*PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298309, 2024.*

##### RESUMO

In this study, tests of fit for the power function lognormal distribution is considered. The probability plot, probability plot correlation coefficient, and goodness-of-fit tests-the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS), Cramér-von Mises (CvM), and Anderson-Darling (AD) tests are provided. Tables of critical values are presented by using simulation techniques, and the AD test outperforms KS and CvM tests based on power comparisons. Finally, to illustrate these test procedures, we fit this distribution to the data which represent the survival times of 121 breast cancer patients from one hospital.

##### Assuntos

Probabilidade , Humanos , Distribuições Estatísticas*PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296376, 2024.*

##### RESUMO

A common and important problem in medicine, economics and environmental studies is the comparison of the variances of several treatments with that of a control treatment. Among the existing methods, Spurrier's optimal test based on multivariate F distribution has exact type I error rates. However, it requires equal sample sizes among the treatment groups. To extend the application scope, in this paper, we propose a new efficient test for comparing several variances with a control using the marginal inferential model (MIM). Simulation studies show that the MIM test guarantees the exact type I error rate whether the sample size is equal or unequal. Moreover, the power of the MIM test is competitive with that of Spurrier's optimal test. Finally, two real examples are used to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.

##### Assuntos

Modelos Estatísticos , Simulação por Computador , Tamanho da Amostra , Distribuições Estatísticas*J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 150: 106297, 2024 Feb.*

##### RESUMO

Aseptic loosening due to mechanical failure of bone cement is considered to be a leading cause of revision of joint replacement systems. Detailed quantified information on the number, size and distribution pattern of pores can help to obtain a deeper understanding of the bone cement's fatigue behavior. The objective of this study was to provide statistical descriptions for the pore distribution characteristics of laboratory bone cement specimens with different amounts of antibiotic contents. For four groups of bone cement (Palacos) specimens, containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 wt/wt% of telavancin antibiotic, seven samples per group were micro computed tomography scanned (38.97 µm voxel size). The images were first preprocessed in Mimics and then analyzed in Dragonfly, with the level of threshold being set such that single-pixel pores become visible. The normalized pore volume data of the specimens were then used to extract the logarithmic histograms of the pore densities for antibiotic groups, as well as their three-parameter Weibull probability density functions. Statistical comparison of the pore distribution data of the antibiotic groups using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test revealed a significantly larger porosity (p < 0.05) in groups with larger added antibiotic contents (2.4 and 0.6 wt/wt% vs 0.3 wt/wt%). Further analysis revealed that this effect was associated with the significantly larger frequency of micropores of 0.1-0.5 mm diameter (p < 0.05) in groups with larger antibiotic content (2.4 wt/wt% vs and 0.6 and 0.3 wt/wt%), implying that the elution of the added antibiotic produces micropores in this diameter range mainly. Based on this observation and the fatigue test results in the literature, it was suggested that micropore clusters have a detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of bone cement and play a major role in initiating fatigue cracks in highly antibiotic added specimens.

##### Assuntos

Odonatos , Polimetil Metacrilato , Animais , Antibacterianos , Cimentos Ósseos , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Distribuições Estatísticas*PLoS One ; 18(11): e0290885, 2023.*

##### RESUMO

We propose a new family of distributions, so-called the unit ratio-extended Weibull family ([Formula: see text]). It is derived from ratio transformation in an extended Weibull random variable. The use of this transformation is a novelty of the work since it has been less explored than the exponential and has not yet been studied within the extended Weibull class. Moreover, we offer a valuable alternative to model double-bounded variables on the unit interval. Five [Formula: see text] special models are studied in detail, namely the: i) unit ratio-Gompertz; ii) unit ratio-Burr XII; iii) unit ratio-Lomax; v) unit ratio-Rayleigh, and vi) unit ratio-Weibull distributions. We propose a quantile-parameterization for the new family. The maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) are presented. A Monte Carlo study is performed to evaluate the behavior of the MLEs of unit ratio-Gompertz and unit ratio-Rayleigh distributions. This last model has closed-form and approximately unbiased MLE for small sample sizes. Further, the [Formula: see text] submodels are adjusted to the dropout rate in Brazilian undergraduate courses. We focus on the areas of civil engineering, economics, computer sciences, and control engineering. The applications show that the new family is suitable for modeling educational data and may provide effective alternatives compared to other usual unit models, such as the Beta, Kumaraswamy, and unit gamma distributions. They can also outperform some recent contributions in the unit distribution literature. Thus, the [Formula: see text] family can provide competitive alternatives when those models are unsuitable.

##### Assuntos

Engenharia , Brasil , Distribuições Estatísticas , Tamanho da Amostra , Método de Monte Carlo*PLoS One ; 18(11): e0285992, 2023.*

##### RESUMO

Gul and Mohsin 2021 developed a new modified form of renowned "Half logistic" distribution introduced by Balakrishnan (1991) and named it half logistic-truncated exponential distribution (HL-TEXPD). Some mathematical characteristics are studied, including hazard function, Pth percentile, moment generating function and Shannon entropy. Simulation study is performed to examine the behaviour of parameter estimates. The proposed model is fitted on three real data sets to check its efficacy. Additionally, TTT (total time on test) plot is drawn to study the failure rate of the three data sets. The results verdict that HL-TEXPD can be efficiently utilized in the field of engineering and medical sciences based on the data sets under study contrary to the classical and baseline models.

##### Assuntos

Simulação por Computador , Distribuições Estatísticas , Entropia*PeerJ ; 11: e16397, 2023.*

##### RESUMO

Thailand is a country that is prone to both floods and droughts, and these natural disasters have significant impacts on the country's people, economy, and environment. Estimating rainfall is an important part of flood and drought prevention. Rainfall data typically contains both zero and positive observations, and the distribution of rainfall often follows the delta-lognormal distribution. However, it is important to note that rainfall data can be censored, meaning that some values may be missing or truncated. The interval estimator for the ratio of means will be useful when comparing the means of two samples. The purpose of this article was to compare the performance of several approaches for statistically analyzing left-censored data. The performance of the confidence intervals was evaluated using the coverage probability and average length, which were assessed through Monte Carlo simulation. The approaches examined included several variations of the generalized confidence interval, the Bayesian, the parametric bootstrap, and the method of variance estimates recovery approaches. For (ξ1, ξ2) = (0.10,0.10), simulations showed that the Bayesian approach would be a suitable choice for constructing the credible interval for the ratio of means of delta-lognormal distributions based on left-censored data. For (ξ1, ξ2) = (0.10,0.25), the parametric bootstrap approach was a strong alternative for constructing the confidence interval. However, the generalized confidence interval approach can be considered to construct the confidence when the sample sizes are increase. Practical applications demonstrating the use of these techniques on rainfall data showed that the confidence interval based on the generalized confidence interval approach covered the ratio of population means and had the smallest length. The proposed approaches' effectiveness was illustrated using daily rainfall datasets from the provinces of Chiang Rai and Chiang Mai in Thailand.

##### Assuntos

Intervalos de Confiança , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Tailândia , Simulação por Computador , Distribuições Estatísticas*Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 77(7)1 - 15 de Octubre 2023. tab*

##### RESUMO

Cuando el investigador pide subvención y autorización a entidades financieras para llevar a cabo su proyecto, entre las primeras cuestiones que le plantean está: ¿qué potencia estadística tiene este estudio que usted propone? Si el investigador responde, por ejemplo, el 90%, y el evaluador se da por satisfecho, es seguro que no conoce realmente el tema. La potencia de un estudio no es única. Depende de determinados parámetros y ocurre que, en la mayoría de los casos, variando ligeramente los valores de esos parámetros, la potencia toma un valor aceptable. Si no es así, y a pesar de ello se lleva a cabo el estudio, y sus resultados son muy significativos, no ha lugar a cuestionar el éxito encontrado argumentando que el estudio tenía poca potencia. Tan sólo es momento de celebrarlo. (AU)

When researchers request funding and authorisation from financial institutions to carry out their project, one of the first questions they are asked is: what is the statistical power of the study you are proposing? If the researcher answers, for example, 90%, and the evaluator is satisfied, it is certain that he/she is not really familiar with the subject. The power of a study is not unique. It depends on certain parameters and what happens is that, in most cases, by introducing a slight variation in the values of these parameters, the power takes on an acceptable value. If this is not the case and the study is carried out anyway, and its results are very significant, there is no room to question its success by arguing that the power of the study was very low. It is just the time to celebrate. (AU)

##### Assuntos

Distribuições Estatísticas , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Modelos Estatísticos , Indicadores (Estatística) , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatística como Assunto*An Acad Bras Cienc ; 95(2): e20200841, 2023.*

##### RESUMO

In this paper, a new class of semi-continuous distributions called zero-adjusted log-symmetric is introduced and studied. Some properties and parameters estimation by maximum likelihood method are derived and confidence intervals (CIs) are developed. A simulation study is conducted to evaluate properties of the maximum likelihood estimators in lighter/heavier-tailed distributions. Finally, an application in a real data set is presented to illustrate the flexibility of the proposed class of distributions.

##### Assuntos

Simulação por Computador , Distribuições Estatísticas*Sci Rep ; 13(1): 12229, 2023 07 28.*

##### RESUMO

Among diseases, cancer exhibits the fastest global spread, presenting a substantial challenge for patients, their families, and the communities they belong to. This paper is devoted to modeling such a disease as a special case. A newly proposed distribution called the binomial-discrete Erlang-truncated exponential (BDETE) is introduced. The BDETE is a mixture of binomial distribution with the number of trials (parameter [Formula: see text]) taken after a discrete Erlang-truncated exponential distribution. A comprehensive mathematical treatment of the proposed distribution and expressions of its density, cumulative distribution function, survival function, failure rate function, Quantile function, moment generating function, Shannon entropy, order statistics, and stress-strength reliability, are provided. The distribution's parameters are estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Two real-world lifetime count data sets from the cancer disease, both of which are right-skewed and over-dispersed, are fitted using the proposed BDETE distribution to evaluate its efficacy and viability. We expect the findings to become standard works in probability theory and its related fields.

##### Assuntos

Neoplasias , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Distribuições Estatísticas , Entropia*Cereb Cortex ; 33(16): 9439-9449, 2023 08 08.*

##### RESUMO

Numbers of neurons and their spatial variation are fundamental organizational features of the brain. Despite the large corpus of cytoarchitectonic data available in the literature, the statistical distributions of neuron densities within and across brain areas remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we show that neuron densities are compatible with a lognormal distribution across cortical areas in several mammalian species, and find that this also holds true within cortical areas. A minimal model of noisy cell division, in combination with distributed proliferation times, can account for the coexistence of lognormal distributions within and across cortical areas. Our findings uncover a new organizational principle of cortical cytoarchitecture: the ubiquitous lognormal distribution of neuron densities, which adds to a long list of lognormal variables in the brain.

##### Assuntos

Encéfalo , Neurônios , Animais , Neurônios/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mamíferos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Distribuições Estatísticas*PLoS One ; 18(7): e0286593, 2023.*

##### RESUMO

In the most recent era, the extensions of the probability models via trigonometry methods have received great attention. This paper also offers a novel trigonometric version of the Weibull model called a type-I cosine exponentiated Weibull (for short "TICE-Weibull") distribution. The identifiability properties for all three parameters of the TICE-Weibull model are derived. The estimators of the TICE-Weibull model are derived by implementing the maximum likelihood approach. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the TICE-Weibull model, two applications from real-world phenomena are analyzed. In addition, the proposed statistical model is established for an attribute control chart based on a time-truncated life test. The advantage of the developed charts is examined based on the average run length (ARL). The necessary tables of shift sizes and various sample sizes are offered for numerous values of the distribution parameters, as well as specified ARL and shift constants. Some numerical examples are discussed for various scheme parameters to study the performance of the new TICE-Weibull attribute control charts. According to our search and a brief study of the statistical literature, there is no published work on the development of a control chart using new probability models that are introduced using the cosine function. This is the key motivation of this work, which fills this amazing and interesting research gap.

##### Assuntos

Lacunas de Evidências , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Funções Verossimilhança , Controle de Qualidade , Distribuições Estatísticas*Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 199(11): 1208-1222, 2023 Jul 05.*

##### RESUMO

The first study on fitting dose data for workers was performed by Gale( 1) in 1965 where log-normal and normal distributions were used. Since then, various models of dose distribution have been proposed. The log-normal distribution and its different forms have been widely used for fitting the dose data. Most of the studies included one or two distributions under consideration. In this study five distributions are considered for fitting and four distributions are selected based on observation of Cullen-Frey graph. The Akaike's Information criteria (AIC) and Bayesian Information criteria (BIC) are applied to find the suitable distribution to fit the occupational dose data. The maximum likelihood method was used for calculation of AIC, BIC values and parameter estimation. A computer code is written in R-language and environment for statistical computing and graphics for analysis of occupational dose data of three institutions.

##### Assuntos

Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Probabilidade , Distribuição Normal , Distribuições Estatísticas , Doses de Radiação*Behav Res Methods ; 55(8): 4343-4368, 2023 12.*

##### RESUMO

The multibridge R package allows a Bayesian evaluation of informed hypotheses [Formula: see text] applied to frequency data from an independent binomial or multinomial distribution. multibridge uses bridge sampling to efficiently compute Bayes factors for the following hypotheses concerning the latent category proportions ð: (a) hypotheses that postulate equality constraints (e.g., ð1 = ð2 = ð3); (b) hypotheses that postulate inequality constraints (e.g., ð1 < ð2 < ð3 or ð1 > ð2 > ð3); (c) hypotheses that postulate combinations of inequality constraints and equality constraints (e.g., ð1 < ð2 = ð3); and (d) hypotheses that postulate combinations of (a)-(c) (e.g., ð1 < (ð2 = ð3),ð4). Any informed hypothesis [Formula: see text] may be compared against the encompassing hypothesis [Formula: see text] that all category proportions vary freely, or against the null hypothesis [Formula: see text] that all category proportions are equal. multibridge facilitates the fast and accurate comparison of large models with many constraints and models for which relatively little posterior mass falls in the restricted parameter space. This paper describes the underlying methodology and illustrates the use of multibridge through fully reproducible examples.

##### Assuntos

Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Distribuições Estatísticas*PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285183, 2023.*

##### RESUMO

Although many data sets are discrete and heavy tailed (for example, number of claims and claim amounts if recorded as rounded values), not many discrete heavy tailed distributions are available in the literature. In this paper, we discuss thirteen known discrete heavy tailed distributions, propose nine new discrete heavy tailed distributions and give expressions for their probability mass functions, cumulative distribution functions, hazard rate functions, reversed hazard rate functions, means, variances, moment generating functions, entropies and quantile functions. Tail behaviour and a measure of asymmetry are used to compare the known and new discrete heavy tailed distributions. The better fits of the discrete heavy tailed distributions over their continuous counterparts as assessed by probability plots are illustrated using three data sets. Finally, a simulated study is performed to assess the finite sample performance of the maximum likelihood estimators used in the data application section.

##### Assuntos

Funções Verossimilhança , Distribuições Estatísticas*Bioinformatics ; 39(5)2023 05 04.*

##### RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Three-way data structures, characterized by three entities, the units, the variables and the occasions, are frequent in biological studies. In RNA sequencing, three-way data structures are obtained when high-throughput transcriptome sequencing data are collected for n genes across p conditions at r occasions. Matrix variate distributions offer a natural way to model three-way data and mixtures of matrix variate distributions can be used to cluster three-way data. Clustering of gene expression data is carried out as means of discovering gene co-expression networks. RESULTS: In this work, a mixture of matrix variate Poisson-log normal distributions is proposed for clustering read counts from RNA sequencing. By considering the matrix variate structure, full information on the conditions and occasions of the RNA sequencing dataset is simultaneously considered, and the number of covariance parameters to be estimated is reduced. We propose three different frameworks for parameter estimation: a Markov chain Monte Carlo-based approach, a variational Gaussian approximation-based approach, and a hybrid approach. Various information criteria are used for model selection. The models are applied to both real and simulated data, and we demonstrate that the proposed approaches can recover the underlying cluster structure in both cases. In simulation studies where the true model parameters are known, our proposed approach shows good parameter recovery. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The GitHub R package for this work is available at https://github.com/anjalisilva/mixMVPLN and is released under the open source MIT license.

##### Assuntos

Transcriptoma , Distribuição Normal , Simulação por Computador , Distribuições Estatísticas , Análise de Sequência de RNA*PLoS One ; 18(3): e0283313, 2023.*

##### RESUMO

Statistical physics is widely used to study the nonlinear mechanical behaviors of rock. For the limitations of existing statistical damage models and Weibull distribution, a new statistical damage with lateral damage is established. In addition, by introducing the maximum entropy distribution function and the strict constraint on damage variable, a expression of the damage variable matching the proposed model is obtained. Through comparing with the experimental results and the other two statistical damage models, the rationality of the maximum entropy statistical damage model is confirmed. The proposed model can better reflect the strain-softening behavior for rocks and respond to the residual strength, which provides a theoretical reference for practical engineering construction and design.

##### Assuntos

Modelos Estatísticos , Física , Entropia , Distribuições Estatísticas*PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281474, 2023.*

##### RESUMO

In this paper, we introduced a novel general two-parameter statistical distribution which can be presented as a mix of both exponential and gamma distributions. Some statistical properties of the general model were derived mathematically. Many estimation methods studied the estimation of the proposed model parameters. A new statistical model was presented as a particular case of the general two-parameter model, which is used to study the performance of the different estimation methods with the randomly generated data sets. Finally, the COVID-19 data set was used to show the superiority of the particular case for fitting real-world data sets over other compared well-known models.

##### Assuntos

COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Distribuições Estatísticas*Biometrics ; 79(4): 3818-3830, 2023 12.*

##### RESUMO

Contact-tracing is one of the most effective tools in infectious disease outbreak control. A capture-recapture approach based upon ratio regression is suggested to estimate the completeness of case detection. Ratio regression has been recently developed as flexible tool for count data modeling and has proved to be successful in the capture-recapture setting. The methodology is applied here to Covid-19 contact tracing data from Thailand. A simple weighted straight line approach is used which includes the Poisson and geometric distribution as special cases. For the case study data of contact tracing for Thailand, a completeness of 83% could be found with a 95% confidence interval of 74%-93%.

##### Assuntos

COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Surtos de Doenças , Distribuições Estatísticas*PLoS One ; 18(2): e0275430, 2023.*

##### RESUMO

In this work, a new flexible class, called the type-I extended-F family, is proposed. A special sub-model of the proposed class, called type-I extended-Weibull (TIEx-W) distribution, is explored in detail. Basic properties of the TIEx-W distribution are provided. The parameters of the TIEx-W distribution are obtained by eight classical methods of estimation. The performance of these estimators is explored using Monte Carlo simulation results for small and large samples. Besides, the Bayesian estimation of the model parameters under different loss functions for the real data set is also provided. The importance and flexibility of the TIEx-W model are illustrated by analyzing an insurance data. The real-life insurance data illustrates that the TIEx-W distribution provides better fit as compared to competing models such as Lindley-Weibull, exponentiated Weibull, Kumaraswamy-Weibull, α logarithmic transformed Weibull, and beta Weibull distributions, among others.

##### Assuntos

Funções Verossimilhança , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Distribuições Estatísticas , Método de Monte Carlo*Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2435, 2023 02 10.*

##### RESUMO

One clear aspect of behaviour in the COVID-19 pandemic has been people's focus on, and response to, reported or observed infection numbers in their community. We describe a simple model of infectious disease spread in a pandemic situation where people's behaviour is influenced by the current risk of infection and where this behavioural response acts homeostatically to return infection risk to a certain preferred level. This homeostatic response is active until approximate herd immunity is reached: in this domain the model predicts that the reproduction rate R will be centred around a median of 1, that proportional change in infection numbers will follow the standard Cauchy distribution with location and scale parameters 0 and 1, and that high infection numbers will follow a power-law frequency distribution with exponent 2. To test these predictions we used worldwide COVID-19 data from 1st February 2020 to 30th June 2022 to calculate [Formula: see text] confidence interval estimates across countries for these R, location, scale and exponent parameters. The resulting median R estimate was [Formula: see text] (predicted value 1) the proportional change location estimate was [Formula: see text] (predicted value 0), the proportional change scale estimate was [Formula: see text] (predicted value 1), and the frequency distribution exponent estimate was [Formula: see text] (predicted value 2); in each case the observed estimate agreed with model predictions.