. In conclusion, the pepino genome and annotation facilitate further research into important gene functions and comparative genomic analysis in Solanaceae.


Assuntos
Cucumis , Lycopersicon esculentum , Solanaceae , Antocianinas/genética , Cromossomos , Cucumis/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Solanaceae/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216373

RESUMO

The R2R3-MYB is a large gene family involved in various plant functions, including carotenoid biosynthesis. However, this gene family lacks a comprehensive analysis in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) and other Solanaceae species. The recent sequencing of the wolfberry genome provides an opportunity for investigating the organization and evolutionary characteristics of R2R3-MYB genes in wolfberry and other Solanaceae species. A total of 610 R2R3-MYB genes were identified in five Solanaceae species, including 137 in wolfberry. The LbaR2R3-MYB genes were grouped into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis, conserved gene structures, and motif composition. Five groups only of Solanaceae R2R3-MYB genes were functionally divergent during evolution. Dispersed and whole duplication events are critical for expanding the R2R3-MYB gene family. There were 287 orthologous gene pairs between wolfberry and the other four selected Solanaceae species. RNA-seq analysis identified the expression level of LbaR2R3-MYB differential gene expression (DEGs) and carotenoid biosynthesis genes (CBGs) in fruit development stages. The highly expressed LbaR2R3-MYB genes are co-expressed with CBGs during fruit development. A quantitative Real-Time (qRT)-PCR verified seven selected candidate genes. Thus, Lba11g0183 and Lba02g01219 are candidate genes regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in wolfberry. This study elucidates the evolution and function of R2R3-MYB genes in wolfberry and the four Solanaceae species.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes myb/genética , Lycium/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Solanaceae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263604, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192648

RESUMO

Ethnobotanical field surveys were carried out in the Tanawal area of the Lesser Himalayan Region, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Province from April 2016 to October 2017. The area is located between 34.36 (34° 21' 30 N) latitude and 73.07 (73° 4' 0 E) longitude with an average elevation of 1374 meters above sea level. Ethnomedicinal data were collected through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), and participants were selected through the snow-boll technique. Semi-structured, in-depth and open-ended interviews were conducted. The data were quantitatively evaluated using ethnomedicinal indices i.e. Relative frequency of citation (RFCs), Fidelity level (FL), and Use Value (UV). The ethnobotanical data were also comparatively analyzed through the Jaccard Index (JI). The study yielded 66 medicinal plants in 62 genera and 43 families. Asteraceae and Solanaceae were the most important families with five medicinal taxa each. Regarding medicinal plant part utilization, leaves (43.28%) were used predominantly, followed by whole plant (14.92%) and fruits (14.92%). Decoction was the main drug formulation applied to 21 species (31.15%) and the oral route was most common (56.1%) while 31.2% of medicinal plants were used for both oral and topical applications. Fifty health disorders were recorded and grouped in 15 categories. Maximum species were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders i.e. 13 species, dermal problems (12 species), and respiratory tract ailments (9). The calculated RFCs ranged between 81 to 31. The most important medicinal plants were Acacia modesta, Citrullus vulgaris, Tamarindus indica, and Momordica charantia with an RGFC of 81 each. The UV ranged between 0.58 and 3.6. Medicinal taxa with the highest UV were Dioscorea deltoidea (3.6), Withania coagulans (3.3), Momordica charantia (3.5), Silybum marianum and Pyrus pashia (3.2). FL values showed that 28 (41.79%) species had a FL value below 50 (74.62%) while 39 (58.20%) had higher FL values. Momordica charantia, Tamarindus indica, Acacia modesta and Citrullus vulgaris were 95.2 each. The Jaccard Index (JI) values ranged from16.77 to 0.98. The current study also reported 16 medicinal plants, commonly used around the globe, have been rarely documented for their medicinal values in the local ethnomedicinal literature i.e. Althaea officinalis, Plantanus orientalis, Jasminum sombac, Maytenus royleana, Cucurbita maxima, Phyllanthus emblica, Citrullus vulgaris. Polygonatum verticilliatum, Caseria tomentosa, Cistanche tubulosa, Bambusa arundinacea, Schinus molle, Tamarindus indica, Pongamia pinnata, Citrus limon and Catharanthus roseus. However, 48 medicinal plants had been reported in the literature but the current study reported their novel medicinal uses. Important taxa should be established in botanical gardens for in-situ conservation, chemical investigation and sustainable utilization. It would also be effective to improve the livelihoods of the local population.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Etnobotânica/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Solanaceae/química , Acacia/química , Asteraceae/classificação , Citrullus/química , Frutas/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Momordica charantia/química , Paquistão , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Solanaceae/classificação , Tamarindus/química
19.
Plant Mol Biol ; 108(3): 157-173, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032250

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Domestication traits particularly fruit size and plant architecture and flowering are critical in transforming a progenitor's wild stature into a super improved plant. The latest advancements in the CRISPR system, as well as its rapid adoption, are speeding up plant breeding. Solanaceae has a varied range of important crops, with a few model crops, such as tomato and, more recently, groundcherry, serving as a foundation for developing molecular techniques, genome editing tools, and establishing standards for other crops. Domestication traits in agricultural plants are quantified and widely adopted under modern plant breeding to improve small-fruited and bushy crop species like goji berry. The molecular mechanisms of the FW2.2, FW3.2, FW11.3, FAS/CLV3, LC/WUS, SP, SP5G, and CRISPR genome editing technology have been described in detail here. Furthermore, special focus has been placed on CRISPR gene editing achievements for revolutionizing Solanaceae breeding and changing the overall crop landscape. This review seeks to provide a thorough overview of the CRISPR technique's ongoing advancements, particularly in Solanaceae, in terms of domesticated features, future prospects, and regulatory risks. We believe that this vigorous discussion will lead to a broader understanding of CRISPR gene editing as a tool for achieving key breeding goals in other Solanaceae minor crops with significant industrial value.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Engenharia Genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solanaceae/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 36(8): 2154-2157, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222550

RESUMO

Physalis angulata is an annual herb which has tremendous medicinal uses. The antioxidant activity of the whole plant extract of Physalis angulata was investigated using DPPH radical scavenging activity. Purified compounds were isolated using column chromatography method. Their structures were determined using various spectroscopic techniques. A new compound named as Squalen-1-ol, Phytol, squalene and α-tocopherol were isolated. These compounds were isolated for the first time from Physalis angulata. The extract of Physalis angulata gave a significant IC50 value of 0.77 mg/mL as compared with the standard ascorbic acid with IC50 value of 0.24 mg/mL. It can be correlated that the antioxidant activity of Physalis angulata could be attributed to the presence of α - tocopherol which is a known antioxidant. The presence of these compounds gives a further added pharmacological value to the plant.


Assuntos
Physalis , Solanaceae , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Physalis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esqualeno
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