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1.
PeerJ ; 12: e17156, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584935

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether athletes (ATHL) and non-athletes (NON-ATHL) individuals had similar accuracy in matching intended to actual force during ballistic (BAL) and tonic (TON) isometric contractions. In this cross-sectional study, the subjects were divided into ATHL (n = 20; 22.4 ± 2.3 yrs; 73.2 ± 15.7 kg; 1.76 ± 0.08 m) and NON-ATHL (n = 20; 24.6 ± 2.4 yrs; 68.2 ± 15.0 kg; 1.73 ± 0.1 m) groups. The isometric quadriceps strength was measured with a load cell applied to a custom-built chair. For each condition, subjects performed at first three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) as reference. Then, subjects had to match three intended force intensities expressed in percentage of the MVIC (i.e., 25%, 50%, and 75%) without any external feedback. Subjects performed three trials for each force intensity. The accuracy (AC) was calculated as the absolute difference in percentage between the intended and the actual force. A Likert scale was administered for each trial to assess the subjective matching between the intended and the actual force. Statistical analysis showed that the ATHL group was more accurate (p < 0.001) than the NON-ATHL group. In contrast, the AC (p < 0.001) was lower when the force intensities increased independently from the group. Moreover, significantly higher AC (p < 0.001) and lower aggregate Likert scores (p < 0.001) were found in BAL than TON conditions. These results suggest that (i) sports practice could enhance muscle recruitment strategies by increasing the AC in the isometric task; (ii) differences between intended and actual force appeared to be intensity-dependent with lower AC at high force intensities; (iii) different control systems act in modulating BAL and TON contractions.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica , Esportes , Humanos , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps , Adulto Jovem , Adulto
2.
J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) ; 32(1): 10225536241242086, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589277

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study explores the use of ultrasound-guided Hyaluronic Acid (HA) injections for Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy (IAT). METHODS: A cohort of 15 ankles diagnosed with IAT received three weekly ultrasound-guided HA injections. The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment - Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire scored the severity of symptoms and functional impairment before treatment, and at one and six months post-treatment. RESULTS: Significant improvement was observed in VISA-A scores post-treatment, rising from an average baseline of 34.8 ± 15.2 (11-63) to 53.6 ± 20.9 (15-77) after one month, and then to 50.7 ± 18.6 (20-75) after six months. No adverse reactions were noted, underscoring the safety of the intervention. CONCLUSION: The pilot study presents HA injections as a potentially effective treatment for IAT, while interpretation of these findings must take into account the variability in results, indicating a range of patient responses. It encourages further research to confirm these findings and to explore HA's full potential in managing IAT, despite the limitations of a small sample size and lack of control group.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo , Esportes , Tendinopatia , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Tendinopatia/diagnóstico por imagem , Tendinopatia/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 949, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that the Sport Education Model (SEM) has demonstrated effectiveness in enhancing students' athletic capabilities and fostering their enthusiasm for sports. Nevertheless, there remains a dearth of comprehensive reviews examining the impact of the SEM on students' attitudes toward physical education learning. PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to elucidate the influence of the SEM on students' attitudes toward physical education learning. METHODS: Employing the preferred reporting items of the Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement guidelines, a systematic search of PubMed, SCOPUS, EBSCOhost (SPORTDiscus and CINAHL Plus), and Web of Science databases was conducted in mid-January 2023. A set of keywords associated with the SEM, attitudes toward physical education learning, and students were employed to identify relevant studies. Out of 477 studies, only 13 articles fulfilled all the eligibility criteria and were consequently incorporated into this systematic review. The validated checklist of Downs and Black (1998) was employed for the assessment, and the included studies achieved quality scores ranging from 11 to 13. The ROBINS-I tool was utilized to evaluate the risk of bias in the literature, whereby only one paper exhibited a moderate risk of bias, while the remainder were deemed to have a high risk. RESULTS: The findings unveiled significant disparities in cognitive aspects (n = 8) and affective components (n = 12) between the SEM intervention and the Traditional Teaching (TT) comparison. Existing evidence suggests that the majority of scholars concur that the SEM yields significantly superior effects in terms of students' affective and cognitive aspects compared to the TT. CONCLUSIONS: Nonetheless, several issues persist, including a lack of data regarding junior high school students and gender differences, insufficient frequency of weekly interventions, inadequate control of inter-group atmosphere disparities resulting from the same teaching setting, lack of reasonable testing, model fidelity check and consideration for regulating variables, of course, learning content, and unsuitable tools for measuring learning attitudes. In contrast, the SEM proves more effective than the TT in enhancing students' attitudes toward physical learning. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: ( https://inplasy.com/ ) (INPLASY2022100040).


Assuntos
Educação Física e Treinamento , Esportes , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia , Atitude , Aprendizagem
6.
PeerJ ; 12: e17040, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560450

RESUMO

Background: During physical exercise, the level of hematological parameters change depending on the intensity and duration of exercise and the individual's physical fitness. Research results, based on samples taken before and after exercise, suggest that hematological parameters increase during incremental exercise. However, there is no data confirming this beyond any doubt. This study examined how red blood cell (RBC) parameters change during the same standard physical exertion in athletes representing different physiological training profiles determined by sport discipline. Methods: The study included 39 highly trained male members of national teams: 13 futsal players, 12 sprinters, and 14 triathletes. We used multiple blood sampling to determine RBC, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) before, during (every 3 min), and after (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min) an incremental treadmill exercise test until exhaustion. Results: There were no significant exercise-induced differences in RBC parameters between athletic groups. No significant changes were recorded in RBC parameters during the low-intensity phase of exercise. RBC, Hb, and Hct increased significantly during incremental physical exercise, and rapidly returned to resting values upon test termination. Conclusions: The general pattern of exercise-induced changes in RBC parameters is universal regardless of the athlete's physiological profile. The changes in RBC parameters are proportional to the intensity of exercise during the progressive test. The increase in hemoglobin concentration associated with the intensity of exercise is most likely an adaptation to the greater demand of tissues, mainly skeletal muscles, for oxygen.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos , Esportes , Humanos , Masculino , Exercício Físico , Atletas , Hemoglobinas
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301790, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574011

RESUMO

Physical inactivity within an ageing population is an ongoing public health concern for policymakers. Engagement in sport forms a foundation of policy designed to encourage physical activity participation and improve health and wellbeing. This study aimed to (i) understand the extent to which older adults participate in sport and the (ii) correlates that predict this involvement within an English population sample of older adults. A further aim was (iii) to examine the extent in which sports participation may vary due to the opportunity provided across Active Partnerships in England. To address this, a multi-level analysis framed through COM-B was conducted of the 2021 English Active Lives dataset (i.e., during the COVID-19 pandemic). The Active Lives survey provides population-level insight into sport, exercise, and physical activity participation across England. It samples upwards of n = 180,000 participants beyond the age of 16 years and asks questions on factors that influence participation. Our findings drawn from a sample of n = 68,808 older adults (i.e., >60-years of age) indicate that when accounting for variation across regions sports participation was significantly predicted by age (ß = -.246, p = .040) and multiple deprivation (ß = .706, p = .030). Further, our analysis suggests sports participation across regions is associated with changes in the perceptions of opportunity to participate (ß = -28.70, p = .001). As the UK transitions from the COVID-19 pandemic, findings have implications for the promotion of sports participation for older adults, in that local, regional, and national stakeholders must do more to change perceptions of social and physical opportunity within an ageing population. This may be achieved through adaptations to the recreational sporting landscape, raising awareness, and supportive policy changes on a national level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Esportes , Humanos , Idoso , Adolescente , Análise Multinível , Pandemias , Inglaterra , COVID-19/epidemiologia
9.
Sante Publique ; 36(1): 7-22, 2024 04 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580468

RESUMO

Sports clubs (SCs) are an ideal setting for promoting health. However existing health promotion (HP) interventions in SCs mainly target a single health behavior and men who do sports, and evaluations of such interventions provides little information about their deployment. To overcome these limitations, the PROSCeSS intervention was co-constructed based on the theoretical model of the health-promoting SC and multi-level, multi-determinant health strategies. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the deployment of the PROSCeSS intervention and identify the factors influencing its deployment. A qualitative study, using recordings of meetings, email and telephone exchanges, and interviews with project leaders of fourteen SC, was carried out. Although a low number of SCs had completed the intervention, they all considered that they have a role to play in helping their members maintain good health. Their ability to develop HP activities and to implement the intervention was influenced by the resources available, the support they received from their sports federation, and the ability of each project leader to get involved in the intervention. The SCs that deployed the intervention implemented several strategies enabling them to integrate health into the organizational, social, economic, and environmental habits of the SCs and to develop new HP activities, such as adapted sports activity sessions and activities to teach members about first aid, nutrition, and good practices for warming up. This study highlights the importance of understanding the specificities of the contexts in which HP interventions are deployed. Having led to a reworking of the intervention steps and the development of an appropriate evaluation design, it also highlights the essential role of pilot studies in the development and evaluation of interventions.


Le club de sport (CS) est un milieu de vie privilégié pour promouvoir la santé. Cependant, les interventions de promotion de la santé (PS) existantes dans les CS ciblent majoritairement un seul comportement de santé et des pratiquants sportifs masculins, et leurs évaluations renseignent peu leurs déploiements. Pour dépasser ces limites, l'intervention PROSCeSS a été co-construite à partir du modèle théorique du CS promoteur de santé et de stratégies multi-niveaux et multi-déterminants de santé. L'objectif de cette étude pilote était d'évaluer le déploiement de l'intervention PROSCeSS et d'identifier les facteurs influençant son déploiement. Une étude qualitative comprenant des enregistrements de réunions, des échanges par e-mails et par téléphone, et des entretiens avec les référents de 14 CS a été réalisée. Même si le nombre de CS qui sont allés au bout de l'intervention est faible, ceux-ci considèrent qu'ils ont un rôle à jouer dans la santé de leurs membres. Leur capacité à développer des activités de PS et à déployer les étapes de l'intervention est influencée par les ressources disponibles, le soutien qu'ils reçoivent de leur fédération sportive et la capacité d'un porteur de projet (référent) à s'impliquer. Les CS qui ont déployé l'intervention ont mis en place plusieurs stratégies qui leur permettent d'intégrer la santé dans les habitudes organisationnelles, sociales, économiques et environnementales du CS et de développer de nouvelles activités de PS, telles que des sessions d'activités sportives adaptées et des activités de sensibilisation à l'échauffement, à l'alimentation et aux gestes de premier secours. Cette étude montre qu'il est important de comprendre les spécificités des contextes dans lesquels les interventions de PS sont déployées. Parce qu'elle a conduit à retravailler les étapes de l'intervention et à développer un nouveau design d'évaluation, elle met en évidence le rôle essentiel des études pilotes pour le développement et l'évaluation des interventions.


Assuntos
Esportes , Masculino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Promoção da Saúde , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Organizações
10.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 21(1): 2337252, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid regeneration after intense exercise is essential for competitive athletes. Based on this assumption, supplementation strategies, focusing on food supplements, are increasing to improve the recovery processes. One such supplement is cannabidiol (CBD) which is gaining more attention in competitive sports. However, the evidence is still lacking and there are no data available about the effect of a short-term chronic application. METHODS: A three-arm double-blind cross-over study was conducted to determine the effects of two different CBD products on performance, muscle damage and inflammatory processes in well-trained athletes. In total 17 subjects took successfully part in this study. Each subject underwent the six-day, high-intensity training protocol three times. After each training session, each subject took either a placebo or a CBD product (60 mg of oil or solubilisate). Between the intervention phases, at least four weeks of washout period was conducted. Before and after the training protocols the performance capacity in countermovement jump (CMJ), back squat (BS), bench press (BP) and 1-mile run were measured and biomarkers for muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin), inflammatory processes (interleukin 6 and 10) and immune cell activity (ratios of neutrophil granulocytes, lymphocytes and, platelets) were analyzed. For statistical analyses, the current version of R and a linear mixed model was used. RESULTS: It could identify different effects of the training protocol depending on performance level (advanced or highly advanced athletes) (p < .05). Regardless of the performance level, muscle damage and a reduction in performance could be induced by the training protocol. Only CBD oil was associated with a reduction in myoglobin concentration (p < .05) in advanced athletes. Concerning immune activity, a significant decrease in platelets lymphocyte ratios was observed in advanced athletes after placebo treatment (p < .05). CBD oil application showed a slight inhibitory effect (p < .10). Moreover, the reduction in performance differs between the performance levels. A significant decrease in CMJ was observed in advanced athletes and a decreasing trend in BS was observed in highly advanced athletes after placebo treatment (p < 0.10). Both CBD products do not affect performance parameters. For inflammatory parameters, no effects were observed. CONCLUSION: It was found that the performance level of the subjects was a decisive factor and that they responded differently to the training protocol and the CBD application. However, no clear effects of either CBD product were found and further research is needed to identify the long-term effects of CBD application.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Esportes , Humanos , Estudos Cross-Over , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Mioglobina , Músculo Esquelético , Atletas , Método Duplo-Cego , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(4): e245473, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558143

RESUMO

This survey study examines whether or not individuals who wager on sports are at greater risk of binge use of alcohol.


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Jogo de Azar , Esportes , Humanos , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Etanol , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8221, 2024 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589500

RESUMO

Spectator sports consumption serves as a vital component in the development of the sports industry. However, numerous challenges exist in fostering public engagement in this domain. Therefore, in order to explore the factors that influence public participation in spectator sport consumption, this study analyzes the intention to participate in spectator sports consumption from the perspective of consumers. On this basis, Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 25 members of the public, and three levels of coding were analyzed using the qualitative research method of procedural rooting theory and establish a model on the influence of public intention to participate in spectator sports consumption, and on this basis, we reveal the influence of crucial elements. The results of the study indicate that: Firstly, personal and psychological factors are significant internal drivers, while external drivers cover product and contextual factors. Secondly, the key to filling the attitudinal and behavioral gaps is the depth of perception individually, which is of great importance in increasing public participation. Thirdly, external contextual factors impacting consumer support primarily consist of external incentives, social influences, and urban contextual variables, which also serve a moderating role in the integration model. The results suggest that guiding the public to actively participate in spectator sport consumption should be based on an understanding of individual perceptions, emotions as well as attitudes. This paper develops a model examining public motivation to engage in spectator sports locally in China, pinpoints the primary influencing factors and mechanisms, and presents novel concepts for the sustainable growth of the sports sector.


Assuntos
Intenção , Esportes , Teoria Fundamentada , Motivação , Esportes/psicologia , Atitude
13.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2334587, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590136

RESUMO

ABSTRACTBackground: Sexual violence (SV) is a persistent issue on US college campuses, particularly among college student-athletes. Strategies to address SV are urgently needed. Yet, prior research shows that many university practices can be more harmful than helpful to SV survivors and necessitates a reimagination of how institutions support SV survivors. Survivor-centred approaches may be one way to effectively address SV for students, including student-athletes, across college campuses.Objective: This qualitative study explored campus personnel experiences with and perceptions of survivor-centred SV prevention and intervention policies and practices on college campuses and examined how these approaches serve SV survivors, including college student-athletes.Methods: As part of a larger study on campus SV and student-athletes across four institutions, semi-structured interviews with 22 representatives from athletic departments, campus advocacy, and Title IX were conducted. Guided by phenomenology, a thematic analysis approach was used to identify key patterns in survivor-centred SV prevention and intervention policies and practices. Participant demographic data were analysed descriptively.Results: Most participants identified as white (72.2%), heterosexual (63.6%), women (68.2%), and were an average of 41.8 years old (SD = 10.2). The majority were in positions associated with athletic departments (63.6%), and they had been in their role for an average of 5.6 years (SD = 6.6). Through thematic analysis, three main themes were identified: (1) education & accessibility; (2) interpersonal relationships & individual well-being; and (3) campus and societal norms.Conclusions: The findings from this study highlight clear policy and practice recommendations for survivor-centred SV prevention and intervention on college campuses, such as accessible, applicable SV training and the implementation of survivor-centred approaches. Further research is needed to understand existing survivor-centred practices and the facilitators and barriers to their implementation across institutions and within athletic departments.


Sexual violence is a persistent issue on US college campuses, particularly among college student-athletes. Strategies to address SV are urgently needed. Survivor-centred approaches may offer solutions to better serve survivors of sexual violence, including student-athletes.Through interviews with athletic department, Title IX, and campus advocacy personnel, three themes were identified related to developing and implementing survivor-centred approaches: (1) education & accessibility; (2) interpersonal relationships & individual well-being; and (3) campus and societal norms.Further research is needed to understand existing survivor-centred practices and the facilitators and barriers to their implementation across institutions, particularly for college student-athletes.


Assuntos
Delitos Sexuais , Esportes , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Estudantes , Atletas , Sobreviventes
14.
Wiad Lek ; 77(2): 194-200, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To concern the scientific substantiation of a complex ergometer tests of aerobic and anaerobic character and quantitative criteria for assessing the condition of female handball players` respiratory and power supply systems in the maximum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: Descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, factor analysis. In order to solve those tasks within the framework there were measured the indicators of two hundred young female handball players at the pre-basic training stage. RESULTS: Results: The outcomes of the research allow us to recommend the program for handball players` potential capabilities assessment that will help to characterize the state of power supply systems of the body under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At the same time, the results of the testing can be used to identify strengths and weaknesses in the structure of handball players` special readiness indicators and to individualize the process of players' preparation at the subsequent stages. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: As a result of experimental data, the quantitative criteria and the scale for the assessment of handball players' working capacity in ergometer maximum tests of aerobic-anaerobic character have been developed. On the basis of these tests, it is possible to analyze objectively the individual characteristics of children before making a final decision.


Assuntos
Esportes , Esportes de Equipe , Criança , Humanos , Feminino , Esportes/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Músculos
15.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301843, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593163

RESUMO

Leisure plays a key role in the happiness of youth. Studies have shown that various factors of leisure, such as the type, the time, the cost, and the space, have an influence on the adolescents' happiness. However, little is known about which of these factors is a major factor in youth's happiness. The purpose of this study is to explore the leisure factors that determine happiness in adolescents by examining the relationship between happiness and various leisure factors. The study used the method of machine learning to analyze national statistical data, National Leisure Activity Survey. The data used in this study were from the National Leisure Activity Survey 2019, which is a national statistic produced by the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism in the Republic of Korea. The analysis found that leisure perceptions, academic and leisure balance, and public leisure space have a very important impact on the adolescents' well-being. The findings of this research may contribute to a better understanding of leisure and happiness in adolescents, and will also help adolescents make better use of their leisure time, leading to better leisure lives, and ultimately contribute to raising their level of happiness.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Esportes , Humanos , Adolescente , Atividades de Lazer , República da Coreia
16.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 34(4): e14620, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581216

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been an increase in the delivery and evaluation of parent education programs within youth sport. Subsequently, some recent reviews of these programs have been conducted. However, one consistent issue across many of the programs and associated review papers is the lack of an appropriate evaluation framework to guide the planning or associated reporting of the outcomes of the interventions. This has limited understanding of the overall impact of sport parenting interventions. Thus, the purposes of the current study were as follows: (a) to identify commonalities in the reporting and evaluation of parent education programs; (b) to identify gaps in the reporting and evaluation of parent education programs; (c) to draw these insights together to provide suggestions regarding how the RE-AIM could be used to enhance planning and evaluation of evidence-based programs for parent education in sport. Specifically, utilizing the RE-AIM framework to provide insights into pertinent evaluation metrics, this integrative review aimed to identify commonalities and gaps in the reporting of parent education programs. The RE-AIM framework considers the essential elements to assess the external and internal validity of interventions through five dimensions: Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (Am J Public Health. 1999;89(9):1322-1327). Subsequently, the review aimed to provide suggestions regarding strategies to enhance the planning and evaluation of evidence-based programs for parent education in sport. Overall, the analysis demonstrated that most studies presented some pertinent evaluation information related to the RE-AIM framework, such as the number of participants and contacts made, the measures used, and the program level. However, the studies also lacked information on participant exclusion criteria, the method used to select the delivery agent (e.g., parents engaged in the program), and cost measures. Overall, the current study identified various areas where programs could be enhanced, specifically related to reporting procedural elements (e.g., program design, target population, and costs) pertaining to the implementation of parent education programs.


Assuntos
Esportes , Adolescente , Humanos , Pais , Poder Familiar , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos
17.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 121(2): e20230524, 2024.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disparities in health outcomes among racial groups warrant investigation, even among elite athletes. Therefore, understanding the impact of race upon post-medal survival in Brazilian Olympians becomes essential. OBJECTIVE: To compare post-medal survival between white and non-white Brazilian Olympic medalists from 1920 to 1992. METHODS: This study used publicly available data for a retrospective cohort study on all Brazilian Olympic medalists from 1920 to 1992 (males only). Athletes were classified into white and non-white groups using structured ethnicity determination. Kaplan-Meier analyses computed the restricted mean survival time (RMST) for each ethnic group. A Cox proportional hazards analysis assessed ethnicity-based survival differences, adjusting for medal-winning age and birth year (p<0.05). RESULTS: Among 123 athletes (73.9% white), the mean age of medal achievement was 25.03±4.8 years. During the study, 18.7% of white and 37.5% of non-white athletes died (p=0.031). White athletes had a mean age at death of 75.10±18.01 years, while non-white athletes had an age of 67.13±14.90 years (p=0.109). The RMST for white athletes was 51.59 (95% CI 49.79-53.39) years, while for non-white athletes, it was 45.026 (95% CI 41.31-48.74) years, resulting in a ΔRMST of 6.56 (95% CI 2.43-10.70; p=0.0018). Multivariate analysis showed that non-white athletes had a higher mortality risk than did white athletes (HR 5.58; 95% CI, 2.18-14.31). CONCLUSION: Following their first medal, white Brazilian Olympians typically enjoy a six-year longer lifespan than their non-white counterparts, illustrating a marked mortality gap and health disparities among healthy individuals in Brazil.


FUNDAMENTO: As disparidades nos resultados de saúde entre grupos raciais merecem investigação, mesmo em atletas de elite. Portanto, compreender o impacto da raça na sobrevida pós-medalha em atletas olímpicos brasileiros torna-se essencial. OBJETIVO: Comparar a sobrevida pós-medalha entre medalhistas olímpicos brasileiros brancos e não brancos de 1920 a 1992. MÉTODOS: Utilizamos dados disponíveis publicamente para um estudo de coorte retrospectivo de todos os medalhistas olímpicos brasileiros de 1920 a 1992 (somente homens). Os atletas foram classificados nos grupos brancos e não brancos usando determinação estruturada de etnia. As análises de Kaplan-Meier calcularam o tempo médio de sobrevida restrito (TMSR) para cada grupo étnico. Uma análise de riscos proporcionais de Cox avaliou as diferenças de sobrevida baseadas na etnia, ajustando para a idade da conquista da medalha e ano de nascimento (p<0,05). RESULTADOS: Entre 123 atletas (73,9% brancos), a idade média da conquista de medalhas foi de 25,03 ± 4,8 anos. Durante o estudo, 18,7% dos atletas brancos e 37,5% dos atletas não brancos morreram (p=0,031). Os atletas brancos tiveram média de idade ao óbito de 75,10 ± 18,01 anos, enquanto os atletas não brancos tiveram idade média de 67,13 ± 14,90 anos (p=0,109). O TMSR para atletas brancos foi de 51,59 (IC 95%, 49,79 - 53,39) anos, e para atletas não brancos foi de 45,026 (IC 95%, 41,31 - 48,74) anos, resultando em um ΔTMSR de 6,56 (IC 95%, 2,43 - 10,70; p=0,0018). A análise multivariada mostrou que atletas não brancos apresentavam maior risco de mortalidade do que atletas brancos (RC 5,58; IC 95%, 2,18 - 14,31). CONCLUSÃO: Após a primeira medalha, os atletas olímpicos brasileiros brancos normalmente desfrutam de uma expectativa de vida seis anos mais longa do que seus colegas não brancos, ilustrando uma acentuada diferença de mortalidade e disparidades de saúde entre indivíduos saudáveis no Brasil.


Assuntos
Esportes , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Brasil , Estudos Retrospectivos , Atletas
18.
Psicol. conduct ; 32(1): 181-202, Abr 1, 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-232228

RESUMO

El ejercicio físico en altos volúmenes y descontrolado puede generar dependencia psicológica y cambios en el estado de ánimo. La regulación emocional y el afecto negativo son procesos relevantes para el desarrollo de patrones adictivos. Este estudio analizó las diferencias en afecto negativo y regulación emocional en función del perfil de práctica del ejercicio físico; la relación entre la dependencia del ejercicio, la regulación emocional y el afecto negativo; y el papel mediador de la regulación emocional en dicha relación. Participaron 375 practicantes de deportes de resistencia. Las diferencias en los perfiles de práctica del ejercicio físico fueron significativas en todas las variables de estudio. La dependencia del ejercicio correlacionó de forma positiva y significativa con las dificultades de regulación emocional y con el afecto negativo. Las dificultades de regulación emocional fueron predictoras de la dependencia del ejercicio. Hubo un efecto de mediación de las dificultades de regulación emocional entre el afecto negativo y la dependencia del ejercicio. Mejorar las habilidades de regulación emocional podría prevenir la aparición de la dependencia del ejercicio.(AU)


The copious and uncontrolled practice of exercise can generate psychologicaldependence and mood changes. Emotional regulation and negative affectivity arerelevant processes for the development of addictive patterns. This study analysedthe differences in negative affectivity and emotional regulation based on thepractice profile of exercise; the relationship between exercise dependence,emotional regulation, and negative affectivity; and the mediating role of emotionalregulation in such relationship. 375 endurance sports practitioners participated.The differences in the physical exercise practice profiles were significant in all thestudy variables. Exercise dependence correlated positively and significantly withemotional regulation difficulties and with negative affectivity. Emotional regulationdifficulties were predictors of exercise dependence. There was a mediating effectof emotional regulation difficulties between negative affect and exercisedependence. Improving emotional regulation skills could prevent the onset ofexercise dependence.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Exercício Físico , Esportes/psicologia , Treinamento de Força , Afeto
19.
JBJS Rev ; 12(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446913

RESUMO

¼ Sudden cardiac events during sports competition are rare but tragic occurrences that require a timely, comprehensive response by well-prepared athletic trainers and medical providers. This sequence should prioritize prompt emergency medical system activation, immediate initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), automated early defibrillation (AED), and comprehensive advanced life support efforts.¼ Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, referred to as the "athlete's heart," refers to a host of adaptive changes that increase cardiac chamber size and wall thickness to allow for greater pressures and volumes during exercise. This remodeling phenotype may overlap with other inherited cardiomyopathies and cardiac abnormalities, which can complicate clinical care. The long-term implications of this electrical and structural remodeling on cardiac function are unknown.¼ Although the best screening strategies to optimize primary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest is an evolving topic, the effectiveness of CPR and early defibrillation use in treating out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest has been well-established, despite their reported underuse.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Esportes , Humanos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Atletas , Cognição
20.
Sportverletz Sportschaden ; 38(1): 18-26, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447940

RESUMO

Injuries effect the performance of athletes. Severity of injuries is determined by time loss and sporting performance reduction. To treat injuries adequately, it is necessary to get an overview of varied injuries types in different sports disciplines. In a retrospective study 7.809 athletes from Germany, Switzerland and Austria competing in competitive or recreational levels of sports were included. Injury prevalence was highest in team sports (75 %), followed by combat (64 %), racquet (54 %) and track and field (51 %). Knee (28 %) and shoulder (14 %) were the most at risk joints. Time loss in sporting activity after injury was longest in the region of knee (26 weeks). Of all reported injuries, 48 % were accompanied by a reduced level of performance. The highest injury prevalence occurred in the year 2016 (45 %). More injuries occurred during training (58 %) compared to competition (42 %). Across Olympic disciplines, a large number of injuries occurred during training sessions. Injury frequency increased as the Olympic games drew closer. Knee and shoulder injuries were the most severe injuries with respect to time loss and reduction sporting performance.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ombro , Esportes , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Atletas , Articulação do Joelho , Lesões do Ombro/epidemiologia
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