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1.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 97, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biotransformation of waste oil into value-added nutraceuticals provides a sustainable strategy. Thraustochytrids are heterotrophic marine protists and promising producers of omega (ω) fatty acids. Although the metabolic routes for the assimilation of hydrophilic carbon substrates such as glucose are known for these microbes, the mechanisms employed for the conversion of hydrophobic substrates are not well established. Here, thraustochytrid Schizochytrium limacinum SR21 was investigated for its ability to convert oils (commercial oils with varying fatty acid composition and waste cooking oil) into ω-3 fatty acid; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). RESULTS: Within 72 h SR21 consumed ~ 90% of the oils resulting in enhanced biomass (7.5 g L- 1) which was 2-fold higher as compared to glucose. Statistical analysis highlights C16 fatty acids as important precursors of DHA biosynthesis. Transcriptomic data indicated the upregulation of multiple lipases, predicted to possess signal peptides for secretory, membrane-anchored and cytoplasmic localization. Additionally, transcripts encoding for mitochondrial and peroxisomal ß-oxidation along with acyl-carnitine transporters were abundant for oil substrates that allowed complete degradation of fatty acids to acetyl CoA. Further, low levels of oxidative biomarkers (H2O2, malondialdehyde) and antioxidants were determined for hydrophobic substrates, suggesting that SR21 efficiently mitigates the metabolic load and diverts the acetyl CoA towards energy generation and DHA accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study contribute to uncovering the route of assimilation of oil substrates by SR21. The thraustochytrid employs an intricate crosstalk among the extracellular and intracellular molecular machinery favoring energy generation. The conversion of hydrophobic substrates to DHA can be further improved using synthetic biology tools, thereby providing a unique platform for the sustainable recycling of waste oil substrates.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Estramenópilas , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 398: 130532, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447618

RESUMO

Schizochytrium sp. hasreceived much attention for itsability to synthesize and accumulate high-level docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which can reach nearly 40 % of total fatty acids. In this study, the titer of DHA in Schizochytrium sp. was successfully improved by enhancing DHA storage through overexpressing the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (ScDGAT2C) gene, as well as optimizing the supply of precursors and cofactors required for DHA synthesis by response surface methodology. Notably, malic acid, citric acid, and biotin showed synergistic and time-dependent effects on DHA accumulation. The maximum lipid and DHA titers of the engineered Schizochytrium sp. strain reached 84.28 ± 1.02 g/L and 42.23 ± 0.69 g/L, respectively, with the optimal concentration combination (1.62 g/L malic acid + 0.37 g/L citric acid + 8.28 mg/L biotin) were added 48 h after inoculation. This study provides an effective strategy for improving lipid and DHA production in Schizochytrium sp.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Malatos , Estramenópilas , Fermentação , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Biotina , Estramenópilas/genética , Ácido Cítrico
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 398: 130537, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452955

RESUMO

Antioxidant addition is an effective strategy to achieve docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) overproduction in oleaginous microorganisms. Nevertheless, antioxidants like phenolic compounds sometimes exert pro-oxidant activity. In this work, effects of proanthocyanidins (PAs) on fermentation performance and oxidative stress in Schizochytrium sp. were investigated. Low PAs addition (5 mg/L) reduced reactive oxygen species and enhanced lipogenic enzymes activities and NADPH, resulting in significant increase in lipid (20.3 g/L) by 33.6 % and DHA yield (9.8 g/L) by 53.4 %. In contrast, high PAs addition (500 mg/L) exerted pro-oxidant effects, aggravated oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, leading to sharp decrease in biomass (21.3 g/L) by 35.1 %, lipid (8.2 g/L) by 46.0 %, and DHA (2.9 g/L) by 54.8 %. Therefore, the antioxidant concentration is especially crucial in DHA production. This study is the first to report concentration-dependant dual roles of PAs in oxidative stress and DHA production in Schizochytrium sp., providing new insights into microbial DHA production.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Estramenópilas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fermentação
4.
Harmful Algae ; 133: 102601, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485440

RESUMO

The photoperiod, which is defined as the period of time within a 24-hour time frame that light is available, is an important environmental regulator of several physiological processes in phytoplankton, including harmful bloom-forming phytoplankton. The ichthyotoxic raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo is a globally distributed bloom-forming phytoplankton. Despite extensive studies on the ecological impact of H. akashiwo, the influence of the photoperiod on crucial biological processes of this species remains unclear. In this study, gene expression in H. akashiwo was analyzed over a 24-hour light-dark (14:10) treatment period. Approximately 36 % of unigenes in H. akashiwo were differentially expressed during this 24-hour treatment period, which is indicative of their involvement in the response to light-dark variation. Notably, the number of differentially expressed genes exhibited an initial increase followed by a subsequent decrease as the sampling time progressed (T0 vs. other time points). Unigenes associated with photosynthesis and photoprotection reached their peak expression levels after 2-4 h of illumination (T12-T14). In contrast, the expression of unigenes associated with DNA replication peaked at the starting point of the dark period (T0). Furthermore, although several unigenes annotated to photoreceptors displayed potential diel periodicity, genes from various photoreceptor families (such as phytochrome and cryptochrome) showed unique expression patterns. Collectively, our findings offer novel perspectives on the response of H. akashiwo to the light-dark cycle, serving as a valuable resource for investigating the physiology and ecology of this species.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Estramenópilas , Fotoperíodo , Dinoflagelados/genética , Fitoplâncton/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fotossíntese , Estramenópilas/genética
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(11): e2314606121, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446847

RESUMO

Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are common genetic passengers in various protists. Some EVEs represent viral fossils, whereas others are still active. The marine heterotrophic flagellate Cafeteria burkhardae contains several EVE types related to the virophage mavirus, a small DNA virus that parasitizes the lytic giant virus CroV. We hypothesized that endogenous virophages may act as an antiviral defense system in protists, but no protective effect of virophages in wild host populations has been shown so far. Here, we tested the activity of virophage EVEs and studied their impact on giant virus replication. We found that endogenous mavirus-like elements (EMALEs) from globally distributed Cafeteria populations produced infectious virus particles specifically in response to CroV infection. However, reactivation was stochastic, often inefficient, and poorly reproducible. Interestingly, only one of eight EMALE types responded to CroV infection, implying that other EMALEs may be linked to different giant viruses. We isolated and cloned several reactivated virophages and characterized their particles, genomes, and infection dynamics. All tested virophages inhibited the production of CroV during coinfection, thereby preventing lysis of the host cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Comparative genomics of different C. burkhardae strains revealed that inducible EMALEs are common and are not linked to specific geographic locations. We demonstrate that naturally occurring virophage EVEs reactivate upon giant virus infection, thus providing a striking example that eukaryotic EVEs can become active under specific conditions. Moreover, our results support the hypothesis that virophages can act as an adaptive antiviral defense system in protists.


Assuntos
Vírus Gigantes , Estramenópilas , Viroses , Humanos , Virófagos , Vírus Gigantes/genética , Estramenópilas/genética , Antivirais
6.
mSystems ; 9(4): e0094923, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441030

RESUMO

The production of dissolved organic matter during phytoplankton blooms and consumption by heterotrophic prokaryotes promote marine carbon biogeochemical cycling. Although prokaryotic viruses presumably affect this process, their dynamics during blooms are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of taxonomic difference in bloom-forming phytoplankton on prokaryotes and their viruses. We analyzed the dynamics of coastal prokaryotic communities and viruses under the addition of dissolved intracellular fractions from taxonomically distinct phytoplankton, the diatom Chaetoceros sp. (CIF) and the raphidophycean alga Heterosigma akashiwo (HIF), using microcosm experiments. Ribosomal RNA gene amplicon and viral metagenomic analyses revealed that particular prokaryotes and prokaryotic viruses specifically increased in either CIF or HIF, indicating that taxonomic difference in bloom-forming phytoplankton promotes distinct dynamics of not only the prokaryotic community but also prokaryotic viruses. Furthermore, combining our microcosm experiments with publicly available environmental data mining, we identified both known and novel possible host-virus pairs. In particular, the growth of prokaryotes associating with phytoplanktonic organic matter, such as Bacteroidetes (Polaribacter and NS9 marine group), Vibrio spp., and Rhodobacteriales (Nereida and Planktomarina), was accompanied by an increase in viruses predicted to infect Bacteroidetes, Vibrio, and Rhodobacteriales, respectively. Collectively, our findings suggest that changes in bloom-forming species can be followed by an increase in a specific group of prokaryotes and their viruses and that elucidating these tripartite relationships among specific phytoplankton, prokaryotes, and prokaryotic viruses improves our understanding of coastal biogeochemical cycling in blooms.IMPORTANCEThe primary production during marine phytoplankton bloom and the consumption of the produced organic matter by heterotrophic prokaryotes significantly contribute to coastal biogeochemical cycles. While the activities of those heterotrophic prokaryotes are presumably affected by viral infection, the dynamics of their viruses during blooms are not fully understood. In this study, we experimentally demonstrated that intracellular fractions of taxonomically distinct bloom-forming phytoplankton species, the diatom Chaetoceros sp. and the raphidophycean alga Heterosigma akashiwo, promoted the growth of taxonomically different prokaryotes and prokaryotic viruses. Based on their dynamics and predicted hosts of those viruses, we succeeded in detecting already-known and novel possible host-virus pairs associating with either phytoplankton species. Altogether, we propose that the succession of bloom-forming phytoplankton would change the composition of the abundant prokaryotes, resulting in an increase in their viruses. These changes in viral composition, depending on bloom-forming species, would alter the dynamics and metabolism of prokaryotes, affecting biogeochemical cycling in blooms.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Flavobacteriaceae , Estramenópilas , Vírus , Fitoplâncton/genética , Vírus/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0292479, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349923

RESUMO

Recombinase enzymes are extremely efficient at integrating very large DNA fragments into target genomes. However, intrinsic sequence specificities curtail their use to DNA sequences with sufficient homology to endogenous target motifs. Extensive engineering is therefore required to broaden applicability and robustness. Here, we describe the directed evolution of novel lambda integrase variants capable of editing exogenous target sequences identified in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the algae Nannochloropsis oceanica. These microorganisms hold great promise as conduits for green biomanufacturing and carbon sequestration. The evolved enzyme variants show >1000-fold switch in specificity towards the non-natural target sites when assayed in vitro. A single-copy target motif in the human genome with homology to the Nannochloropsis oceanica site can also be efficiently targeted using an engineered integrase, both in vitro and in human cells. The developed integrase variants represent useful additions to the DNA editing toolbox, with particular application for targeted genomic insertion of large DNA cargos.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Estramenópilas , Humanos , Integrases/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , DNA , Genômica , Diatomáceas/genética , Estramenópilas/genética , Edição de Genes
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 201, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349390

RESUMO

The triterpene squalene is widely used in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries due to its antioxidant, antistatic and anti-carcinogenic properties. It is usually obtained from the liver of deep sea sharks, which are facing extinction. Alternative production organisms are marine protists from the family Thraustochytriaceae, which produce and store large quantities of various lipids. Squalene accumulation in thraustochytrids is complex, as it is an intermediate in sterol biosynthesis. Its conversion to squalene 2,3-epoxide is the first step in sterol synthesis and is heavily oxygen dependent. Hence, the oxygen supply during cultivation was investigated in our study. In shake flask cultivations, a reduced oxygen supply led to increased squalene and decreased sterol contents and yields. Oxygen-limited conditions were applied to bioreactor scale, where squalene accumulation and growth of Schizochytrium sp. S31 was determined in batch, fed-batch and continuous cultivation. The highest dry matter (32.03 g/L) was obtained during fed-batch cultivation, whereas batch cultivation yielded the highest biomass productivity (0.2 g/L*h-1). Squalene accumulation benefited from keeping the microorganisms in the growth phase. Therefore, the highest squalene content of 39.67 ± 1.34 mg/g was achieved by continuous cultivation (D = 0.025 h-1) and the highest squalene yield of 1131 mg/L during fed-batch cultivation. Volumetric and specific squalene productivity both reached maxima in the continuous cultivation at D = 0.025 h-1 (6.94 ± 0.27 mg/L*h-1 and 1.00 ± 0.03 mg/g*h-1, respectively). Thus, the choice of a suitable cultivation method under oxygen-limiting conditions depends heavily on the process requirements. KEY POINTS: • Measurements of respiratory activity and backscatter light of thraustochytrids • Oxygen limitation increased squalene accumulation in Schizochytrium sp. S31 • Comparison of different cultivation methods under oxygen-limiting conditions.


Assuntos
Estramenópilas , Triterpenos , Esqualeno , Oxigênio , Esteróis
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(7): 3584-3595, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344823

RESUMO

Astaxanthin esters are a major form of astaxanthin found in nature. However, the exact mechanisms of the biosynthesis and storage of astaxanthin esters were previously unknown. We found that Schizochytrium sp. synthesized both astaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched lipids. The major type of astaxanthin produced was free astaxanthin along with astaxanthin-DHA monoester and other esterified forms. DHA accounted for 41.0% of the total fatty acids from astaxanthin monoesters. These compounds were deposited mainly in lipid droplets. The biosynthesis of the astaxanthin esters was mainly carried out by a novel diacylglycerol acyltransferase ScDGAT2-1, while ScDGAT2-2 was involved only in the production of triacylglycerol. We also identified astaxanthin ester synthases from the astaxanthin-producing algae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chromochloris zofingiensis, as well as a thraustochytrid Hondaea fermentalgiana with an unknown carotenoid profile. This investigation enlightens the application of thraustochytrids for the production of both DHA and astaxanthin and provides enzyme resources for the biosynthesis of astaxanthin esters in the engineered microbes.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , Estramenópilas , Ésteres , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Xantofilas , Estramenópilas/genética , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos
10.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 141, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizochytrium limacinum holds significant value utilized in the industrial-scale synthesis of natural DHA. Nitrogen-limited treatment can effectively increase the content of fatty acids and DHA, but there is currently no research on chromatin accessibility during the process of transcript regulation. The objective of this research was to delve into the workings of fatty acid production in S. limacinum by examining the accessibility of promoters and profiling gene expressions. RESULTS: Results showed that differentially accessible chromatin regions (DARs)-associated genes were enriched in fatty acid metabolism, signal transduction mechanisms, and energy production. By identifying and annotating DARs-associated motifs, the study obtained 54 target transcription factor classes, including BPC, RAMOSA1, SPI1, MYC, and MYB families. Transcriptomics results revealed that several differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including SlFAD2, SlALDH, SlCAS1, SlNSDHL, and SlDGKI, are directly related to the biosynthesis of fatty acids, meanwhile, SlRPS6KA, SlCAMK1, SlMYB3R1, and SlMYB3R5 serve as transcription factors that could potentially influence the regulation of fatty acid production. In the integration analysis of DARs and ATAC-seq, 13 genes were identified, which were shared by both DEGs and DARs-associated genes, including SlCAKM, SlRP2, SlSHOC2, SlTN, SlSGK2, SlHMP, SlOGT, SlclpB, and SlDNAAF3. CONCLUSIONS: SlCAKM may act as a negative regulator of fatty acid and DHA synthesis, while SlSGK2 may act as a positive regulator, which requires further study in the future. These insights enhance our comprehension of the processes underlying fatty acid and DHA production in S. limacinum. They also supply a foundational theoretical framework and practical assistance for the development of strains rich in fatty acids and DHA.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Estramenópilas , Humanos , RNA-Seq , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Estramenópilas/genética , Estramenópilas/metabolismo
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 90(3): e0207523, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319096

RESUMO

Labyrinthulomycetes play an important role in marine biogeochemical cycles, but their diversity, distribution patterns, and key regulatory factors remain unclear. This study measured the abundance and diversity of Labyrinthulomycetes in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) to understand its distribution pattern and relationship with environmental and biological factors. The abundance of Labyrinthulomycetes ranged from 24 to 500 cells·mL-1, with an average of 144.37 ± 94.65 cells·mL-1, and its community composition showed obvious ecological partitioning in the PRE. The results of statistical analysis indicated that CDOM, salinity, and chlorophyll a contributed significantly (P < 0.01) to the community composition, explaining 46.59%, 11.34%, and 4.38% of the variance, respectively. The Labyrinthulomycetes distribution pattern combined with the niches of dominant species was revealed; low-salinity species mainly use terrigenous organic matter occupied dominant positions in the upper estuary and showed the highest abundance; moderate-salinity species that can use phytoplankton-derived resources thrived in the middle estuary; and seawater species dominated the lower estuary with the highest diversity but the lowest abundance. In addition, the results of phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the existence of a novel lineage, and further study on the diversity and ecological functions of Labyrinthulomycetes is needed.IMPORTANCELabyrinthulomycetes play important roles in organic matter remineralization, carbon sinks, and food webs. However, the true diversity of Labyrinthulomycetes is still unclear due to limitations in isolation and culture methods. In addition, previous studies on their relationship with environmental factors are inconsistent and even contradictory, and it is speculated that their community composition may have spatial heterogeneity along the environmental gradient. In this study, the distribution pattern and key regulators of Labyrinthulomycetes in the PRE were revealed. Combining the niche of dominant species, it is suggested that salinity determines the spatial differences in Labyrinthulomycetes diversity, and the resources of substrate (terrestrial input or phytoplankton-derived) determine the dominant species, and its abundance is mainly determined by organic matter concentrations. Our study provided new information on the Labyrinthulomycetes diversity and verified the spatial heterogeneity of Labyrinthulomycetes community composition, providing reliable explanations for the inconsistencies in previous studies.


Assuntos
Rios , Estramenópilas , Clorofila A , Estuários , Filogenia , Fitoplâncton
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 397: 130489, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403170

RESUMO

Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms with the potential to mitigate the atmospheric greenhouse effect by carbon fixation. However, their growth is typically limited by light availability. A wavelength converter utilizing red, blue, and green quantum dots (QDs) was developed to optimize light quality for enhancing microalgal production. The growth, lipid content, and eicosapentaenoic acid titer of Nannochloropsis increased by 11.2%, 9.5%, and 15.5% with red QDs, respectively. The biomass and triacylglycerol content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum increased by 8.6% and 35.0%, respectively. Simultaneously, biodiesel production was accelerated in Nannochloropsis (20.2%) and P. tricornutum (11.6%), and improved with increased cetane number and reduced iodine value. Furthermore, red QDs increased the growth and biomass accumulation of Nannochloropsis under low light, while green QDs shielded Nannochloropsis from photoinhibition under high light. This customizable QD-based methodology overcomes microalgal light limitations, demonstrating a universally applicable approach to improve microalgal cultivation and biochemical component production.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Pontos Quânticos , Estramenópilas , Microalgas/metabolismo , Luz , Fotossíntese , Triglicerídeos , Biomassa , Biocombustíveis
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 200: 116148, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364640

RESUMO

The recurrent brown tide phenomenon, attributed to Aureococcus anophagefferens (A. anophagefferens), constitutes a significant threat to the Qinhuangdao sea area in China, leading to pronounced ecological degradation and substantial economic losses. This study utilized machine learning and deep learning techniques to predict A. anophagefferens population density, aiming to elucidate the occurrence mechanism and influencing factors of brown tide. Specifically, Random Forest (RF) algorithm was utilized to impute missing water quality data, facilitating its direct application in subsequent algal population prediction models. The results revealed that all four models-RF, Support Vector Regression (SVR), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-exhibited high accuracy in predicting A. anophagefferens population densities, with R2 values exceeding 0.75. RF, in particular, showed exceptional accuracy and reliability, with an R2 value surpassing 0.8. Additionally, the study ascertained five critical factors influencing A. anophagefferens population density: ammonia nitrogen, pH, total nitrogen, temperature, and silicate.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Estramenópilas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aprendizado de Máquina , Nitrogênio
14.
Environ Microbiol ; 26(2): e16582, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195072

RESUMO

Host-associated microbes influence host health and function and can be a first line of defence against infections. While research increasingly shows that terrestrial plant microbiomes contribute to bacterial, fungal, and oomycete disease resistance, no comparable experimental work has investigated marine plant microbiomes or more diverse disease agents. We test the hypothesis that the eelgrass (Zostera marina) leaf microbiome increases resistance to seagrass wasting disease. From field eelgrass with paired diseased and asymptomatic tissue, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed that bacterial composition and richness varied markedly between diseased and asymptomatic tissue in one of the two years. This suggests that the influence of disease on eelgrass microbial communities may vary with environmental conditions. We next experimentally reduced the eelgrass microbiome with antibiotics and bleach, then inoculated plants with Labyrinthula zosterae, the causative agent of wasting disease. We detected significantly higher disease severity in eelgrass with a native microbiome than an experimentally reduced microbiome. Our results over multiple experiments do not support a protective role of the eelgrass microbiome against L. zosterae. Further studies of these marine host-microbe-pathogen relationships may continue to show new relationships between plant microbiomes and diseases.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Estramenópilas , Zosteraceae , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Estramenópilas/genética , Zosteraceae/genética , Zosteraceae/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 466: 133548, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262320

RESUMO

Controlling harmful algal blooms with algicidal bacteria is thought to be an efficient and eco-friendly way but lack of comprehensive studies from theory to practice limited the field application. Here we presented a purple bacterial strain Duganella sp. A3 capable of killing several harmful algae, including Heterosigma akashiwo, a world-wide fish-killing microalga. A bioactivity-guided purification and identification approach revealed the major algicidal compound of A3 as the pigment violacein, which was never reported for its algicidal potential before. Violacein rapidly disrupted cell permeability, caused long-term oxidative stress, but mildly affected algal photosystem, which might explain its highly species-specific activity against unarmored H. akashiwo. To explore the application potential of violacein, a fermentation optimization approach combing single-factor and multi-factor experiments was conducted to increase the violacein yield, which finally reached 0.4199 g/L just using a simple medium formula beneficial for compound purification. Finally, taking advantages of the physical and chemical stabilities, we successfully developed the novel application of violacein as a sustained-releasing and easy-to-preserve algicidal agent using alginate-acacia-gum-chitosan encapsulation, which paved the path for its future application in controlling H. akashiwo bloom.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Indóis , Estramenópilas , Animais , Fermentação , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Bactérias
16.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 190: 107964, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37951557

RESUMO

Unlike morphologically conspicuous ochrophytes, many flagellates belonging to basally branching stramenopiles are small and often overlooked. As a result, many of these lineages are known only through molecular surveys and identified as MArine STramenopiles (MAST), and remain largely uncharacterized at the cellular or genomic level. These likely phagotrophic flagellates are not only phylogenetically diverse, but also extremely abundant in some environments, making their characterization all the more important. MAST-6 is one example of a phylogenetically distinct group that has been known to be associated with sediments, but little else is known about it. Indeed, until the present study, only a single species from this group, Pseudophyllomitus vesiculosus (Pseudophyllomitidae), has been both formally described and associated with genomic information. Here, we describe four new species including two new genera of sediment-dwelling MAST-6, Vomastramonas tehuelche gen. et sp. nov., Mastreximonas tlaamin gen. et sp. nov., one undescribed Pseudophyllomitus sp., BSC2, and a new species belonging to Placididea, the potentially halotolerant Haloplacidia sinai sp. nov. We also provide two additional bikosian transcriptomes from a public culture collection, to allow for better phylogenetic reconstructions of deep-branching stramenopiles. With the SSU rRNA sequences of the new MAST-6 species, we investigate the phylogenetic diversity of the MAST-6 group and show a high relative abundance of MAST-6 related to M. tlaamin in samples across various depths and geographical locations. Using the new MAST-6 species, we also update the phylogenomic tree of stramenopiles, particularly focusing on the paraphyly of Bigyra.


Assuntos
Estramenópilas , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico
17.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 210: 246-257, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38042223

RESUMO

Schizochytrium sp. is an important industrial strain for commercial production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which plays essential physiological roles in infant development and human health. The regulatory network for DHA biosynthesis and lipid accumulation in Schizochytrium remains poorly understood. FabR (fatty acid biosynthesis repressor), a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, was transcriptionally downregulated under low-nitrogen condition. Deletion of fabR gene (mutant ΔfabR) increased production of total lipids and DHA by 30.1% and 46.5%, respectively. ΔfabR displayed H2O2 stress resistance higher than that of parental strain or complementation strain CfabR. FabR bound specifically to 7-bp pseudo-palindromic sequence 5'-ATTSAAT-3' in upstream regions and repressed transcription of fatty acid biosynthesis genes (acl, fas, pfa) and antioxidant defense genes (cat, sod1, sod2, gpx). DNA binding activity of FabR was regulated in a redox-dependent manner. Under oxidative condition, FabR forms intermolecular disulfide bonds between two Cys46 residues of dimers; its DNA binding activity is thereby lost, and the transcription of its target genes is enhanced through derepression. Our findings clarify the redox-dependent mechanism that modulates FabR activity governing lipid and DHA biosynthesis and H2O2 stress response in Schizochytrium.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Estramenópilas , Criança , Humanos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/genética , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , DNA/metabolismo
18.
J Eukaryot Microbiol ; 71(1): e13003, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37803921

RESUMO

Eukaryotrophic protists are ecologically significant and possess characteristics key to understanding the evolution of eukaryotes; however, they remain poorly studied, due partly to the complexities of maintaining predator-prey cultures. Kaonashia insperata, gen. nov., et sp. nov., is a free-swimming biflagellated eukaryotroph with a conspicuous ventral groove, a trait observed in distantly related lineages across eukaryote diversity. Di-eukaryotic (predator-prey) cultures of K. insperata with three marine algae (Isochrysis galbana, Guillardia theta, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were established by single-cell isolation. Growth trials showed that the studied K. insperata clone grew particularly well on G. theta, reaching a peak abundance of 1.0 × 105 ± 4.0 × 104 cells ml-1 . Small-subunit ribosomal DNA phylogenies infer that K. insperata is a stramenopile with moderate support; however, it does not fall within any well-defined phylogenetic group, including environmental sequence clades (e.g. MASTs), and its specific placement remains unresolved. Electron microscopy shows traits consistent with stramenopile affinity, including mastigonemes on the anterior flagellum and tubular mitochondrial cristae. Kaonashia insperata may represent a novel major lineage within stramenopiles, and be important for understanding the evolutionary history of the group. While heterotrophic stramenopile flagellates are considered to be predominantly bacterivorous, eukaryotrophy may be relatively widespread amongst this assemblage.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Estramenópilas , Filogenia , Estramenópilas/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diatomáceas/genética , Criptófitas/genética
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 912: 169217, 2024 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081429

RESUMO

Aurantiochytrium sp. belongs to marine heterotrophic single-cell protist, which is an important decomposer in marine ecosystem. Aurantiochytrium sp. has gained notoriety because of its ability to accumulate high-value docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), but the key factors of DHA synthesis were unclear at present. In this study, Atmospheric and Room Temperature Plasma technology was applied to the mutagenic breeding of Aurantiochytrium sp., and transcriptomics and proteomics were adopted to analyze the DHA-biosynthesis mechanism. According to the growth and DHA accumulation profiles, the mutant strain Aurantiochytrium sp. R2A35 was selected. The DHA content in total lipids was greatly improved from 49.39 % of the wild strain R2 to 63.69 % of the mutant strain. Moreover, the DHA content in the biomass of Aurantiochytrium sp. R2A35 as 39.72 % was the highest DHA productivity reported so far. The differentially expressed genes distinguished from transcriptome and the TMT-identified differential proteins distinguished from proteome confirmed that the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ketoacyl reductase was up-regulated by 4.78-fold and 6.95-fold, respectively and the fatty acid synthase was concurrently down-regulated by 2.79-fold, so that more precursor was transported to the polyketide synthase pathway, thereby increasing the DHA yield in Aurantiochytrium sp. R2A35. This research would provide reference for the DHA metabolism process and contribute to the understanding of the decomposer - Aurantiochytrium sp. in marine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Estramenópilas , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Temperatura , Multiômica , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Mutagênese
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 394: 130205, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38104661

RESUMO

Tribonema minus, a promising filamentous oleaginous microalga, was cultured under different nutrient concentrations and different culture modes (fed-batch culture, two-step culture) to study the method of rapid regulation of its lipid metabolism. In contrast to many other oleaginous microalgae, T. minus did not show that nitrogen stress promoted lipid accumulation; however, sulfur deficiency promoted rapid lipid accumulation with a maximum lipid content of 54% of dry weight. Increasing the MgSO4 concentration significantly increased nitrogen uptake and biomass (10.09 g/L). Lipid productivity was significantly increased by the two-step culture using a medium with a high concentration of MgSO4 in the first step and a sulfur-free medium in the second step. In addition, it was found that the lipid content of T. minus was negatively correlated with the intracellular sulfur content when the intracellular sulfur content was below 0.6%. This study provides a new approach for industrial lipid production in T. minus.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Estramenópilas , Estramenópilas/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Biomassa , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Lipídeos
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