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1.
Planta Med ; 90(7-08): 561-575, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843796

RESUMO

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are still an important option for managing symptoms of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential in vitro AChE inhibitory activity of two Argentinian endemic Solanaceae species, Jaborosa bergii and J. runcinata. UHPLC-DAD-HRMS metabolite profiling revealed the presence of withanolides in the active CH2Cl2 subextracts. Their fractionation led to the isolation and identification of two known spiranoid withanolides from J. runcinata and three new withanolides with a skeleton similar to that of trechonolide-type withanolides from J. bergii. The known compounds showed moderate AChE inhibitory activity, while the new ones were inactive.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase , Solanaceae , Vitanolídeos , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Vitanolídeos/química , Vitanolídeos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Solanaceae/química , Argentina , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
2.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0302440, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870165

RESUMO

Rhizoctonia solani, the causative agent of sheath blight disease in rice, poses a significant threat to agricultural productivity. Traditional management approaches involving chemical fungicides have been effective but come with detrimental consequences for the ecosystem. This study aimed to investigate sustainable alternatives in the form of antifungal peptides derived from Solanaceous plant species as potential agents against R. solani. Peptide extracts were obtained using an optimized antimicrobial peptide (AMP) extraction method and desalted using the solid-phase extraction technique. The antifungal potential of peptide-rich extracts from Solanum tuberosum and Capsicum annum was assessed through in vitro tests employing the agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, peptide-protein docking analysis was performed on HPEPDOCK and HDOCK server; and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) of 100 ns period were performed using the Gromacs 2020.4. The results demonstrated significant inhibition zones for both extracts at concentrations of 100 mg/mL. Additionally, the extracts of Solanum tuberosum and Capsicum annum had minimum inhibitory concentrations of 50 mg/mL and 25 mg/mL, respectively with minimum fungicidal concentrations of 25 mg/mL. Insights into the potential mechanisms of key peptides inhibiting R. solani targets were gleaned from in-silico studies. Notably, certain AMPs exhibited favorable free energy of binding against pathogenicity-related targets, including histone demethylase, sortin nexin, and squalene synthase, in protein-peptide docking simulations. Extended molecular dynamics simulations lasting 100 ns and MM-PBSA calculations were performed on select protein-peptide complexes. AMP10 displayed the most favorable binding free energy against all target proteins, with AMP3, AMP12b, AMP6, and AMP15 also exhibiting promising results against specific targets of R. solani. These findings underscore the potential of peptide extracts from S. tuberosum and C. annum as effective antifungal agents against rice sheath blight caused by R. solani.


Assuntos
Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Oryza , Doenças das Plantas , Rhizoctonia , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizoctonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Solanaceae/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação por Computador , Capsicum/microbiologia , Capsicum/química
3.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 198: 108136, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38909873

RESUMO

Despite the overarching history of species divergence, phylogenetic studies often reveal distinct topologies across regions of the genome. The sources of these gene tree discordances are variable, but incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and hybridization are among those with the most biological importance. Petunia serves as a classic system for studying hybridization in the wild. While field studies suggest that hybridization is frequent, the extent of reticulation within Petunia and its closely related genera has never been examined from a phylogenetic perspective. In this study, we used transcriptomic data from 11 Petunia, 16 Calibrachoa, and 10 Fabiana species to illuminate the relationships between these species and investigate whether hybridization played a significant role in the diversification of the clade. We inferred that gene tree discordance within genera is linked to hybridization events along with high levels of ILS due to their rapid diversification. Moreover, network analyses estimated deeper hybridization events between Petunia and Calibrachoa, genera that have different chromosome numbers. Although these genera cannot hybridize at the present time, ancestral hybridization could have played a role in their parallel radiations, as they share the same habitat and life history.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Petunia , Filogenia , Petunia/genética , Petunia/classificação , Transcriptoma , Especiação Genética , Solanaceae/genética , Solanaceae/classificação
4.
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci ; 100(4): 264-280, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599847

RESUMO

Self-incompatibility (SI) is a mechanism for preventing self-fertilization in flowering plants. SI is controlled by a single S-locus with multiple haplotypes (S-haplotypes). When the pistil and pollen share the same S-haplotype, the pollen is recognized as self and rejected by the pistil. This review introduces our research on Brassicaceae and Solanaceae SI systems to identify the S-determinants encoded at the S-locus and uncover the mechanisms of self/nonself-discrimination and pollen rejection. The recognition mechanisms of SI systems differ between these families. A self-recognition system is adopted by Brassicaceae, whereas a collaborative nonself-recognition system is used by Solanaceae. Work by our group and subsequent studies indicate that plants have evolved diverse SI systems.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Solanaceae , Humanos , Brassicaceae/genética , Solanaceae/genética , Plantas , Pólen , Flores , Proteínas de Plantas
5.
Naturwissenschaften ; 111(3): 26, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38647655

RESUMO

In specialized plant-pollinator associations, partners may exhibit adaptive traits, which favor the maintenance of the interaction. The association between Calibrachoa elegans (Solanaceae) and its oligolectic bee pollinator, Hexantheda missionica (Colletidae), is mutualistic and forms a narrowly specialized pollination system. Flowers of C. elegans are pollinated exclusively by this bee species, and the bees restrict their pollen resources to this plant species. The pollen presentation schedules of C. elegans were evaluated at the population level to test the hypothesis that H. missionica females adjust their foraging behavior to the resource offering regime of C. elegans plants. For this, the number of new flowers and anthers opened per hour (as a proxy for pollen offering) was determined, and pollen advertisement was correlated with the frequency of flower visits during the day. Preferences of female bees for flowers of different stages were also investigated, and their efficiency as pollinators was evaluated. Pollen offering by C. elegans was found to be partitioned throughout the day through scattered flower openings. Females of H. missionica indeed adjusted their foraging activity to the most profitable periods of pollen availability. The females preferred new, pollen-rich flowers over old ones and gathered pollen and nectar selectively according to flower age. Such behaviors must optimize female bee foraging efficiency on flowers. Female bees set 93% of fruit after a single visit. These findings guarantee their importance as pollinators and the persistence of the specialized plant-pollinator association.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Flores , Polinização , Solanaceae , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Solanaceae/fisiologia , Pólen/fisiologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2894, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570494

RESUMO

Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are major plant defense metabolites against pests, while they are considered poisonous in food. The genetic basis that guides negative selection of SGAs production during tomato domestication remains poorly understood. Here, we identify a distal enhancer, GAME Enhancer 1 (GE1), as the key regulator of SGAs metabolism in tomato. GE1 recruits MYC2-GAME9 transcriptional complex to regulate the expression of GAME cluster genes via the formation of chromatin loops located in the neighboring DNA region. A naturally occurring GE176 allelic variant is found to be more active in stimulating GAME expression. We show that the weaker GE1 allele has been the main driver for selecting reduced SGAs levels during tomato domestication. Unravelling the "TFs-Enhancer-Promoter" regulatory mechanism operating in SGAs metabolism opens unprecedented prospects for SGAs manipulation in Solanaceae via precision breeding strategies.


Assuntos
Solanaceae , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Domesticação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Esteroides
7.
Food Chem ; 447: 138937, 2024 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38492295

RESUMO

Owing to the lack of selection and limited intelligence in mechanical picking, some immature tomatoes that contain alkaloids are thrown away. Tomatine alkaloids are steroidal alkaloids naturally present in Solanaceae plants, which are distributed in small amounts in immature tomato fruits and decrease as the fruits ripen. Tomato glycoalkaloids are harmful to human health. However, in small quantities, there is some evidence that these compounds might be beneficial, as other non-antioxidant bioactivities. This article considers recent research on the biological effects of tomato glycoalkaloids in immature tomatoes, providing reference value for the potential development of these compounds.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Solanaceae , Solanum lycopersicum , Humanos , Tomatina/toxicidade , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5257, 2024 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438470

RESUMO

Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) gene family is an important transcription factor composed of three subfamilies of NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC, which is involved in plant growth, development and stress response. In this study, 63 tobacco NF-Y genes (NtNF-Ys) were identified in Nicotiana tabacum L., including 17 NtNF-YAs, 30 NtNF-YBs and 16 NtNF-YCs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed ten pairs of orthologues from tomato and tobacco and 25 pairs of paralogues from tobacco. The gene structure of NtNF-YAs exhibited similarities, whereas the gene structure of NtNF-YBs and NtNF-YCs displayed significant differences. The NtNF-Ys of the same subfamily exhibited a consistent distribution of motifs and protein 3D structure. The protein interaction network revealed that NtNF-YC12 and NtNF-YC5 exhibited the highest connectivity. Many cis-acting elements related to light, stress and hormone response were found in the promoter of NtNF-Ys. Transcriptome analysis showed that more than half of the NtNF-Y genes were expressed in all tissues, and NtNF-YB9/B14/B15/B16/B17/B29 were specifically expressed in roots. A total of 15, 12, 5, and 6 NtNF-Y genes were found to respond to cold, drought, salt, and alkali stresses, respectively. The results of this study will lay a foundation for further study of NF-Y genes in tobacco and other Solanaceae plants.


Assuntos
Nicotiana , Solanaceae , Nicotiana/genética , Filogenia , Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética
9.
Chem Biodivers ; 21(6): e202301477, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38415906

RESUMO

Alkaloids are natural products that occur widely in many herbal plants. Anisodamine, widely present in the Solanaceae family, is an alkaloid extracted from the roots of the Anisodus tanguticus Maxim. It is an antagonist to M-choline receptors and exhibits diverse pharmacological effects, such as cholinolytic effect, calcium antagonist effect, anti-oxygenation effect. Anisodamine, a prominent constituent of the tropine alkaloid family, exhibits a range of pharmacological effects akin to those of atropine and scopolamine. owing to its low toxicity and moderate efficacy in clinical to wide applications, especially for varieties of shock treatment. However, there remains a dearth of research regarding the in vivo pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, and toxicity of anisodamine. Consequently, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the anti-shock effects, toxicity, and pharmacokinetic characteristics of anisodamine to increase the understanding of its medicinal value, and provide reference and inspiration for the clinical application and further in-depth research of anisodamine.


Assuntos
Alcaloides de Solanáceas , Alcaloides de Solanáceas/química , Alcaloides de Solanáceas/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Solanáceas/farmacocinética , Humanos , Animais , Solanaceae/química , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Choque/metabolismo
10.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 161, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307894

RESUMO

Anisodus tanguticus is a medicinal herb that belongs to the Anisodus genus of the Solanaceae family. This endangered herb is mainly distributed in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In this study, we combined the Illumina short-read, Nanopore long-read and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) sequencing technologies to de novo assemble the A. tanguticus genome. A high-quality chromosomal-level genome assembly was obtained with a genome size of 1.26 Gb and a contig N50 of 25.07 Mb. Of the draft genome sequences, 97.47% were anchored to 24 pseudochromosomes with a scaffold N50 of 51.28 Mb. In addition, 842.14 Mb of transposable elements occupying 66.70% of the genome assembly were identified and 44,252 protein-coding genes were predicted. The genome assembly of A. tanguticus will provide genetic repertoire to understand the adaptation strategy of Anisodus species in the plateau, which will further promote the conservation of endangered A. tanguticus resources.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Plantas Medicinais , Solanaceae , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Solanaceae/genética , Tibet , Cromossomos de Plantas
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3825, 2024 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360894

RESUMO

Phylogeographic history refers to how species evolve and diversify in response to historical, ecological, and demographic factors. The climate fluctuation during the Pleistocene period marked a crucial time in shaping many species' distribution and genetic structure, particularly those from southern South American grasslands. This work investigated the phylogeographic history of a highland grassland, Petunia altiplana T. Ando & Hashim. (Solanaceae), its diversity, and geographic distribution using a population genomic approach based on RAD-seq data. Our results indicated that, during the Pleistocene, when the grasslands expanded to highlands, the lowland populations of P. altiplana reached the higher open fields, enlarging their geographic distribution. We found that the P. altiplana genetic diversity followed the geographic division into eastern (E) and western (WE) population groups, with a subtle division in the E group regarding the Pelotas River headwater. The results also showed that isolation by distance was the main divergence pattern, with elevation playing a pivotal role in shaping WE and E groups. Our findings indicated that lowland-adapted populations quickly colonized highlands during the late Pleistocene.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial , Solanaceae , Filogenia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Filogeografia , Solanaceae/genética , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396743

RESUMO

Calmodulin-binding transcription activator (CAMTA) is an important calmodulin-binding protein with a conserved structure in eukaryotes which is widely involved in plant stress response, growth and development, hormone signal transduction, and other biological processes. Although CAMTA genes have been identified and characterized in many plant species, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of CAMTA genes in the Solanaceae genome is performed for the first time in this study. A total of 28 CAMTA genes were identified using bioinformatics tools, and the biochemical/physicochemical properties of these proteins were investigated. CAMTA genes were categorized into three major groups according to phylogenetic analysis. Tissue-expression profiles indicated divergent spatiotemporal expression patterns of SmCAMTAs. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis of SmCAMTA genes showed that exposure to cold induced differential expression of many eggplant CAMTA genes. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescent complementary assays suggested an interaction between SmCAMTA2 and SmERF1, promoting the transcription of the cold key factor SmCBF2, which may be an important mechanism for plant cold resistance. In summary, our results provide essential information for further functional research on Solanaceae family genes, and possibly other plant families, in the determination of the development of plants.


Assuntos
Solanaceae , Solanum melongena , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Solanum melongena/genética , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
13.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 26(2): 157-165, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38192089

RESUMO

Crop-pollinator interactions are essential for world food security. Studying crop pollination from a network approach allows identification of target pollinators for conservation and management, and gaps in our knowledge. Solanaceae represents the third highest ranked family based on economic value, and its production is highly improved by animal pollination. This study aimed to integrate global data on solanaceous crop pollination and analyse the interaction patterns using a meta-network approach. Our questions were: (i) how are interactions structured and what are the structuring roles of species; and (ii) what are the main gaps in our knowledge? Data were obtained through a systematic review of the main scientific databases. The network structure was described using connectivity and modularity calculations, and the role of species using centrality metrics. The 251 pollinator species reported were in seven orders, mainly Hymenoptera (84.9%). The generalists Bombus and Apis species were the most common pollinators. The meta-network was modular, and all modules mostly included bees. Most species were peripherals, around 12% were connectors, and there were no module hubs. Apis mellifera was the only network hub (supergeneralist). The most important pollinators are the most managed pollinators worldwide; however, many native species play a role in structuring the meta-network. Main gaps include species of importance to pepper pollination, lack of species-specific identification, and the need for more robust experimental studies evaluating the pollination efficiency of native, manageable bees.


Assuntos
Solanaceae , Abelhas , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Polinização , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Plant Commun ; 5(1): 100680, 2024 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37660252

RESUMO

Tropane alkaloids (TAs), which are anticholinergic agents, are an essential class of natural compounds, and there is a growing demand for TAs with anesthetic, analgesic, and spasmolytic effects. Anisodus acutangulus (Solanaceae) is a TA-producing plant that was used as an anesthetic in ancient China. In this study, we assembled a high-quality, chromosome-scale genome of A. acutangulus with a contig N50 of 7.4 Mb. A recent whole-genome duplication occurred in A. acutangulus after its divergence from other Solanaceae species, which resulted in the duplication of ADC1 and UGT genes involved in TA biosynthesis. The catalytic activities of H6H enzymes were determined for three Solanaceae plants. On the basis of evolution and co-expressed genes, AaWRKY11 was selected for further analyses, which revealed that its encoded transcription factor promotes TA biosynthesis by activating AaH6H1 expression. These findings provide useful insights into genome evolution related to TA biosynthesis and have potential implications for genetic manipulation of TA-producing plants.


Assuntos
Anestésicos , Solanaceae , Tropanos/análise , Tropanos/metabolismo , Solanaceae/genética , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Cromossomos/química , Cromossomos/metabolismo , Anestésicos/metabolismo , China
15.
Plant J ; 118(2): 388-404, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38150324

RESUMO

The intercellular space or apoplast constitutes the main interface in plant-pathogen interactions. Apoplastic subtilisin-like proteases-subtilases-may play an important role in defence and they have been identified as targets of pathogen-secreted effector proteins. Here, we characterise the role of the Solanaceae-specific P69 subtilase family in the interaction between tomato and the vascular bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. R. solanacearum infection post-translationally activated several tomato P69s. Among them, P69D was exclusively activated in tomato plants resistant to R. solanacearum. In vitro experiments showed that P69D activation by prodomain removal occurred in an autocatalytic and intramolecular reaction that does not rely on the residue upstream of the processing site. Importantly P69D-deficient tomato plants were more susceptible to bacterial wilt and transient expression of P69B, D and G in Nicotiana benthamiana limited proliferation of R. solanacearum. Our study demonstrates that P69s have conserved features but diverse functions in tomato and that P69D is involved in resistance to R. solanacearum but not to other vascular pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum.


Assuntos
Ralstonia solanacearum , Solanaceae , Solanum lycopersicum , Solanum lycopersicum/genética , Nicotiana/genética , Ralstonia solanacearum/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
16.
Plant J ; 117(5): 1453-1465, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117481

RESUMO

Pungent capsaicinoid is synthesized only in chili pepper (Capsicum spp.). The production of vanillylamine from vanillin is a unique reaction in the capsaicinoid biosynthesis pathway. Although putative aminotransferase (pAMT) has been isolated as the vanillylamine synthase gene, it is unclear how Capsicum acquired pAMT. Here, we present a phylogenetic overview of pAMT and its homologs. The Capsicum genome contained 5 homologs, including pAMT, CaGABA-T1, CaGABA-T3, and two pseudogenes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that pAMT is a member of the Solanaceae cytoplasmic GABA-Ts. Comparative genome analysis found that multiple copies of GABA-T exist in a specific Solanaceae genomic region, and the cytoplasmic GABA-Ts other than pAMT are located in the region. The cytoplasmic GABA-T was phylogenetically close to pseudo-GABA-T harboring a plastid transit peptide (pseudo-GABA-T3). This suggested that Solanaceae cytoplasmic GABA-Ts occurred via duplication of a chloroplastic GABA-T ancestor and subsequent loss of the plastid transit signal. The cytoplasmic GABA-T may have been translocated from the specific Solanaceae genomic region during Capsicum divergence, resulting in the current pAMT locus. A recombinant protein assay demonstrated that pAMT had higher vanillylamine synthase activity than those of other plant GABA-Ts. pAMT was expressed exclusively in the placental septum of mature green fruit, whereas tomato orthologs SlGABA-T2/4 exhibit a ubiquitous expression pattern in plants. These findings suggested that both the increased catalytic efficiency and transcriptional changes in pAMT may have contributed to establish vanillylamine synthesis in the capsaicinoid biosynthesis pathway. This study provides insights into the establishment of pungency in the evolution of chili peppers.


Assuntos
Benzilaminas , Capsicum , Solanaceae , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Capsicum/metabolismo , Capsaicina/metabolismo , Transaminases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Placenta/metabolismo , Solanaceae/genética , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/genética , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo
17.
Ars pharm ; 65(1): 73-83, 2024. tab, ilus, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-228992

RESUMO

Introducción: La familia de las Solanáceas es una de las familias de angiospermas más importantes desde el punto de vista económico. Con cerca de 100 géneros y 3.000 especies, incluye importantes plantas alimenticias, condi-mentarias y medicinales. Uno de los tres géneros más variados y extensos de las solanáceas es Lycianthes. Lycian-thes sanctaeclarae (Greenm.) D’Arcy, es una especie nativa de Costa Rica, Nicaragua y Panamá. que se encuentra en la selva tropical a una altitud de 0 a 600 metros sobre el nivel del mar.Objetivo: El propósito de esta investigación es obtener información sobre la especie Lychianthes sanctaeclarae para la determinación del potencial etnobotánico de dicha especie, mediante una revisión bibliográfica de bases de datos. Método: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica y un análisis de las posibles aplicaciones etnobotánicas, las actividades biológicas y la constitución química de la familia de las solanáceas, concretamente de Lycianthes sanctaeclarae.Resultados: Las solanáceas tienen importancia florística, etnobotánica, ornamental, ritual, económica y médica. Incluyen una gran variedad de fitoquímicos entre los que destacan los alcaloides, con propiedades biológicas inte-resantes, siendo la actividad anticolinérgica la más investigada.Conclusiones: Se determinó la falta de información que existe sobre la especie Lycianthes sanctaeclarae. Aun así, por su relación con la familia de las solanáceas, es posible considerar que esta especie podría ser una opción lla-mativa para el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos; sin embargo, es necesario en un futuro identificar, aislar, purificar y caracterizar los compuestos bioactivos que posee esta especie mediante la construcción de su perfil fitoquímico. (AU)


Introduction: The Solanaceae family is one of the most important families of angiosperms from an economic point of view. With nearly 100 genera and 3,000 species, it includes important food, condiment, and medicinal plants. One of the three most varied and extensive genera of Solanaceae is Lycianthes. Lycianthes sanctaeclarae (Greenm.) D’Arcy, is a species native to Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. which is found in the rainforest at an altitude of 0 to 600 meters above sea level. Objective: The purpose of this research is to obtain information about the species Lychianthes sanctaeclarae for the determination of the ethnobotanical potential of said species, through a bibliographic database review. Method: A bibliographic review and an analysis of the possible ethnobotanical applications, biological activities, and chemical constitution of the Solanaceae family, specifically Lycianthes sanctaeclarae, were conducted. Results: Solanaceae has floristic, ethnobotanical, ornamental, ritual, economic, and medical importance. They in-clude a wide variety of phytochemicals, among which alkaloids stand out, with interesting biological properties, with anticholinergic activity being the most investigated. Conclusions: The lack of information that exists on the species Lycianthes sanctaeclarae was determined. Even so, due to its relationship with the Solanaceae family, it is possible to consider that this species could be a striking option for the development of new drugs; However, it is necessary in the future to identify, isolate, purify, and char-acterize the bioactive compounds that this species has by constructing its phytochemical profile. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Etnobotânica , Plantas Medicinais , Solanaceae , Magnoliopsida , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Preparações Farmacêuticas
18.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 8457, 2023 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38114555

RESUMO

Hyoscyamine and scopolamine (HS), two valuable tropane alkaloids of significant medicinal importance, are found in multiple distantly related lineages within the Solanaceae family. Here we sequence the genomes of three representative species that produce HS from these lineages, and one species that does not produce HS. Our analysis reveals a shared biosynthetic pathway responsible for HS production in the three HS-producing species. We observe a high level of gene collinearity related to HS synthesis across the family in both types of species. By introducing gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations at key sites, we confirm the reduced/lost or re-activated functions of critical genes involved in HS synthesis in both types of species, respectively. These findings indicate independent and repeated losses of the HS biosynthesis pathway since its origin in the ancestral lineage. Our results hold promise for potential future applications in the artificial engineering of HS biosynthesis in Solanaceae crops.


Assuntos
Hiosciamina , Solanaceae , Solanaceae/genética , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Tropanos/metabolismo , Escopolamina/metabolismo , Hiosciamina/genética , Hiosciamina/análise , Hiosciamina/metabolismo
19.
Toxicon ; 236: 107348, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37981013

RESUMO

Some plant species of the genus Cestrum L. (Solanaceae family) are known to cause poisoning in farming animals in Brazil, negatively affecting the livestock sector. In this context, this study aimed to carry out a systematic review of the Cestrum species that cause poisoning in ruminants in Brazil and to list the main phytochemicals involved in these toxic activities that have already been identified. Scientific documents were retrieved in Google Scholar, PubMed®, ScienceDirect®, and SciELO databases. After applying the inclusion criteria, a total of 38 articles published between 1920 and 2023 were included in the present study. Cestrum axillare Vell. [Syn. Cestrum laevigatum Schltdl.], Cestrum corymbosum Schltdl., Cestrum intermedium Sendtn., and Cestrum parqui L'Hér. were found to have reported cases of poisoning in the Northeast, Southeast, and South of Brazil. Natural poisonings in ruminants caused by these species have been recorded in ten Brazilian states, mostly in Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, and Pernambuco. In general, Cestrum species cause liver damage and a clinical-pathological state characterized by acute liver failure of the poisoned animals. Cattle are more susceptible to poisoning by these plants, but there are reports of poisoning by C. axillare in goats and buffaloes as well. Several chemical constituents were identified in C. axillare and C. parqui, including some saponins and terpenoids that may be associated with the cases of poisoning. However, only one chemical compound has been identified in C. intermedium, and no phytochemical investigation has been carried out regarding toxic compounds in C. corymbosum. It is expected that future studies fill the gap in determining the toxic principles present in these species.


Assuntos
Cestrum , Hepatopatias , Solanaceae , Bovinos , Animais , Cestrum/química , Brasil , Cabras
20.
J Environ Manage ; 347: 119090, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37793289

RESUMO

Hydrochar from agricultural wastes is regarded as a prospective and low-cost material to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for degrading pollutants. Herein, a novel in-situ N-doped hydrochar composite (RHCM4) was synthesized using montmorillonite and waste reed straw rich in nitrogen as pyrolysis catalyst and carbon source, respectively. The fabricated RHCM4 possessed excellent PMS activation performance for decomposing quinclorac (QC), a refractory herbicide, with a high removal efficiency of 100.0% and mineralization efficiency of 75.1%. The quenching experiments and electron spin resonance (ESR) detection disclosed free radicals (•OH, •SO4-, and •O2-) and non-radicals (1O2) took part in the QC degradation process. Additionally, the catalytic mechanisms were analyzed in depth with the aid of various characterizations. Moreover, the QC degradation intermediates and pathways were clarified by density functional theory calculations and HPLC-MS. Importantly, phytotoxicity experiments showed that RHCM4/PMS could efficaciously mitigate the injury of QC to Solanaceae crops (pepper, tomato, and tobacco). These findings give a new idea for enhancing the catalytic activity of hydrochar from agricultural wastes and broaden its application in the field of agricultural environment.


Assuntos
Solanaceae , Estudos Prospectivos , Peróxidos , Verduras
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