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1.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 129, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587647

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are being used as a new generation of biofertilizers to increase plant growth by improving plant nutrition and bio-protection. However, because of the obligatory nature of the plant host, large-scale multiplication of AM propagules is challenging, which limits its applicability. This study evaluates the ability of Burkholderia arboris to increase AM production in soybean mill waste and vermicompost amended by soil-sand mixture planted with sorghum as a host plant. The experiment was conducted in a nursery using a completely randomized design with four inoculation treatments (B. arboris, AM fungi, B. arboris + AM fungi, and control) under sterilized and unsterilized conditions. AM production was investigated microscopically (spore density and root colonization), and biochemically (AM-specific lipid biomarker, 16:1ω5cis derived from neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA), and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) fractions from both soil and roots). Integrating B. arboris with AM fungi in organically amended pots was found to increase AM fungal production by 62.16 spores g-1 soil and root colonization by 80.85%. Biochemical parameters also increased with B. arboris inoculation: 5.49 nmol PLFA g-1 soil and 692.68 nmol PLFA g-1 root and 36.72 nmol NLFA g-1 soil and 3147.57 nmol NLFA g-1 root. Co-inoculation also increased glomalin-related soil protein and root biomass. Principal component analysis (PCA) further supported the higher contribution of B. arboris to AM fungi production under unsterilized conditions. In conclusion, inoculation of AM plant host seeds with B. arboris prior to sowing into organic potting mix could be a promising and cost-effective approach for increasing AM inoculum density for commercial production. Furthermore, efforts need to be made for up-scaling the AM production with different plant hosts and soil-substrate types.


Assuntos
Complexo Burkholderia cepacia , Burkholderia , Sorghum , Areia , Solo , Grão Comestível , Ácidos Graxos , Fungos
2.
Genome Res ; 34(2): 286-299, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479835

RESUMO

Genetic diversity is critical to crop breeding and improvement, and dissection of the genomic variation underlying agronomic traits can both assist breeding and give insight into basic biological mechanisms. Although recent genome analyses in plants reveal many structural variants (SVs), most current studies of crop genetic variation are dominated by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The extent of the impact of SVs on global trait variation, as well as their utility in genome-wide selection, is not yet understood. In this study, we built an SV data set based on whole-genome resequencing of diverse sorghum lines (n = 363), validated the correlation of photoperiod sensitivity and variety type, and identified SV hotspots underlying the divergent evolution of cellulosic and sweet sorghum. In addition, we showed the complementary contribution of SVs for heritability of traits related to sorghum adaptation. Importantly, inclusion of SV polymorphisms in association studies revealed genotype-phenotype associations not observed with SNPs alone. Three-way genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on whole-genome SNP, SV, and integrated SNP + SV data sets showed substantial associations between SVs and sorghum traits. The addition of SVs to GWAS substantially increased heritability estimates for some traits, indicating their important contribution to functional allelic variation at the genome level. Our discovery of the widespread impacts of SVs on heritable gene expression variation could render a plausible mechanism for their disproportionate impact on phenotypic variation. This study expands our knowledge of SVs and emphasizes the extensive impacts of SVs on sorghum.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Sorghum , Sorghum/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Melhoramento Vegetal , Fenótipo , Grão Comestível/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
3.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(3): 72, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446239

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: SbMYC2 functions as a key regulator under JA signaling in enhancing drought tolerance of sorghum through direct activating SbGR1. Drought stress is one of the major threats to crop yield. In response to drought stress, functions of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) have been reported in Arabidopsis and rice, but little is known for sorghum. Here, we characterized the function of SbMYC2, a bHLH TF in sorghum, and found that SbMYC2 responded most significantly to PEG-simulated drought stress and JA treatments. Overexpression of SbMYC2 significantly enhanced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis, rice and sorghum. In addition, it reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and increased chlorophyll content in sorghum leaves. While silencing SbMYC2 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) resulted in compromised drought tolerance of sorghum seedlings. Moreover, SbMYC2 can directly activate the expression of GLUTATHIONE-DISULFIDE REDUCTASE gene SbGR1. SbGR1 silencing led to significantly weakened drought tolerance of sorghum, and higher ROS accumulation and lower chlorophyll content in sorghum leaves were detected. In addition, SbMYC2 can interact with SbJAZs, suppressors of JA signaling, and thus can mediate JA signaling to activate SbGR1, thereby regulating sorghum's tolerance to drought stress. Overall, our findings demonstrate that bHLH TF SbMYC2 plays an important role in sorghum's response to drought stress, thus providing one theoretical basis for genetic enhancement of sorghum and even rice.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Ciclopentanos , Oryza , Oxilipinas , Sorghum , Resistência à Seca , Sorghum/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Clorofila , Grão Comestível , Oryza/genética
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 257, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456919

RESUMO

Sorghum forage was ensiled for 90 days at two dry matter (DM) contents (27 vs. 39%) without or with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum inoculation. On day 90 of fermentation, silages were sampled to assess the microbial community dynamics and metabolome profile. L. plantarum inoculation improved silage quality, as shown by a lower pH and greater acetic acid concentration. Loss of DM remained unaffected by L. plantarum inoculation but was greater in low- vs. high-DM sorghum silages (14.4 vs. 6.62%). The microbiome analysis revealed that Pseudomonas congelans represented the dominant species of the epiphytic microbiota in both low- and high-DM sorghum forage before ensiling. However, L. buchneri represented the dominant species at the end of ensiling. Ensiling fermentation resulted in distinct metabolic changes in silages with varying DM content. In low-DM silages, ensiling fermentation led to the accumulation of 24 metabolites and a reduction in the relative concentration of 13 metabolites. In high-DM silages, ensiling fermentation resulted in an increase in the relative concentration of 26 metabolites but a decrease in the concentration of 8 metabolites. Compared to non-inoculated silages, L. plantarum inoculation resulted in an increased concentration of 3 metabolites and a reduced concentration of 5 metabolites in low-DM silages. Similarly, in high-DM silages, there was an elevation in the relative concentration of 3 metabolites, while a decrease in 7 other metabolites. Ten metabolites with bio-functional activity were identified, including chrysoeriol, isorhamnetin, petunidin 3-glucoside, apigenin, caffeic acid, gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, trans-cinnamic acid, herniarin, and 3,4-dihydroxy-trans-cinnamate. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of microbiome and metabolome profiling of sorghum forage during ensiling as a function of DM content and L. plantarum inoculation, with a particular emphasis on identifying metabolites that may possess bio-functional properties. KEY POINTS: • DM loss was not different by L. plantarum but higher in low- vs. high-DM silage. • L. buchneri dominated ensiling, regardless of DM level. • 10 metabolites with bio-functional activity were identified.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Sorghum , Silagem , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Fermentação
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 469: 134085, 2024 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522197

RESUMO

Composite pollution by microplastics and heavy metals poses a potential threat to the soilplant system and has received increasing attention. Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) have good application potential for the remediation of combined microplastic and heavy metal pollution, but few related studies exist. The present study employed a pot experiment to investigate the effects of inoculation with the PGPB Bacillus sp. SL-413 and Enterobacter sp. VY-1 on sorghum growth and Cd accumulation under conditions of combined cadmium (Cd) and polyethylene (PE) pollution. Cd+PE composite contamination led to a significant reduction in sorghum length and biomass due to increased toxicity. Inoculation with Bacillus sp. SL-413 and Enterobacter sp. VY-1 alleviated the stress caused by Cd+PE complex pollution, and the dry weight of sorghum increased by 25.7% to 46.1% aboveground and by 12.3% to 45.3% belowground. Bacillus sp. SL-413 and Enterobacter sp. VY-1 inoculation increased the Cd content and accumulation in sorghum and improved the phytoremediation efficiency of Cd. The inoculation treatment effectively alleviated the nutrient stress caused by the reduction in soil mineral nutrients due to Cd+PE composite pollution. The composition of the soil bacterial communities was also affected by the Cd, Cd+PE and bacterial inoculation treatments, which affected the diversity of the soil bacterial communities. Network analyses indicated that bacterial inoculation regulated the interaction of rhizospheric microorganisms and increased the stability of soil bacterial communities. The Mantel test showed that the changes in the soil bacterial community and function due to inoculation with Bacillus sp. SL-413 and Enterobacter sp. VY-1 were important factors influencing sorghum growth and Cd remediation efficiency. The results of this study will provide new evidence for the research on joint plantmicrobe remediation of heavy metal and microplastic composite pollution.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Sorghum , Cádmio/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Plásticos , Polietileno , Solo , Rizosfera , Microplásticos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , Enterobacter , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
Chemosphere ; 354: 141722, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494004

RESUMO

Nickel (Ni) is an essential element, but it can be phytotoxic in high concentration, which may be caused by high availability in soil solution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sources and doses of Ni applied to a dystrophic Red Latosol cultivated with sorghum on i) the availability of the metal in the soil; ii) the impact on biological and biochemical properties of the soil; iii) the absorption and distribution in sorghum plants; and iv) crop productivity. The experiment was carried out within a completely randomized design with two nickel sources [nickel(II) nitrate, Ni(NO3)2 and nickel(III) oxide, Ni2O3], three doses (35, 70, and 140 mg Ni kg-1 soil), plus controls without Ni, with 3 replications. The concentrations of Ni in the soil, soil microbial biomass (SMB), basal soil respiration (BSR), metabolic quotient (qCO2), fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis, and urease activity were determined. The concentrations of Ni in the leaf diagnostic and in the plant (shoot, root, and grains) were also measured. In the soil, the concentrations of available Ni remained between 0.21 and 54.01 mg Ni kg-1. Ni2O3 contributed very little to the increase in available Ni. SMB and the FDA hydrolysis were not affected by the Ni source or Ni dose, but BSR and qCO2 had significant increase with Ni application rates, suggesting the soil microorganisms faced stress. Soil urease activity was affected by Ni dose but not by Ni source. The dose of Ni as Ni(NO3)2 decreased the metal concentration in the plant, while that of Ni2O3 increased it. Nickel source did not affect dry mass production of the plants, but grain yield was affected in a dose-dependent manner when Ni2O3 was the source of Ni.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Sorghum , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Níquel/química , Sorghum/metabolismo , Solo/química , Urease/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
7.
Planta ; 259(4): 89, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467941

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Taiwan oil millet has two types of epicuticular wax: platelet wax composed primarily of octacosanol and filament wax constituted essentially by the singular compound of octacosanoic acid. Taiwan oil millet (TOM-Eccoilopus formosanus) is an orphan crop cultivated by the Taiwan indigenous people. It has conspicuous white powder covering its leaf sheath indicating abundant epicuticular waxes, that may contribute to its resilience. Here, we characterized the epicuticular wax secretion in TOM leaf blade and leaf sheath using various microscopy techniques, as well as gas chromatography to determine its composition. Two kinds of waxes, platelet and filaments, were secreted in both the leaf blades and sheaths. The platelet wax is secreted ubiquitously by epidermal cells, whereas the filament wax is secreted by a specific cell called epidermal cork cells. The newly developed filament waxes were markedly re-synthesized by the epidermal cork cells through papillae protrusions on the external periclinal cell wall. Ultrastructural images of cork cell revealed the presence of cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules along the periphery of plasma membrane (PM) and ER-PM contact sites (EPCS). The predominant wax component was a C28 primary alcohol in leaf blade, and a C28 free fatty acid in the leaf sheath, pseudopetiole and midrib. The wax morphology present in distinct plant organs corresponds to the specific chemical composition: platelet wax composed of alcohols exists mainly in the leaf blade, whereas filament wax constituted mainly by the singular compound C28 free fatty acids is present abundantly in leaf sheath. Our study clarifies the filament wax composition in relation to a previous study in sorghum. Both platelet and filament waxes comprise a protection barrier for TOM.


Assuntos
Milhetes , Sorghum , Humanos , Taiwan , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Sorghum/metabolismo , Ceras/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo
8.
Planta ; 259(4): 91, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480598

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The article highlights omics-based interventions in sorghum to combat food and nutritional scarcity in the future. Sorghum with its unique ability to thrive in adverse conditions, has become a tremendous highly nutritive, and multipurpose cereal crop. It is resistant to various types of climatic stressors which will pave its way to a future food crop. Multi-omics refers to the comprehensive study of an organism at multiple molecular levels, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Genomic studies have provided insights into the genetic diversity of sorghum and led to the development of genetically improved sorghum. Transcriptomics involves analysing the gene expression patterns in sorghum under various conditions. This knowledge is vital for developing crop varieties with enhanced stress tolerance. Proteomics enables the identification and quantification of the proteins present in sorghum. This approach helps in understanding the functional roles of specific proteins in response to stress and provides insights into metabolic pathways that contribute to resilience and grain production. Metabolomics studies the small molecules, or metabolites, produced by sorghum, provides information about the metabolic pathways that are activated or modified in response to environmental stress. This knowledge can be used to engineer sorghum varieties with improved metabolic efficiency, ultimately leading to better crop yields. In this review, we have focused on various multi-omics approaches, gene expression analysis, and different pathways for the improvement of Sorghum. Applying omics approaches to sorghum research allows for a holistic understanding of its genome function. This knowledge is invaluable for addressing challenges such as climate change, resource limitations, and the need for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Resiliência Psicológica , Sorghum , Grão Comestível , Sorghum/genética , Multiômica , Genômica
9.
New Phytol ; 242(2): 786-796, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451101

RESUMO

Molecular genetic understanding of flowering time regulation is crucial for sorghum development. GRAIN NUMBER, PLANT HEIGHT AND HEADING DATE 7 (SbGhd7) is one of the six classical loci conferring photoperiod sensitivity of sorghum flowering. However, its functions remain poorly studied. The molecular functions of SbGhd7 were characterized. The gene regulatory network controlled by SbGhd7 was constructed and validated. The biological roles of SbGhd7 and its major targets were studied. SbGhd7 overexpression (OE) completely prevented sorghum flowering. Additionally, we show that SbGhd7 is a major negative regulator of flowering, binding to the promoter motif TGAATG(A/T)(A/T/C) and repressing transcription of the major florigen FLOWERING LOCUS T 10 (SbFT10) and floral activators EARLY HEADING DATE (SbEhd1), FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX1 (SbFKF1) and EARLY FLOWERING 3 (SbELF3). Reinforcing the direct effect of SbGhd7, SbEhd1 OE activated the promoters of three functional florigens (SbFT1, SbFT8 and SbFT10), dramatically accelerating flowering. Our studies demonstrate that SbGhd7 is a major repressor of sorghum flowering by directly and indirectly targeting genes for flowering activation. The mechanism appears ancient. Our study extends the current model of floral transition regulation in sorghum and provides a framework for a comprehensive understanding of sorghum photoperiod response.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Sorghum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Florígeno/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
10.
Planta ; 259(5): 100, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38536457

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: SbYS1 and its upstream transcription factor SbWRKY72 were involved in Cd tolerance and accumulation and are valuable for developing sweet sorghum germplasm with high-Cd tolerance or accumulation ability through genetic manipulation. Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic and can severely affect human health. Sweet sorghum, as an energy crop, shows great potential in extracting cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils. However, its molecular mechanisms of Cd-tolerance and -accumulation remain largely unknown. Here, we isolated a YSL family gene SbYS1 from the sweet sorghum genotype with high Cd accumulation ability and the expression of SbYS1 in roots was induced by cadmium. GUS staining experiment exhibited that SbYS1 was expressed in the epidermis and parenchyma tissues of roots. Further subcellular localization analysis suggested that SbYS1 was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. Yeast transformed with SbYS1 exhibited a sensitive phenotype compared to the control when exposed to Cd-NA (chelates of cadmium and nicotianamine), indicating that SbYS1 may absorb cadmium in the form of Cd-NA. Arabidopsis overexpressing SbYS1 had a longer root length and accumulated less Cd in roots and shoots. SbWRKY72 bound to the promoter of SbYS1 and negatively regulated the expression of SbYS1. Transgenic Arabidopsis of SbWRKY72 showed higher sensitivity to cadmium and increased cadmium accumulation in roots. Our results provide references for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of sweet sorghum by genetic manipulation in the future.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Poluentes do Solo , Sorghum , Humanos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cádmio/metabolismo , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 925: 171825, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513852

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a primary greenhouse gas that has experienced a surge in atmospheric concentration due to human activities and lifestyles. It is imperative to curtail atmospheric CO2 levels promptly to alleviate the multifaceted impacts of climate warming. The soil serves as a natural reservoir for CO2 sequestration. The scientific premise of this study is that CO2 sequestration in agriculturally relevant, organically-deficient saline soil can be achieved by incorporating alkaline earth silicates. Volcanic ash (VA) was used as a soil amendment for CO2 removal from saline soil by leveraging enhanced silicate rock weathering (ERW). The study pursued two primary objectives: first, we aimed to evaluate the impact of various doses of VA, employed as an amendment for organically-deficient soil, on the growth performance of key cultivated crops (sorghum and mung bean) in inland saline-alkaline agricultural regions of northeastern China. Second, we aimed to assess alterations in the physical properties of the amended soil through mineralogical examinations, utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses, quantifying the increase in inorganic carbon content within the soil. In the potting tests, mung bean plant height exhibited a noteworthy increase of approximately 41 % with the addition of 10 % VA. Sorghum plant height and aboveground and belowground biomass dry weights increased with VA application across all tested doses. At the optimal VA application rate (20 %), the sorghum achieved a CO2 sequestration rate of 0.14 kg CO2·m-2·month-1. XRD and SEM-EDS analyses confirmed that the augmented inorganic carbon in the VA-amended soils stemmed primarily from calcite accumulation. These findings contribute to elucidating the mechanism underlying VA as an amendment for organically-deficient soils and provide an effective approach for enhancing the carbon sink capacity of saline soils.


Assuntos
Solo , Sorghum , Humanos , Solo/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Erupções Vulcânicas , Agricultura , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Grão Comestível/química , Sequestro de Carbono , Silicatos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 354: 120327, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359627

RESUMO

Sweet sorghum, as a seasonal energy crop, is rich in cellulose and hemicellulose that can be converted into biofuels. This work aims at investigating the effects of synergistic regulation of Pichia anomala and cellulase on ensiling quality and microbial community of sweet sorghum silages as a storage and pretreatment method. Furthermore, the combined pretreatment effects of ensiling and ball milling on sweet sorghum were evaluated by microstructure change and enzymatic hydrolysis. Based on membership function analysis, the combination of P. anomala and cellulase (PA + CE) significantly improved the silage quality by preserving organic components and promoting fermentation characteristics. The bioaugmented ensiling with PA + CE restructured the bacterial community by facilitating Lactobacillus and inhibiting undesired microorganisms by killer activity of P. anomala. The combined bioaugmented ensiling pretreatment with ball milling significantly increased the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency (EHE) to 71%, accompanied by the increased specific surface area and decreased pore size/crystallinity of sweet sorghum. Moreover, the EHE after combined pretreatment was increased by 1.37 times compared with raw material. Hence, the combined pretreatment was demonstrated as a novel strategy to effectively enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum.


Assuntos
Celulase , Saccharomycetales , Sorghum , Hidrólise , Sorghum/química , Sorghum/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Silagem/microbiologia , Celulase/metabolismo , Fermentação
13.
Food Chem ; 444: 138645, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325084

RESUMO

Sorghum milling waste stream (bran), contains diverse phenolic compounds with bioactive properties. The study determined the potential of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) to recover the bran phenolic compounds. Red, white, and lemon-yellow pericarp sorghum brans were subjected to MAE and phenolic yield and structural transformation vs conventional extraction (control) assessed by UPLC-MS/MS, Folin-Ciocalteu and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity methods. Phenols yield increased from 3.7-20.3 to 12.6-75.5 mg/g, while antioxidants capacity increased average 3.3X in MAE extracts vs controls. Hydroxycinnamic acids increased most dramatically (3.0-32X) in MAE extracts (0.08-2.64 to 2.57-8.01 mg/g), largely driven by release of cell-wall derived feruloyl- and coumaroyl-arabinose. MAE hydrolyzed flavonoid glycosides into aglycones, and depolymerized condensed flavonoid heteropolymers into flavanones, flavanols and (deoxy)anthocyanidins. Thus, MAE dramatically enhances yield of valuable phenolics from sorghum bran waste, but also alters the phenolic profile in ways that may influence their chemical and biological properties.


Assuntos
Polifenóis , Sorghum , Polifenóis/análise , Sorghum/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Micro-Ondas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fenóis/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/análise
14.
Environ Int ; 185: 108511, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382404

RESUMO

Fungal plant pathogens threaten crop production and sustainable agricultural development. However, the environmental factors driving their diversity and nationwide biogeographic model remain elusive, impacting our capacity to predict their changes under future climate scenarios. Here, we analyzed potential fungal plant pathogens from 563 samples collected from 57 agricultural fields across China. Over 28.0% of fungal taxa in the phyllosphere were identified as potential plant pathogens, compared to 22.3% in the rhizosphere. Dominant fungal plant pathogen groups were Cladosporium (in the phyllosphere) and Fusarium (in the rhizosphere), with higher diversity observed in the phyllosphere than in rhizosphere soil. Deterministic processes played an important role in shaping the potential fungal plant pathogen community assembly in both habitats. Mean annual precipitation and temperature were the most important factor influencing phyllosphere fungal plant pathogen richness. Significantly negative relationships were found between fungal pathogen diversity and sorghum yield. Notably, compared to the rhizosphere, the phyllosphere fungal plant pathogen diversity played a more crucial role in sorghum yield. Together, our work provides novel insights into the factors governing the spatial patterns of fungal plant pathogens in the crop microbiome, and highlights the potential significance of aboveground phyllosphere fungal plant pathogens in crop productivity.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Sorghum , Microbiologia do Solo , Agricultura , Solo , Grão Comestível
15.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401147

RESUMO

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is characterized by chronic low ruminal pH, and occurs for feedlot cattle fed high-concentrate diets. Forages slow digestion and reduce acid production. We aimed to assess how motivated finishing cattle are to access forage (Sudan grass hay, SG) via their willingness to interact with an electrified barrier. Reticulorumen pH was measured to relate the results to digestive health. Twenty-eight animals fed a high-concentrate ration ad libitum had access to 4 L of one of two treatments (n = 14/treatment) fed 1×/d behind a barrier: 1) SG or 2) an additional offering of the normal ration (total mixed ration [TMR]). To access their treatment, the steer voluntarily pushed his muzzle against an electrified barrier. The electrical current was increased exponentially every 24 h (0, 156, 312, 625, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000 µA) until the animal ceased accessing it. Visits to the treatment were recorded continuously 24 h/d and reticulorumen pH was measured every 10 min. Time with a reticulorumen pH below 5.8 was 348 ± 101 and 280 ± 76 min/24 h for SG and TMR animals, respectively; these durations meet the criterion for SARA. However, animals with access to SG were less likely to advance to the next current than TMR animals (P < 0.01) and were approximately 3× less willing to interact with higher currents than TMR (mean maximum current touched: 469 ±â€…169 and 1,380 ±â€…254 µA, respectively, mean ±â€…SE, P = 0.01). Lower motivation to access SG was further demonstrated through fewer visits to the SG (2.4 ±â€…0.4 vs. 5.3 ±â€…0.6 #/d, P < 0.01), and less SG consumed than TMR (32.0 ±â€…0.1 vs. 74.0 ±â€…0.0 %/d, P < 0.01, measured as % due to weight differences of SG and TMR). Overall, finishing cattle valued the TMR more than SG, likely because of differences in the quantity offered, palatability, and familiarity. When rumen health was considered, SG animals visited more often (r = 0.5, P = 0.09) and showed fewer failed attempts (r = -0.5, P = 0.06) to access forage as the severity and duration of pH depression below 5.6, for example, increased. No measures of treatment use were related to pH depression for TMR animals (P ≥ 0.31). These findings provide evidence that cattle are motivated for Sudan grass hay when experiencing chronic low reticulorumen pH. However, they also contribute to the mixed evidence about the motivation for forage in this life stage, because, overall TMR was valued more highly than SG. Despite widespread pH depression, TMR cattle contrafreeloaded for additional concentration, demonstrating unexpectedly high motivation for this resource.


Feedlot cattle are at risk of subacute ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder, because their diets are typically high in concentrates or grains and low in forages. Grains have the potential to be digested rapidly in the animals' rumen, causing an increase in acidity. In contrast, forages slow the rate of digestion and can prevent a rapid or chronic drop in rumen pH, thereby mitigating this problem. Our objective was to measure how motivated finishing cattle are to access Sudan grass hay when fed a high-concentrate diet. Cattle with free access to other feed accessed one of two treatments, either Sudan grass hay or additional grain, by voluntarily opening an electrified barrier. The current applied to the barrier increased exponentially every 24 h until the animal stopped touching it. Animals were simultaneously administered a wireless telemetry bolus to measure reticulorumen pH. Cattle offered Sudan grass hay and accessed the forage more often as pH depression increased in severity. However, cattle willingly interacted with a higher electric current to access grain than Sudan grass hay, despite experiencing chronic low reticulorumen pH.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Bovinos , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fermentação
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 262(Pt 1): 129867, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309400

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to fabricate composite nanoparticles using soy protein isolate (SPI) and sorghum bran arabinoxylan (AX) for the delivery of curcumin (Cur). The influences of AX concentrations on the physicochemical characteristic, stability and bioaccessibility of curcumin were investigated. The findings showed that the encapsulation efficiency of curcumin obviously increased upon incorporating AX in comparison to SPI-Cur particles. Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were the primary driving forces for the formation of SPI-Cur-AX nanoparticles (SCA). SCA nanoparticles with 1.00 % AX exhibited a uniform size with orderly distribution, suggesting its remarkable physical stability due to the strengthened electrostatic repulsion. However, excessive AX led to aggregation of particles, a noticeable increase in size, and subsequently, a reduction in stability. Due to the heightened free radical scavenging capacity of sorghum AX, SCA nanoparticles exhibited superior antioxidant capabilities. Compared to free curcumin, encapsulation within composite particles significantly enhanced the retention rate and bioaccessibility of curcumin. This improvement was attributed to the potent emulsification ability of AX, which coordinated with bile salt to promote the transfer of curcumin into micelles. The research provides an effective strategy for developing food-grade delivery carriers aimed at enhancing dispersibility, stability and bioaccessibility of the fat-soluble bioactives.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Nanopartículas , Sorghum , Xilanos , Curcumina/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Sorghum/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Portadores de Fármacos/química
17.
Genetics ; 226(4)2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381593

RESUMO

Identifying the genetic factors impacting the adaptation of crops to environmental conditions is of key interest for conservation and selection purposes. It can be achieved using population genomics, and evolutionary or quantitative genetics. Here we present a sorghum multireference back-cross nested association mapping population composed of 3,901 lines produced by crossing 24 diverse parents to 3 elite parents from West and Central Africa-back-cross nested association mapping. The population was phenotyped in environments characterized by differences in photoperiod, rainfall pattern, temperature levels, and soil fertility. To integrate the multiparental and multi-environmental dimension of our data we proposed a new approach for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection and parental effect estimation. We extended our model to estimate QTL effect sensitivity to environmental covariates, which facilitated the integration of envirotyping data. Our models allowed spatial projections of the QTL effects in agro-ecologies of interest. We utilized this strategy to analyze the genetic architecture of flowering time and plant height, which represents key adaptation mechanisms in environments like West Africa. Our results allowed a better characterization of well-known genomic regions influencing flowering time concerning their response to photoperiod with Ma6 and Ma1 being photoperiod-sensitive and the region of possible candidate gene Elf3 being photoperiod-insensitive. We also accessed a better understanding of plant height genetic determinism with the combined effects of phenology-dependent (Ma6) and independent (qHT7.1 and Dw3) genomic regions. Therefore, we argue that the West and Central Africa-back-cross nested association mapping and the presented analytical approach constitute unique resources to better understand adaptation in sorghum with direct application to develop climate-smart varieties.


Assuntos
Sorghum , Sorghum/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fenótipo , Grão Comestível/genética
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e277437, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422256

RESUMO

The use of residues from coffee production to obtain biochar is a sustainable approach, which aims to minimize the environmental impact of these materials. In this study, the effect of adding coffee straw biochar on the physiological quality of lettuce and sorghum seeds was investigated. Thus, the objective of this work was to study the effect of adding different concentrations of coffee biochar in the substrate composition on the physiological quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) seeds. The experimental design used was completely randomized, with five concentrations of biochar (0; 7.5; 15; 30 and 60%), conducted with four replications of 25 seeds. The use of biochar in the concentrations studied does not provide an increase in the average germination percentage and vigor of lettuce and sorghum seeds. The increase in the concentration of biochar caused less seed vigor, suggesting a toxic effect. For seed germination, there was no significant difference between lettuce and sorghum species, regardless of treatment. For the germination speed index, sorghum seeds have higher means, except for the treatment with the addition of 15% coffee straw biochar. Lettuce seeds have higher shoot length averages, except for treatment with 100% commercial substrate. The sorghum seeds have higher mean root length and dry mass than lettuce, regardless of the treatment.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Germinação , Sorghum , Café , Grão Comestível , Sementes/fisiologia
19.
BMC Genom Data ; 25(1): 14, 2024 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is the fifth most important grain produced in the world. Interest for cultivating sorghum is increasing all over the world in the context of climate change, due to its low input and water requirements. Like other cultivated cereals, sorghum has significant nutritional value thanks to its protein, carbohydrate and dietary fiber content, these latter mainly consisting of cell wall polysaccharides. This work describes for the first time a transcriptomic analysis dedicated to identify the genes involved in the biosynthesis and remodelling of cell walls both in the endosperm and outer layers of sorghum grain during its development. Further analysis of these transcriptomic data will improve our understanding of cell wall assembly, which is a key component of grain quality. DATA DESCRIPTION: This research delineates the steps of our analysis, starting with the cultivation conditions and the grain harvest at different stages of development, followed by the laser microdissection applied to separate the endosperm from the outer layers. It also describes the procedures implemented to generate RNA libraries and to obtain a normalized and filtered table of transcript counts, and finally determine the number of putative cell wall-related genes already listed in literature.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível , Sorghum , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Sorghum/genética , Sorghum/metabolismo , Endosperma/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Parede Celular/metabolismo
20.
Theor Appl Genet ; 137(2): 42, 2024 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308687

RESUMO

Chilling tolerance in crops can increase resilience through longer growing seasons, drought escape, and nitrogen use efficiency. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench), breeding for chilling tolerance has been stymied by coinheritance of the largest-effect chilling tolerance locus, qSbCT04.62, with the major gene underlying undesirable grain proanthocyanidins, WD40 transcriptional regulator Tannin1. To test if this coinheritance is due to antagonistic pleiotropy of Tannin1, we developed and studied near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying chilling tolerant haplotypes at qCT04.62. Whole-genome sequencing of the NILs revealed introgressions spanning part of the qCT04.62 confidence interval, including the Tannin1 gene and an ortholog of Arabidopsis cold regulator CBF/DREB1G. Segregation pattern of grain tannin in NILs confirmed the presence of wildtype Tannin1 and the reconstitution of a functional MYB-bHLH-WD40 regulatory complex. Low-temperature germination did not differ between NILs, suggesting that Tannin1 does not modulate this component of chilling tolerance. Similarly, NILs did not differ in seedling growth rate under either of two contrasting controlled environment chilling scenarios. Finally, while the chilling tolerant parent line had notably different photosynthetic responses from the susceptible parent line - including greater non-photochemical quenching before, during, and after chilling - the NIL responses match the susceptible parent. Thus, our findings suggest that tight linkage drag, not pleiotropy, underlies the precise colocalization of Tan1 with qCT04.62 and the qCT04.62 quantitative trait nucleotide lies outside the NIL introgressions. Breaking linkage at this locus should advance chilling tolerance breeding in sorghum and the identification of a novel chilling tolerance regulator.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Sorghum , Melhoramento Vegetal , Temperatura Baixa , Taninos , Plântula/genética
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