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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(14): 8140-8148, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563232

RESUMO

Rebaudioside (Reb) M is an important sweetener with high sweetness, but its low content in Stevia rebaudiana and low catalytic capacity of the glycosyltransferases in heterologous microorganisms limit its production. In order to improve the catalytic efficiency of the conversion of stevioside to Reb M by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several key issues must be resolved including knocking out endogenous hydrolases, enhancing glycosylation, and extending the enzyme catalytic process. Herein, endogenous glycosyl hydrolase SCW2 was knocked out in S. cerevisiae. The glycosylation process was enhanced by screening glycosyltransferases, and UGT91D2 from S. rebaudiana was identified as the optimum glycosyltransferase. The UDP-glucose supply was enhanced by overexpressing UGP1, and co-expressing UGT91D2 and UGT76G1 achieved efficient conversion of stevioside to Reb M. In order to extend the catalytic process, the silencing information regulator 2 (SIR2) which can prolong the growth cycle of S. cerevisiae was introduced. Finally, combining these modifications produced 12.5 g/L Reb M and the yield reached 77.9% in a 5 L bioreactor with 10.0 g/L stevioside, the highest titer from steviol glycosides to Reb M reported to date. The engineered strain could facilitate the industrial production of Reb M, and the strategies provide references for the production of steviol glycosides.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Stevia , Trissacarídeos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Difosfato de Uridina , Hidrolases , Glucosídeos , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosídeos , Folhas de Planta
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6164, 2024 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486071

RESUMO

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a natural sweetener plant that accumulates highly sweet steviol glycosides (SGs) especially in leaves. Stevia is native to humid areas and does not have a high tolerance to drought which is the most serious abiotic stress restricting its production worldwide. C2H2 zinc finger proteins (C2H2-ZFPs) are a group of well-known transcription factors that involves in various developmental, physiological and biochemical activities as well as in response to abiotic stresses. Here we analyzed C2H2-ZFP gene family in stevia and identified a total of 185 putative SrC2H2-ZF proteins from the genome sequence of S. rebaudiana. We further characterized the identified C2H2-ZF domains and their organization, additional domains and motifs and analyzed their physicochemical properties, localization and gene expression patterns. The cis-element analysis suggested multiple roles of SrC2H2-ZFPs in response to light, phytohormone, and abiotic stresses. In silico analysis revealed that the stevia C2H2-ZFP genes are interactively expressed in different tissues and developmental stages and some C2H2-ZFP genes are involved in response to drought stress. This study provides a background for future exploration of the functional, and regulatory aspects of the C2H2-ZFP gene family in S. rebaudiana.


Assuntos
Stevia , Stevia/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5711, 2024 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459201

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the biological activities of Lactobacillus gasseri SM 05 (L. gasseri) and Lacticaseibacillus casei subsp. casei PTCC 1608 (L. casei) in the black raspberry (Rubus dolichocarpus) juice (BRJ) environment, and also the anti-adhesion activity against Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) in fermented black raspberry juice (FBRJ). Results showed significant anti-adhesion activity in Caco-2 epithelial cells. In the anti-adhesion process, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) improve intestinal health by preventing the adhesion of pathogens. Adding LAB to BRJ produces metabolites with bacteriocin properties. Major findings of this research include improved intestinal health, improved antidiabetic properties, inhibition of degradation of amino acids, and increase in the nutritional value of foods that have been subjected to heat processing by preventing Maillard inhibition, and inhibition of oxidation of foodstuff by increased antioxidant activity of BRJ. Both species of Lactobacillus effectively controlled the growth of S. typhimurium during BRJ fermentation. Moreover, in all tests, as well as Maillard's and α-amylase inhibition, L. gasseri was more effective than L. casei. The phenolic and flavonoid compounds increased significantly after fermentation by both LAB (p < 0.05). Adding Stevia extract to FBRJ and performing the HHP process showed convenient protection of phenolic compounds compared to heat processing.


Assuntos
Lacticaseibacillus casei , Lactobacillus gasseri , Probióticos , Rubus , Stevia , Humanos , Fermentação , Células CACO-2 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
4.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0298251, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412182

RESUMO

Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni water extracts have been used as a natural sweetener and customary medicine by the indigenous inhabitants of South America for several hundred years. This plant was sent to Europe in the 16th century and was described by Peter Jacob Esteve in Spain. Recently the food industry has started to employ S. rebaudiana as sweetener using its glycosides after purification. Advertisement claims that Stevia glycosides is good for controling body mass and reducing glycemia. This study's objective was to evaluate the effect of S. rebaudiana leaf extract on Wistar rats as animal model to prove its effectiveness on body mass control, glycemia reduction, and other biochemical parameters. Three groups were randomly formed with 24 males and 24 females: A blank group without any sweetener, a control group drinking water with 10% glucose, and the test group ingesting a 0.94% water extract of S. rebaudiana. Body mass measurements as well as food and drink consumption were daily performed. The experiment lasted 120 days after the specimens were weaned and got used to eating solid food. Euthanasia was done and blood serum was collected to evaluate the following biochemical parameters: Glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, leptin, ghrelin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, GIP. Results indicated that only female rats had statistical differences in body mass gain. No relevant effects either positive or negative were found in the biochemical parameters measured. The crude extracts of S. rebaudiana did not show any relevant changes in biochemical and hormonal profiles, changes nor body mass with respect to the blank and control groups of young and healthy rats in the age range of infancy to youth. According to the results obtained, the therapeutic properties that have been associated to S. rebaudiana consumption especially for body mass control and glycemia reduction, did not occur in young and healthy male and female rats in equivalent age to infants, young children, and youths.


Assuntos
Stevia , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Criança , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Stevia/química , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/química , Ratos Wistar , Extratos Vegetais/química , Glicosídeos , Glucose , Água , Folhas de Planta
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396813

RESUMO

Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is a highly valuable crop for the steviol glycoside content in its leaves, which are no-calorie sweeteners hundreds of times more potent than sucrose. The presence of health-promoting phenolic compounds, particularly flavonoids, in the leaf of S. rebaudiana adds further nutritional value to this crop. Although all these secondary metabolites are highly desirable in S. rebaudiana leaves, the genes regulating the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and the shared gene network between the regulation of biosynthesis of steviol glycosides and phenolic compounds still need to be investigated in this species. To identify putative candidate genes involved in the synergistic regulation of steviol glycosides and phenolic compounds, four genotypes with different contents of these compounds were selected for a pairwise comparison RNA-seq analysis, yielding 1136 differentially expressed genes. Genes that highly correlate with both steviol glycosides and phenolic compound accumulation in the four genotypes of S. rebaudiana were identified using the weighted gene co-expression network analysis. The presence of UDP-glycosyltransferases 76G1, 76H1, 85C1, and 91A1, and several genes associated with the phenylpropanoid pathway, including peroxidase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, and malonyl-coenzyme A:anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside-6″-O-malonyltransferase, along with 21 transcription factors like SCL3, WRK11, and MYB111, implied an extensive and synergistic regulatory network involved in enhancing the production of such compounds in S. rebaudiana leaves. In conclusion, this work identified a variety of putative candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis and regulation of particular steviol glycosides and phenolic compounds that will be useful in gene editing strategies for increasing and steering the production of such compounds in S. rebaudiana as well as in other species.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Stevia , Stevia/genética , Stevia/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
6.
J Environ Manage ; 354: 120486, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417363

RESUMO

Alterations in water regimes or nitrogen (N) availability lead to shifts in the assemblage of rhizosphere microbial community; however, how the rhizosphere microbiome response to concurrent changes in water and N availability remains largely unclear. Herein, we investigated the taxonomic and functional characteristics of rhizobacteria associated with stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) under varying combinations of water and N levels. Community diversity and predicted functions of rhizobacteria were predominantly altered by drought stress, with N-starvation modulating these effects. Moreover, N fertilization simplified the ecological interactions within rhizobacterial communities and heightened the relative role of stochastic processes on community assembly. In terms of rhizobacterial composition, we observed both common and distinctive changes in drought-responsive bacterial taxa under different N conditions. Generally, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla were depleted by drought stress but the Actinobacteria phylum showed increases. The rhizobacterial responses to drought stress were influenced by N availability, where the positive response of δ-proteobacteria and the negative response of α- and γ-proteobacteria, along with Bacteroidetes, were further heightened under N starvation. By contrast, under N fertilization conditions, an amplified negative or positive response to drought were demonstrated in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla, respectively. Further, the drought-responsive rhizobacteria were mostly phylogenetically similar, but this pattern was modulated under N-rich conditions. Overall, our findings indicate an N-dependent specific restructuring of rhizosphere bacteria under drought stress. These changes in the rhizosphere microbiome could contribute to enhancing plant stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Stevia , Secas , Bactérias , Proteobactérias , Rizosfera , Água , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 45, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The high industrial demand for Stevia cultivation (Stevia rebaudiana) has increased due to its high stevioside content derived from the leaves. However, the low germination rate makes the cultivation of the plant become the main obstacle. Therefore, an efficient cultivation technique is required. This present work aims to analyze the effect of five combinations of Kinetin (Kin) and benzyladenine (BA) on stevia micropropagation using nodal segment explants. RESULTS: The micropropagation of stevia was performed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BA and Kin. We analyzed different organogenesis and callogenesis responses. In addition, the number of shoots and root formed during in vitro culture were also observed. Our results demonstrated that all treatments with Kin, both alone and in combination with BA, resulted in the development of callus on all nodal segment explants. Explants treated in MS with 1 mg L-1 BA exhibited the best average of shoot number (36.27). In contrast, the treatment without PGR resulted in the best root formation (2.6). The overall results suggested that different combination of BA and Kin resulted in distinct organogenesis responses, where 1 mg L-1 of BA was potentially used for boosting the number of shoots in micropropagation of stevia accession Mini.


Assuntos
Stevia , Stevia/genética , Indonésia , Brotos de Planta , Genótipo , Folhas de Planta
8.
Biotechnol J ; 19(2): e2300628, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403450

RESUMO

Bioconversion of Rebaudioside D faces high-cost obstacles. Herein, a novel glycosyltransferase StUGT converting Rebaudioside A to Rebaudioside D was screened and characterized, which exhibits stronger affinity and substrate specificity for Rebaudioside A than previously reported enzymes. A whole-cell catalytic system was thus developed using the StUGT strain. The production of Rebaudioside D was enhanced significantly by enhancing cell permeability, and the maximum production of 6.12 g/L and the highest yield of 98.08% by cell catalyst was obtained by statistical-based optimization. A new cascade process utilizing this recombinant strain and E. coli expressing sucrose synthase was further established to reduce cost through replacing expensive UDPG with sucrose. A StUGT-GsSUS1 system exhibited high catalytic capability, and 5.27 g L-1 Rebaudioside D was achieved finally without UDPG addition by systematic optimization. This is the best performance reported in cell-cascaded biosynthesis, which paves a new cost-effective strategy for sustainable synthesis of scarce premium sweeteners from biomass.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Glicosídeos , Solanum tuberosum , Stevia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Stevia/química , Uridina Difosfato Glucose , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Escherichia coli/genética
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2759: 63-68, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285139

RESUMO

Stevia rebaudiana Bert. is a plant that contains noncaloric sweeteners highly appreciated in the food industry. However, there is a high demand for propagules to establish commercial plantations, and the conventional reproduction types for this species are inefficient. Micropropagation is a technique that allows obtaining a large number of plants and can be used to meet the demand in the field. However, it requires in vitro propagation techniques such as temporary immersion systems (SIT) to increase yield and reduce production costs. This chapter describes an effective protocol for the large-scale micropropagation of S. rebaudiana using a TIS.


Assuntos
Stevia , Reprodução
10.
Nutrients ; 16(2)2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38257188

RESUMO

The use of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) as an alternative to caloric sugars has increased in recent years. Stevia is an NNS that has demonstrated beneficial effects on appetite and energy intake. However, the impact on the gut microbiota is not well understood. Therefore, we investigated how regular consumption of stevia, for up to 12 weeks, impacts the human gut microbiota. Healthy subjects with a normal body mass index participated in our study; the stevia group (n = 14) was asked to consume five drops of stevia twice daily, compared to control participants (n = 13). Faecal samples collected before and after treatment were analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Stevia did not cause significant changes in the alpha or beta diversity when compared to the control groups. When the relative abundances of taxa were investigated, no clear differences were detected. Conversely, a random forest analysis correctly associated the gut microbiome with the control and stevia groups with an average of 75% accuracy, suggesting that there are intrinsic patterns that could discriminate between control and stevia use. However, large-scale changes in the gut microbiota were not apparent in this study, and, therefore, our data suggest that stevia does not significantly impact the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adoçantes não Calóricos , Stevia , Humanos , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Excipientes
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 38(4): 690-695, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36938813

RESUMO

Chagas disease is an infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affecting 6-8 million people worldwide. Only two drugs are available for its treatment, having a limited efficacy and adverse side-effects. Estafietin is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Stevia alpina with in vitro activity against T. cruzi and low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. The aim of this work was to predict the toxicologic profile of estafietin by in silico methods and assess its in vivo activity on a murine model of Chagas disease. Estafietin showed low toxicity according to pkCSM web tool and passed the PAINS filter from PAINS-remover web server. The treatment of infected mice with 1 mg/Kg/day of estafietin for five consecutive days administrated by intraperitoneal route significatively decreased parasitemia levels and reduced inflammatory infiltrates and myocyte damage on muscle tissue. These results suggest that estafietin had effect both on acute and chronic stages of the infection.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Stevia , Tripanossomicidas , Trypanosoma cruzi , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Doença de Chagas/tratamento farmacológico , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/farmacologia , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Lactonas/farmacologia , Lactonas/uso terapêutico , Mamíferos
12.
Poult Sci ; 103(1): 103188, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37980742

RESUMO

In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of stevia extract on production performance, serum immune indexes, intestinal structure, and cecum microbial structure. We randomly divided eight hundred 46-wk-old Roman hens into 5 groups, with 8 replicates in each group and 20 chickens in each replicate. The control group was fed a basal diet, whereas the 4 experimental groups were fed 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg stevia extracts. The study period was 24 wk. The addition of different concentrations of the stevia extract to the diet resulted in significant secondary changes in the egg production rate at 1 to 12 wk (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the addition of 50 and 100 mg/kg stevia extract to the diet significantly increased serum IgM and IgG levels in laying hens (P < 0.05) but linearly decreased serum IL-1ß levels (P < 0.05). Serum T-SOD activity linearly increased (P = 0.057); however, serum biochemical indexes showed no significant differences. Stevia extract tended to increase the ratio of the duodenal villi height to the depth of the crypt (P = 0.067), with no obvious lesions in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. In addition, stevia extract increased the relative abundance of species at the phylum level, with the abundance of Bacteroides and Firmicutes exhibiting significant secondary changes (P < 0.05). The ACE and Chao1 indexes suggested that stevia extract addition significantly increased the alpha diversity of cecum microorganisms in laying hens. Furthermore, NMDS analysis based on operational taxonomic units revealed that stevia extract addition increased the beta diversity of cecum microorganisms in laying hens. Adding a certain amount of stevia extract to feed can improve the production performance, immune ability, and intestinal health of laying hens to some extent, and we recommend an effective level of 200mg/kg of stevia extract for laying hen diets.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Stevia , Animais , Feminino , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
13.
Poult Sci ; 103(2): 103324, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141275

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of stevia residue (STER) on the production performance, egg quality and nutrition, antioxidant ability, immune responses, gut morphology and microbiota of laying hens during the peak laying period. A total of 270 Yikoujingfen NO. 8 laying hens (35 wk of age) were randomly divided into 5 treatments. The control group fed a basal diet and groups supplemented with 2, 4, 6, and 8% STER. The results showed that STER significantly increased egg production, the content of amino acids (alanine, proline, valine, ornithine, asparagine, aspartic acid, and cysteine) in egg whites, and decreased the yolk color (P < 0.05). Additionally, STER significantly increased acetate, HOMOγ linolenic acid and cis-13, 16-docosadienoic acid levels in egg yolk (P < 0.05). IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 levels in serum significantly increased by STER (P < 0.05), while IL-1ß significantly decreased (P < 0.05). STER also increased total antioxidant activity (T-AOC) in the liver and estradiol level in the oviduct (P < 0.05), but decreased the cortisol level in the oviduct (P < 0.05). For the intestinal morphology, the jejunal villus height and crypt-to-villus (V:C) significantly increased by STER (P < 0.05). STER increased the relative abundance of Actinobacteriota (P < 0.05), while deceased Proteobacteria, Desulfobacterota, and Synergistota (P < 0.05). In conclusion, STER improved egg production, quality and nutrition, improved the immune responses, antioxidant capabilities, estrogen level, gut morphology, and increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria while decreased the harmful bacteria. Among all treatments, 4 and 6% STER supplementation yielded the most favorable results in terms of enhancing production performance, egg nutrition, gut health, and immune capabilities in laying hens.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Stevia , Animais , Feminino , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Stevia/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(22): 11039-11056, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38039035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been considered a major problem because of its related complications and growing incidence worldwide. Testicular dysfunction has become a predominant diabetic complication characterized by impaired reproductive function and testicular damage. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni has been known for its antioxidant effect on diabetes, inflammation, and obesity. The current study investigates the protective effect of Stevia on diabetic-induced testicular injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague Dawley adult male rats were divided into three groups: the control group, the diabetic group, and the diabetic + Stevia group, type 2 diabetes is induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and a single dose of 35 mg/kg streptozotocin injection. The effects of Stevia were evaluated regarding biochemical, oxidative stress, histopathological and ultrastructural changes, and immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK 1), and caspase 3. RESULTS: Stevia extract attenuated the diabetic-induced oxidative stress, restored the testicular architecture, and decreased testicular damage, inflammation, necroptosis, and apoptosis by upregulating VEGF and downregulating VCAM 1, RIPK 1, and caspase 3. CONCLUSIONS: The current study highlights the importance of Stevia as an antioxidant anti-inflammatory that ameliorates diabetic-induced testicular injury by modulating oxidative stress, inflammation, necroptosis, and apoptosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Stevia , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Stevia/química , Caspase 3 , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos Wistar , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Inflamação , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 19853, 2023 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37963906

RESUMO

Considering the major source of plant-derived low/non-calorie steviol glycosides (SGs), comprehensive physiological, biochemical, and deep transcriptional investigations were conducted to explicit deeper insight into multiple abiotic stress responses in Stevia rebaudiana. The physiological indicators including photosynthesis, chlorophyll, relative water content, shoot growth, electrolyte leakage, and SG biosynthesis were negatively impacted under drought (DS), followed by salinity (SS) and waterlogging (WS). Global transcriptional analysis revealed significant upregulated expression of the genes encoding for ROS detoxification (GST, SOD, APX, glutathione peroxidase), osmotic adjustment (alpha-trehalose-phosphate and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase), ion transporters (CAX, NHX, CNGS, VPPase, VATPase), water channel (PIP1, TIP) and abiotic stress-responsive candidate genes (LEA, HSPs, and Dehydrins) regulating abiotic stress response in S. rebaudiana. These inferences were complemented with predicted interactome network that revealed regulation of energy metabolism by key stress-responsive genes (GST, HKT1, MAPKs, P5CSs, PIP), transcription factors (HSFA2, DREB1A, DREB2A), and abiotic stress responsive pathways (ABA, ethylene, ion stress). This is the first detailed study to comprehend the molecular regulation of stress response and their interplay under DS, SS, and WS. The key genes and regulators can be functionally validated, and will facilitate targeted gene editing for genetic improvement of crop sustainability under changing environmental conditions in S. rebaudiana.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Stevia , Stevia/genética , Stevia/metabolismo , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
16.
Molecules ; 28(22)2023 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38005293

RESUMO

Polyphenols from stevia leaves (PPSs) are abundant byproducts from steviol glycoside production, which have been often studied as raw extracts from stevia extracts for their bioactivities. Herein, the PPSs rich in isochlorogenic acids were studied for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as their inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes. The PPSs presented stronger antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and B. subtilis than their antifungal activity against M. furfur and A. niger. Meanwhile, the PPSs inhibited four cancer cells by more than 60% based on their viability, in a dose-dependent manner. The PPSs presented similar IC50 values on the inhibition of digestive enzyme activities compared to epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), but had weaker anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, PPSs could be a potential natural alternative to antimicrobial agents. This is the first report on the bioactivity of polyphenols from stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) leaves excluding flavonoids, and will be of benefit for understanding the role of PPSs and their application.


Assuntos
Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano , Stevia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Diterpenos do Tipo Caurano/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
17.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 41(8): 1462-1476, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38010705

RESUMO

Tartrazine is a yellow colouring agent that is commonly used in foods; however, high dosages of Tartrazine affect fertility and create oxidative stress by generating free radicals. A plant species known as Stevia rebaudiana has natural antioxidants that show promise for protecting testicular tissue. Consequently, this study was intended to examine the ameliorative effect of the aqueous extract of S. rebaudiana (Stevia) on the fertility of male Wistar rats induced by the daily oral intake of Tartrazine. Utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, phytochemical identification was accomplished for Stevia extract. Study groups were separated into several groups: the first group (the control) got distilled water for up to 56 days; the Stevia group (1000 mg/kg), the Tartrazine group (300 mg/kg) and the Stevia and Tartrazine group (the group was given Tartrazine after 1 h of Stevia extract intake). Also, the oxidative damage in testicular tissues was assessed by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidants (catalase [CAT], superoxide dismutase [SOD] and glutathione reductase [GSH]). Further, histological alterations were examined. In addition, cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator (Crem) gene expression levels and their relative proteins were measured in the testicular tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. Sperm analysis and testosterone concentration were also performed. SPSS version 25 was used for the analysis of results while (p < .05) was regarded as significant. Compared with the control group, the results demonstrated that Tartrazine caused a significant reduction (p < .05) in the testosterone hormone level (0.70 ± 0.21) and the Crem protein quantity (1.21 ± 0.23) in the treated Tartrazine group. Also, it had a significant decrease (p < .05) in sperm motility, viability, count and antioxidant levels. Moreover, there was a significant increase (p < .05) in sperm abnormalities, MDA level (7.40 ± 1.10), kidney and liver function parameters, and DNA degradation in the treated Tartrazine group compared with the control group. On the contrary, the Stevia extract intake enhanced the testosterone (2.50 ± 0.60), antioxidants and Crem protein levels (2.33 ± 0.10) with an improvement in sperm quality in the Stevia and Tartrazine-treated group compared with the Tartrazine group. Stevia also caused a significant decrease (p < .05) in the MDA level (3.20 ± 0.20), and sperm abnormalities with an enhancement of the liver and kidney function parameters in the Stevia and Tartrazine-treated group compared to the Tartrazine group. Stevia administration has a protective effect on the testicular tissues and sperm quality against toxicity induced by Tartrazine exposure, so it will be a good antioxidant drug to be administered daily before daily administration of Tartrazine.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Stevia , Masculino , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Wistar , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Stevia/química , Stevia/metabolismo , Tartrazina/toxicidade , Tartrazina/metabolismo , Motilidade dos Espermatozoides , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Testosterona/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Água/metabolismo , Água/farmacologia , Testículo
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 14(10)2023 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37895267

RESUMO

The basic (region) leucine zippers (bZIPs) are evolutionarily conserved transcription factors widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. In plants, they are not only involved in growth and development, defense and stress responses and regulation of physiological processes but also play a pivotal role in regulating secondary metabolism. To explore the function related to the bZIP gene family in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, we identified 105 SrbZIP genes at the genome-wide level and classified them into 12 subfamilies using bioinformation methods. Three main classes of cis-acting elements were found in the SrbZIP promoter regions, including development-related elements, defense and stress-responsive elements and phytohormone-responsive elements. Through protein-protein interaction network of 105 SrbZIP proteins, SrbZIP proteins were mainly classified into four major categories: ABF2/ABF4/ABI5 (SrbZIP51/SrbZIP38/SrbZIP7), involved in phytohormone signaling, GBF1/GBF3/GBF4 (SrbZIP29/SrbZIP63/SrbZIP60) involved in environmental signaling, AREB3 (SrbZIP88), PAN (SrbZIP12), TGA1 (SrbZIP69), TGA4 (SrbZIP82), TGA7 (SrbZIP31), TGA9 (SrbZIP95), TGA10 (SrbZIP79) and HY5 (SrbZIP96) involved in cryptochrome signaling, and FD (SrbZIP72) promoted flowering. The transcriptomic data showed that SrbZIP genes were differentially expressed in six S. rebaudiana cultivars ('023', '110', 'B1188', '11-14', 'GP' and 'GX'). Moreover, the expression levels of selected 15 SrbZIP genes in response to light, abiotic stress (low temperature, salt and drought), phytohormones (methyl jasmonate, gibberellic acid and salicylic acid) treatment and in different tissues were analyzed utilizing qRT-PCR. Some SrbZIP genes were further identified to be highly induced by factors affecting glycoside synthesis. Among them, three SrbZIP genes (SrbZIP54, SrbZIP63 and SrbZIP32) were predicted to be related to stress-responsive terpenoid synthesis in S. rebaudiana. The protein-protein interaction network expanded the potential functions of SrbZIP genes. This study firstly provided the comprehensive genome-wide report of the SrbZIP gene family, laying a foundation for further research on the evolution, function and regulatory role of the bZIP gene family in terpenoid synthesis in S. rebaudiana.


Assuntos
Stevia , Stevia/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Genoma de Planta , Genes de Plantas , Terpenos
19.
Molecules ; 28(19)2023 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37836640

RESUMO

Sugar carbonyl groups interact with protein amino groups, forming toxic components referred to as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The glycation system (BSA, a model protein, and fructose) was incubated for five weeks at 37 °C in the presence and absence of Stevia leaf extract. The results indicated that the leaf extract (0.5 mg/mL) decreased the incidence of browning (70.84 ± 0.08%), fructosamine (67.27 ± 0.08%), and carbonyl content (64.04 ± 0.09%). Moreover, we observed an 81 ± 8.49% reduction in total AGEs. The inhibition of individual AGE (argpyrimidine, vesper lysine, and pentosidine) was ~80%. The decrease in the protein aggregation was observed with Congo red (46.88 ± 0.078%) and the Thioflavin T (31.25 ± 1.18%) methods in the presence of Stevia leaf extract. The repercussion of Stevia leaf extract on DNA glycation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis, wherein the DNA damage was reversed in the presence of 1 mg/mL of leaf extract. When the HDF cell line was treated with 0.5 mg/mL of extract, the viability of cells decreased by only ~20% along with the same cytokine IL-10 production, and glucose uptake decreased by 28 ± 1.90% compared to the control. In conclusion, Stevia extract emerges as a promising natural agent for mitigating glycation-associated challenges, holding potential for novel therapeutic interventions and enhanced management of its related conditions.


Assuntos
Stevia , Agentes Antiglicação , Açúcares , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Folhas de Planta
20.
Nutrients ; 15(17)2023 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37686739

RESUMO

We previously found that the continuous feeding of ethanol caused mice dysbiosis, in which the cecal microbiota were significantly altered, as compared with those in the non-feeding control group, especially in some bacterial genera involved in gut inflammation. In the present study, we have found that the fermented extract of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) leaves with plant-derived lactic acid bacteria (LABs), Pediococcus pentosaceus LY45, improves the trimethylamine (TMA) productivity of cecal content, which can be used as an indicator of dysbiosis. The following animal experiment also shows that the LY45-fermented stevia extract represses the typical increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, which decreased from 1106 to 210 IU/L (p < 0.05) and from 591 to 100 IU/L (p < 0.05), respectively, together with the simultaneously latent TMA productivity (from 1356 to 745 µM, p < 0.05) of cecal content in the ethanol-fed mice. The microbiota analyses have shown that the observed increased alterations in pro-inflammatory genera putative SMB53 (family Clostridiaceae) and Dorea are restored by the fermented stevia extract. Our result indicates that the preliminary bioconversion of herbal medicinal precursors by fermentation with safe microorganisms like LABs is expected to be a hopeful method of producing specific metabolites that may contribute to the reconstruction of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillales , Stevia , Animais , Camundongos , Disbiose , Etanol , Clostridiaceae , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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