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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2315575121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568972

RESUMO

The membrane protein Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1, named NCR1 in yeast) is central to sterol homeostasis in eukaryotes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCR1 is localized to the vacuolar membrane, where it is suggested to carry sterols across the protective glycocalyx and deposit them into the vacuolar membrane. However, documentation of a vacuolar glycocalyx in fungi is lacking, and the mechanism for sterol translocation has remained unclear. Here, we provide evidence supporting the presence of a glycocalyx in isolated S. cerevisiae vacuoles and report four cryo-EM structures of NCR1 in two distinct conformations, named tense and relaxed. These two conformations illustrate the movement of sterols through a tunnel formed by the luminal domains, thus bypassing the barrier presented by the glycocalyx. Based on these structures and on comparison with other members of the Resistance-Nodulation-Division (RND) superfamily, we propose a transport model that links changes in the luminal domains with a cycle of protonation and deprotonation within the transmembrane region of the protein. Our model suggests that NPC proteins work by a generalized RND mechanism where the proton motive force drives conformational changes in the transmembrane domains that are allosterically coupled to luminal/extracellular domains to promote sterol transport.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Esteróis , Esteróis/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Receptor 1 Desencadeador da Citotoxicidade Natural/metabolismo , Proteína C1 de Niemann-Pick/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo
2.
Mol Cell ; 84(7): 1183-1185, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579675

RESUMO

Li et al. and Freitas et al. recently identified 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), a sterol produced through the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, as a lipid-soluble antioxidant that protects cells from ferroptosis, a cell death pathway triggered by iron-catalyzed phospholipid peroxidation.1,2.


Assuntos
Ferro , Esteróis , Desidrocolesteróis/metabolismo , Colesterol
3.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 105, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnenolone and progesterone are the life-important steroid hormones regulating essential vital functions in mammals, and widely used in different fields of medicine. Microbiological production of these compounds from sterols is based on the use of recombinant strains expressing the enzyme system cholesterol hydroxylase/C20-C22 lyase (CH/L) of mammalian steroidogenesis. However, the efficiency of the known recombinant strains is still low. New recombinant strains and combination approaches are now needed to produce these steroid hormones. RESULTS: Based on Mycolicibacterium smegmatis, a recombinant strain was created that expresses the steroidogenesis system (CYP11A1, adrenodoxin reductase, adrenodoxin) of the bovine adrenal cortex. The recombinant strain transformed cholesterol and phytosterol to form progesterone among the metabolites. When 3-methoxymethyl ethers of sterols were applied as bioconversion substrates, the corresponding 3-ethers of pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were identified as major metabolites. Under optimized conditions, the recombinant strain produced 85.2 ± 4.7 mol % 3-methoxymethyl-pregnenolone within 48 h, while production of 3-substituted DHEA was not detected. After the 3-methoxymethyl function was deprotected by acid hydrolysis, crystalline pregnenolone was isolated in high purity (over 98%, w/w). The structures of steroids were confirmed using TLC, HPLC, MS and 1H- and 13C-NMR analyses. CONCLUSION: The use of mycolicybacteria as a microbial platform for the expression of systems at the initial stage of mammalian steroidogenesis ensures the production of valuable steroid hormones-progesterone and pregnenolone from cholesterol. Selective production of pregnenolone from cholesterol is ensured by the use of 3-substituted cholesterol as a substrate and optimization of the conditions for its bioconversion. The results open the prospects for the generation of the new microbial biocatalysts capable of effectively producing value-added steroid hormones.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis , Progesterona , Bovinos , Animais , Pregnenolona/metabolismo , Esteróis , Esteroides , Colesterol/metabolismo , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Éteres
4.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474614

RESUMO

The Selçuk district of Izmir is one of the most essential regions in terms of olive oil production. In this study, 60 olive oil samples were obtained from five different locations (ES: Eski Sirince Yolu, KK: Kinali Köprü, AU: Abu Hayat Üst, AA: Abu Hayat Alt, and DB: Degirmen Bogazi) in the Selçuk region of Izmir during two (2019-2020 and 2020-2021) consecutive cropping seasons. Quality indices (free acidity, peroxide value, p-Anisidine value, TOTOX, and spectral absorption at 232 and 270 nm) and the fatty acid, phenolic, and sterol profiles of the samples were determined to analyze the changes in the composition of Selcuk olive oils according to their growing areas. When the quality criteria were analyzed, it was observed that KK had the lowest FFA (0.11% oleic acid, PV (6.66 meq O2/kg), p-ANV (11.95 mmol/kg), TOTOX (25.28), and K232 (1.99) values and K270 had the highest value. During the assessment of phenolic profiles, the ES group exhibited the highest concentration of the phenolic compound p-HPEA-EDA (oleocanthal), with a content of 93.58 mg/kg, equivalent to tyrosol. Upon analyzing the fatty acid and sterol composition, it was noted that AU displayed the highest concentration of oleic acid (71.98%) and ß-sitosterol (87.65%). PCA analysis illustrated the distinct separation of the samples, revealing significant variations in both sterol and fatty acid methyl ester distributions among oils from different regions. Consequently, it was determined that VOOs originating from the Selçuk region exhibit distinct characteristics based on their geographical locations. Hence, this study holds great promise for the region to realize geographically labeled VOOs.


Assuntos
Olea , Ácido Oleico , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Peróxidos , Esteróis , Óleos de Plantas
5.
Biotechnol J ; 19(3): e2300615, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472086

RESUMO

Phytosterols usually have to be esterified to various phytosterol esters to avoid their disadvantages of unsatisfactory solubility and low bioavailability. The enzymatic synthesis of phytosterol esters in a solvent-free system has advantages in terms of environmental friendliness, sustainability, and selectivity. However, the limitation of the low stability and recyclability of the lipase in the solvent-free system, which often requires a relatively high temperature to induce the viscosity, also increased the industrial production cost. In this context, a low-cost material, namely diatomite, was employed as the support in the immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) due to its multiple modification sites. The Fe3 O4 was also then introduced to this system for quick and simple separation via the magnetic field. Moreover, to further enhance the immobilization efficiency of diatomite, a modification strategy which involved the octadecyl and sulfonyl group for regulating the hydrophobicity and interaction between the support and lipase was successfully developed. The optimization of the ratio of the modifiers suggested that the -SO3 H/C18 (1:1.5) performed best with an enzyme loading and enzyme activity of 84.8 mg·g-1 and 54 U·g-1 , respectively. Compared with free CRL, the thermal and storage stability of CRL@OSMD was significantly improved, which lays the foundation for the catalytic synthesis of phytosterol esters in solvent-free systems. Fortunately, a yield of 95.0% was achieved after optimizing the reaction conditions, and a yield of 70.0% can still be maintained after six cycles.


Assuntos
Terra de Diatomáceas , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Fitosteróis , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Esterificação , Lipase/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Solventes , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Esteróis , Estabilidade Enzimática , Ésteres
6.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540670

RESUMO

Sterol biosynthesis via the mevalonate-isoprenoid pathway produces ergosterol (24ß-methyl cholesta-5,7-dienol) necessary for growth in a wide-range of eukaryotic pathogenic organisms in eukaryotes, including the fungi, trypanosomes and amoebae, while their animal hosts synthesize a structurally less complicated product-cholesterol (cholest-5-enol). Because phyla-specific differences in sterol metabolizing enzyme architecture governs the binding and reaction properties of substrates and inhibitors while the order of sterol metabolizing enzymes involved in steroidogenesis determine the positioning of crucial chokepoint enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway, the selectivity and effectiveness of rationally designed ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors toward ergosterol-dependent infectious diseases varies greatly. Recent research has revealed an evolving toolbox of mechanistically distinct tight-binding inhibitors against two crucial methylation-demethylation biocatalysts-the C24 sterol methyl transferase (absent from humans) and the C14-sterol demethylase (present generally in humans and their eukaryotic pathogens). Importantly for rational drug design and development, the activities of these enzymes can be selectively blocked in ergosterol biosynthesis causing loss of ergosterol and cell killing without harm to the host organism. Here, we examine recent advances in our understanding of sterol biosynthesis and the reaction differences in catalysis for sterol methylation-demethylation enzymes across kingdoms. In addition, the novelties and nuances of structure-guided or mechanism-based approaches based on crystallographic mappings and substrate specificities of the relevant enzyme are contrasted to conventional phenotypic screening of small molecules as an approach to develop new and more effective pharmacological leads.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Esteróis , Humanos , Animais , Esteróis/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Ergosterol/química , Metilação
7.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540690

RESUMO

This study explores the impact of rotational frying of three different food products on degradation of sterols, as well as their migration between frying oils and food. The research addresses a gap in the existing literature, which primarily focuses on changes in fat during the frying of single food items, providing limited information on the interaction of sterols from the frying medium with those from the food product. The frying was conducted at 185 ± 5 °C for up to 10 days where French fries, battered chicken, and fish sticks were fried in succession. The sterol content was determined by Gas Chromatography. This research is the first to highlight the influence of the type of oil on sterol degradation in both oils and food. Notably, sterols were found to be most stable when food products were fried in high-oleic low-linolenic rapeseed oil (HOLLRO). High-oleic soybean oil (HOSO) exhibited higher sterol degradation than high-oleic rapeseed oil (HORO). It was proven that cholesterol from fried chicken and fish sticks did not transfer to the fried oils or French fries. Despite initially having the highest sterol content in fish, the lowest sterol amount was recorded in fried fish, suggesting rapid degradation, possibly due to prefrying in oil with a high sterol content, regardless of the medium used.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Fitosteróis , Animais , Óleo de Soja , Óleo de Brassica napus , Esteróis , Culinária/métodos , Óleos
8.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540760

RESUMO

Sterol homeostasis in mammalian cells and tissues involves balancing three fundamental processes: de novo sterol biosynthesis; sterol import (e.g., from blood-borne lipoproteins); and sterol export. In complex tissues, composed of multiple different cell types (such as the retina), import and export also may involve intratissue, intercellular sterol exchange. Disruption of any of these processes can result in pathologies that impact the normal structure and function of the retina. Here, we provide a brief overview of what is known currently about sterol homeostasis in the vertebrate retina and offer a proposed path for future experimental work to further our understanding of these processes, with relevance to the development of novel therapeutic interventions for human diseases involving defective sterol homeostasis.


Assuntos
Colesterol , Retina , Animais , Humanos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Retina/metabolismo , Esteróis/metabolismo , Homeostase , Transporte Biológico , Mamíferos/metabolismo
9.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 103: 117673, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518734

RESUMO

Our understanding of sterol transport proteins (STPs) has increased exponentially in the last decades with advances in the cellular and structural biology of these important proteins. However, small molecule probes have only recently been developed for a few selected STPs. Here we describe the synthesis and evaluation of potential proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) based on inhibitors of the STP Aster-A. Based on the reported Aster-A inhibitor autogramin-2, ten PROTACs were synthesized. Pomalidomide-based PROTACs functioned as fluorescent probes due to the intrinsic fluorescent properties of the aminophthalimide core, which in some cases was significantly enhanced upon Aster-A binding. Most PROTACs maintained excellent binary affinity to Aster-A, and one compound, NGF3, showed promising Aster-A degradation in cells. The tools developed here lay the foundation for optimizing Aster-A fluorescent probes and degraders and studying its activity and function in vitro and in cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte , Corantes Fluorescentes , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Esteróis , Proteólise
10.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 24(4): 231, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429556
11.
J Cell Biol ; 223(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429999

RESUMO

Cholesterol from low-density lipoprotein (LDL) can be transported to many organelle membranes by non-vesicular mechanisms involving sterol transfer proteins (STPs). Fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 7 was identified in our previous study searching for new regulators of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Whether FABP7 is a bona fide STP remains unknown. Here, we found that FABP7 deficiency resulted in the accumulation of LDL-derived cholesterol in lysosomes and reduced cholesterol levels on the plasma membrane. A crystal structure of human FABP7 protein in complex with cholesterol was resolved at 2.7 Å resolution. In vitro, FABP7 efficiently transported the cholesterol analog dehydroergosterol between the liposomes. Further, the silencing of FABP3 and 8, which belong to the same family as FABP7, caused robust cholesterol accumulation in lysosomes. These two FABP proteins could transport dehydroergosterol in vitro as well. Collectively, our results suggest that FABP3, 7, and 8 are a new class of STPs mediating cholesterol egress from lysosomes.


Assuntos
Colesterol , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo , Lisossomos , Humanos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Esteróis/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 8247-8256, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38551065

RESUMO

The compound-specific determination of δ13C values [‰] by gas chromatography interfaced with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) is a powerful analytical method to indicate minute but relevant variations in the 13C/12C ratio of sample compounds. In this study, the δ13C values [‰] of individual sterols were measured in eleven different oils of C3, C4, and CAM plants (n = 33) by GC-IRMS. For this purpose, a suitable acetylation method was developed for sterols. Nine of the eleven phytosterols identified by GC with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) could be measured by GC-IRMS. The δ13C values [‰] of individual sterols and squalene of C3 plant oils were between 3‰ and >16‰ more negative (lighter in carbon) than in C4 and CAM oils. We also showed that the blending of C4 oils into C3 oils (exemplarily conducted with one olive and one corn oil) would be precisely determined by means of the δ13C value [‰] of ß-sitosterol.


Assuntos
Carbono , Fitosteróis , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Esteróis , Plantas , Óleos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(10): e2315493121, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408242

RESUMO

Oxysterol-binding protein-related proteins (ORPs) play key roles in the distribution of lipids in eukaryotic cells by exchanging sterol or phosphatidylserine for PI4P between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other cell regions. However, it is unclear how their exchange capacity is coupled to PI4P metabolism. To address this question quantitatively, we analyze the activity of a representative ORP, Osh4p, in an ER/Golgi interface reconstituted with ER- and Golgi-mimetic membranes functionalized with PI4P phosphatase Sac1p and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase, respectively. Using real-time assays, we demonstrate that upon adenosine triphosphate (ATP) addition, Osh4p creates a sterol gradient between these membranes, relying on the spatially distant synthesis and hydrolysis of PI4P, and quantify how much PI4P is needed for this process. Then, we develop a quantitatively accurate kinetic model, validated by our data, and extrapolate this to estimate to what extent PI4P metabolism can drive ORP-mediated sterol transfer in cells. Finally, we show that Sec14p can support PI4P metabolism and Osh4p activity by transferring PI between membranes. This study establishes that PI4P synthesis drives ORP-mediated lipid exchange and that ATP energy is needed to generate intermembrane lipid gradients. Furthermore, it defines to what extent ORPs can distribute lipids in the cell and reassesses the role of PI-transfer proteins in PI4P metabolism.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol , Receptores de Esteroides , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Esteróis/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo
14.
Chem Phys Lipids ; 259: 105376, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38325710

RESUMO

Membrane sterols contribute to the function of biomembranes by regulating the physical properties of the lipid bilayers. Cholesterol, a typical mammalian sterol, is biosynthesized by oxidation of lanosterol. From a molecular evolutionary perspective, lanosterol is considered the ancestral molecule of cholesterol. Here, we studied whether cholesterol is superior to lanosterol in regulating the physical properties of the lipid bilayer in terms of the structural effect on model biomembranes composed of a phospholipid. For comparison, oxysterol, which is formed by oxidation of cholesterol, was also studied. The phospholipid used was 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), which is abundantly found in mammalian biomembranes, and 7ß-hydroxycholesterol, which is highly cytotoxic, was used as the oxysterol. The apparent molecular volume was calculated from the mass density determined by the flotation method using H2O and D2O, and the bilayer thickness was determined by reconstructing the electron density distribution from X-ray diffraction data of the POPC/sterol mixtures at a sterol concentration of 30 mol%. The apparent occupied area at the bilayer surface was calculated from the above two structural data. The cholesterol system had the thickest bilayer thickness and the smallest occupied area of the three sterols studied here. This indicates that the POPC/cholesterol bilayer has a better barrier property than the other two systems. Compared to cholesterol, the effects of lanosterol and 7ß-hydroxycholesterol on lipid bilayer properties can be interpreted as suboptimal for the function of mammalian biomembranes.


Assuntos
Oxisteróis , Fosfolipídeos , Fosfolipídeos/química , Lanosterol/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Colesterol/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Esteróis
15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2772: 137-148, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411811

RESUMO

Plant ER membranes are the major site of biosynthesis of several lipid families (phospholipids, sphingolipids, neutral lipids such as sterols and triacylglycerols). The structural diversity of lipids presents considerable challenges to comprehensive lipid analysis. This chapter will briefly review the various biosynthetic pathways and will detail several aspects of the lipid analysis: lipid extraction, handling, separation, detection, identification, and data presentation. The different tools/approaches used for lipid analysis will also be discussed in relation to the studies to be carried out on lipid metabolism and function.


Assuntos
Lipidômica , Lipídeos de Membrana , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Esteróis , Fosfolipídeos
16.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1296: 342347, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401937

RESUMO

Correct identification and quantification of different sterol biomarkers can be used as a first-line diagnostic approach for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD). The main drawbacks of current methodologies are related to lack of selectivity and sensitivity for some of these compounds. To address this, we developed and validated two sensitive and selective assays for quantification of six cholesterol biosynthesis pathway intermediates (total amount (free and esterified form) of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), 8-dehydrocholesterol (8-DHC), desmosterol, lathosterol, lanosterol and cholestanol), two phytosterols (total amount (free and esterified form) of campesterol and sitosterol) and free form of two oxysterols (7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) and 3ß,5α,6ß-cholestane-triol (C-triol). For quantification of four cholesterol intermediates we based our analytical approach on sterol derivatization with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). Quantification of all analytes is performed using UPLC coupled to an Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) system, with detection of target ions through full scan acquisition using positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mode. UPLC and MS parameters were optimized to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. Analog stable isotope labeled for each compound was used for proper quantification and correction for recovery, matrix effects and process efficiency. Precision (2.4%-12.3% inter-assay variation), lower limit of quantification (0.027 nM-50.5 nM) and linearity (5.5 µM (R2 0.999) - 72.3 µM (R2 0.997)) for phyto- and oxysterols were determined. The diagnostic potential of these two assays in a cohort of patients (n = 31, 50 samples) diagnosed with IMD affecting cholesterol and lysosomal/peroxisomal homeostasis is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Oxisteróis , Fitosteróis , Humanos , Esteróis/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338961

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is a major vector that transmits arboviruses through the saliva injected into the host. Salivary proteins help in uninterrupted blood intake and enhance the transmission of pathogens. We studied Niemann-Pick Type C2 (NPC2) proteins, a superfamily of saliva proteins that play an important role in arbovirus infections. In vertebrates, a single conserved gene encodes for the NPC2 protein that functions in cholesterol trafficking. Arthropods, in contrast, have several genes that encode divergent NPC2 proteins. We compared the sequences of 20 A. aegypti NPC2 proteins to the cholesterol-binding residues of human and bovine, and fatty-acid-binding residues of ant NPC2 protein. We identified four mosquito NPC2 proteins as potential sterol-binding proteins. Two of these proteins (AAEL006854 and/or AAEL020314) may play a key role in ecdysteroid biosynthesis and moulting. We also identified one mosquito NPC2 protein as a potential fatty-acid-binding protein. Through molecular modelling, we predicted the structures of the potential sterol- and fatty-acid-binding proteins and compared them to the reference proteins.


Assuntos
Aedes , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Aedes/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular , Mosquitos Vetores , Colesterol/metabolismo , Esteróis/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108419, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377888

RESUMO

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), is one of the most reputed Indian medicinal plants, having immense pharmacological activities due to the occurrence of withanolides. The withanolides are biosynthesized through triterpenoid biosynthetic pathway with the involvement of WsCAS leading to cyclization of 2, 3 oxidosqualene, which is a key metabolite to further diversify to a myriad of phytochemicals. In contrast to the available reports on the studies of WsCAS in withanolide biosynthesis, its involvement in phytosterol biosynthesis needs investigation. Present work deals with the understanding of role of WsCAS triterpenoid synthase gene in the regulation of biosynthesis of phytosterols & withanolides. Docking studies of WsCAS protein revealed Conserved amino acids, DCATE motif, and QW motif which are involved in efficient substrate binding, structure stabilization, and catalytic activity. Overexpression/silencing of WsCAS leading to increment/decline of phytosterols confers its stringent regulation in phytosterols biosynthesis. Differential regulation of WsCAS on the metabolic flux towards phytosterols and withanolide biosynthesis was observed under abiotic stress conditions. The preferential channelization of 2, 3 oxidosqualene towards withanolides and/or phytosterols occurred under heat/salt stress and cold/water stress, respectively. Stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol showed major contribution in high/low temperature and salt stress, and campesterol in water stress management. Overexpression of WsCAS in Arabidopsis thaliana led to the increment in phytosterols in general. Thus, the WsCAS plays important regulatory role in the biosynthetic pathway of phytosterols and withanolides under abiotic stress conditions.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis , Esqualeno/análogos & derivados , Triterpenos , Withania , Vitanolídeos , Vitanolídeos/metabolismo , Esteróis , Withania/genética , Withania/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Desidratação , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(10): 4761-4771, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38410842

RESUMO

This study established a unique approach to assess fecal contamination by measuring fecal sterols, especially coprostanol (5ß-cholestanol-3ß-ol, 5ß) and cholestanol (5α-cholestan-3ß-ol, 5α) and their ratio 5ß/(5ß + 5α) alongside triclosan (TCS) and methyl-triclosan (MTC) in beached plastic pellets across 40 countries. Coprostanol concentrations ranged from 3.6 to 8190 ng/g pellet with extremely high levels in densely populated areas in African countries. The 5ß/(5ß + 5α) ratio was not affected by the difference in residence time of pellets in aquatic environments, and their spatial pattern showed a positive correlation with that of sedimentary sterols, demonstrating its reliability as an indicator of fecal contamination. Pellets from populated areas of economically developing countries, i.e., Africa and Asia, with lower coverage of wastewater treatment exhibited higher 5ß/(5ß + 5α) ratios (∼0.7) corresponding to ∼1% sewage in seawater, while pellets from developed countries, i.e., the USA, Canada, Japan, and Europe, with higher coverage of modern wastewater treatment displayed lower ratios (∼0.5), corresponding to the first contact limit. Triclosan levels were higher in developing countries (0.4-1298 ng/g pellet), whereas developed countries showed higher methyl-triclosan levels (0.5-70 ng/g pellet) due to TCS conversion during secondary treatment. However, some samples from Japan and Europe displayed higher TCS levels, suggesting contributions from combined sewage overflow (CSO). Combination of 5ß/(5ß + 5α) and MTC/TCS ratios revealed extreme fecal contamination from direct input of raw sewage due to inadequate treatment facilities in some African and South and Southeast Asian countries.


Assuntos
Triclosan/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Colestanol/análise , Esgotos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esteróis/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4977, 2024 02 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38424253

RESUMO

Despite increasing evidence that cholesterol precursors and oxysterols, oxidized cholesterol metabolites, play a role in numerous pathological processes and diseases including breast cancer, little is known about correlates of these sterols in women with breast cancer. In this study, 2282 women with breast cancer and blood draw post diagnosis were included and cross-sectional associations between circulating levels of 15 sterols/oxysterols and (a) lifestyle, anthropometric, reproductive characteristics, (b) comorbidities and medication use, and (c) breast cancer tumor and treatment characteristics were calculated using generalized linear models. Obesity was strongly associated with circulating levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol (DC) (body mass index ≥ 30 vs. 18.5-24.9 kg/m2: 51.7% difference) and 7-ketocholesterol (KC) (40.0% difference). After adjustment for BMI, comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease were associated with higher levels of 7-DC (26.1% difference) and lower levels of desmosterol (- 16.4% difference). Breast cancer tumor characteristics including hormone receptor status, tumor stage, and endocrine therapy were associated with lanosterol, 24-DHLan, 7b-HC, and THC (e.g., THC; tumor stage IIIa vs. I: 36.9% difference). Weaker associations were observed for lifestyle characteristics and for any of the other oxysterols. The findings of this study suggest that cholesterol precursors are strongly associated with metabolic factors, while oxysterols are associated with breast cancer tumor characteristics, warranting further investigation into the role of cholesterol precursors and oxysterols in women with breast cancer and other populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Oxisteróis , Fitosteróis , Humanos , Feminino , Oxisteróis/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Esteróis , Estilo de Vida
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