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1.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677794

RESUMO

Arthrospira is one of the most studied cyanobacteria and has been reported with practical applications. Among the substances derived from Arthrospira, polysaccharides have received relatively less attention than phycocyanins, though they have more abundant structural variations and specific properties. Herein, a new Arthrospira-derived sulfated polysaccharide was explored for its potential bioactive functions. The ability of this sulfated polysaccharide to promote the behavior of neural stem cells (NSCs) in three-dimensional hydrogel was examined for the first time. NSCs encapsulated in the sulfated polysaccharide-containing hydrogel showed better proliferation than the control hydrogel as well as a unique cell clustering behavior, i.e., formation of multicellular spherical clusters (40-60 µm). The sulfated polysaccharide, in an appropriate range of concentration (5 mg/mL), also maintained the stemness of NSCs in hydrogel and facilitated their differentiation. In addition, the potentials of the new sulfated polysaccharide as a coating material and as a component for drug carrier were verified. The sulfated polysaccharide-modified substrate exhibited superhydrophilicity (contact angle ~9°) and promoted cell adhesion to the substrate. Composite nanoparticles composed of the sulfated polysaccharide and other differently charged polysaccharides were produced with an average diameter of ~240 nm and estimated drug loading of ~18%. The new Arthrospira-derived sulfated polysaccharide is a promising candidate for cell culture, surface-modification, and drug-delivery applications in the biomedical field.


Assuntos
Spirulina , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Diferenciação Celular , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Sulfatos/química
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 303: 120451, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657841

RESUMO

Numerous disseminated tumor cells specifically overexpress P-selectin. Therefore, it was thought to be a potential target for tumor therapy. Herein, we described a novel P-selectin-targeted glycosyl ligand-sulfated polyguluronic acid (PGS), as an oriented carrier of P-selectin-targeted drug delivery system. Specifically, the PGS-SS-DOX polymeric micelles were constructed to confirm the practicability of the PGS carrier as a new P-selectin-targeted ligand. PGS-SS-DOX micelles comprised P-selectin-targeted PGS, doxorubicin (DOX) as an anticarcinogen, and pH/redox dual-sensitive bio-linker facilitating drug release in tumor tissues. In vitro and in vivo data showed that PGS-SS-DOX micelles significantly increased tumor cell killing capacity and exhibited a favorable biocompatibility comparison with Free-DOX. This work proved that PGS was an ideal low immunogenic, biodegradable drug carrier for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs. The facile PGS-SS-drug micelle system provided enormous opportunities for treating disseminated tumors utilizing many irreplaceable anticarcinogens.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Micelas , Selectina-P , Sulfatos , Ligantes , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Polímeros , Portadores de Fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 302: 120404, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604076

RESUMO

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are defined as chronic and non-healing wounds that cause skin disorders. Here, we introduce a novel biodegradable gelatin/sulfated alginate hybrid scaffold as a dermal substitute to accelerate the healing of full-thickness diabetic ulcers in a diabetic mouse model. The hybrid scaffold possessing different weight ratios of sulfated alginate, from 10 % up to 50 %, were prepared through chemical crosslinking by carbodiimide chemistry and further freeze-drying. Based on the in vitro cytotoxicity experiments, the hybrid scaffolds not only showed no cytotoxicity, but the cell growth also dramatically increased by increasing the sulfated alginate content. Finally, the pathology of hybrid scaffolds as the dermal substitutes for healing of full-thickness diabetic wounds showed the more appropriate formation of epidermal layer, more homogeneous distribution of collagenous tissue and lower penetration of immune cells for the hybrid scaffolds-treated wounds.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Pé Diabético , Camundongos , Animais , Gelatina/química , Sulfatos , Cicatrização , Epiderme , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Tecidos Suporte
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(2): 1100-1112, 2023 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604158

RESUMO

Glucoraphanin, rich in broccoli seed extract (BSE), is generally inert but can be biotransformed into active sulforaphane by gut bacteria. This study aimed to screen probiotics with glucoraphanin-metabolizing ability and explore the effect of a combination of strain and BSE on colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. Bifidobacterium longum CCFM1206 was isolated from healthy adult feces. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography Q Exactive mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of sulforaphane, sulforaphane-l-cysteine, and erucin in the BSE supernatant fermented by B. longum CCFM1206 in vitro. Combined and individual interventions of BSE and B. longum CCFM1206 were applied to explore the effects on DSS-induced colitis. The results suggested that the combination of B. longum CCFM1206 and BSE could ameliorate colitis symptoms, relieve colonic inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress, and protect the intestinal barrier in DSS-induced mice. In comparison to the BSE intervention alone, the combined intervention of B. longum CCFM1206 and BSE promoted the generation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine in mice colon from 220.88 ± 19.81 to 333.99 ± 36.46 nmol/g and from 232.04 ± 26.48 to 297.50 ± 40.08 nmol/g dry weight feces, respectively. According to quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis, B. longum CCFM1206 and BSE effectively activated the transcription and expression of genes related to the Nrf2 signaling pathway. These results were intended to elucidate that probiotics could elevate the bioactivity of dietary phytochemicals in vivo, and the combination had potential for therapeutic treatment of colitis.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Colite , Camundongos , Animais , Bifidobacterium longum/metabolismo , Dextranos/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(2): 920-928, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592345

RESUMO

TiO2 is a widely used material in building coatings. Many studies have revealed that TiO2 promotes the heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 and the subsequent sulfate formation. However, whether and how much TiO2 contributes to the gaseous H2SO4 and subsequent new particle formation (NPF) still remains unclear. Herein, we used a 1 m3 quartz smog chamber to investigate NPF in the presence of TiO2. The experimental results indicated that TiO2 could greatly promote NPF. The increases in particle formation rate (J) and growth rate due to the presence of TiO2 were quantified, and the promotion effect was attributed to the production of gaseous H2SO4. The promotion effect of TiO2 on SO2 oxidation and subsequent NPF decreased gradually due to the formation of surface sulfate but did not disappear completely, instead partly recovering after washing with water. Moreover, the promotion effect of TiO2 on NPF was observed regardless of differences in RH, and the most significant promotion effect of TiO2 associated with the strongest NPF occurred at an RH of 20%. Based on the experimental evidence, the environmental impact of TiO2 on gaseous H2SO4 and particle pollution in urban areas was estimated.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Smog , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Titânio , Sulfatos
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(2): 1167-1176, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599128

RESUMO

Microplastics are readily accumulated in coastal sediments, where active sulfur (S) cycling takes place. However, the effects of microplastics on S cycling in coastal sediments and their underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, the transformation patterns of different S species in mangrove sediments amended with different microplastics and their associated microbial communities were investigated using stable isotopic analysis and metagenomic sequencing. Biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microplastics treatment increased sulfate (SO42-) reduction to yield more acid-volatile S and elementary S, which were subsequently transformed to chromium-reducible S (CRS). The S isotope fractionation between SO42- and CRS in PLA treatment increased by 9.1‰ from days 0 to 20, which was greater than 6.8‰ in the control. In contrast, recalcitrant petroleum-based poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microplastics had less impact on the sulfate reduction, resulting in 7.6 and 7.7‰ of S isotope fractionation between SO42- and CRS from days 0 to 20, respectively. The pronounced S isotope fractionation in PLA treatment was associated with increased relative abundance of Desulfovibrio-related sulfate-reducing bacteria, which contributed a large proportion of the microbial genes responsible for dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Overall, these findings provide insights into the potential impacts of microplastics exposure on the biogeochemical S cycle in coastal sediments.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Isótopos de Enxofre/análise , Enxofre , Isótopos/análise , Poliésteres , Sulfatos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(2): 1092-1102, 2023 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599497

RESUMO

Underground hydrogen storage (UHS) has been proposed as one option for storage of excess energy from renewable sources. Depleted gas reservoirs appear suitable, but at the same time, they may be environments with potentially high microbial abundances and activities. Hydrogen (H2) is one of the most energetic substrates in such environments, and many microorganisms are able to oxidize H2, potentially leading to loss of H2 or other unwanted reactions like production of, e.g., H2S, clogging, or corrosion. This study addressed the potential of H2 consumption by naturally abundant microorganisms in formation fluid from a gas field at near in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Microbial H2 consumption was evident at ambient and 100 bar and tolerated pressure variations reflecting cycles of H2 storage. Temperature strongly influenced the activity with higher activity at 30 °C but lower activity at 60 °C. The activity was sulfate-dependent, and sulfide was produced. The microbial community composition changed during H2 consumption with an increase in sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Thus, the presence of an SRP-containing, H2-consuming microbial community with activity at UHS-relevant pressure and temperature conditions was shown and should be taken into account when planning UHS at this and other sites.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Gás Natural , Sulfatos , Hidrogênio
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 272, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607446

RESUMO

This paper demarcated the most vulnerable regions within the Poiney sub-basin (Tamil Nadu state in India) with respect to the groundwater quality. An index-based vulnerability assessment was carried out by measuring the physico-chemical variables such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, magnesium, sodium, chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate and fluoride in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon samples. Water quality index varied across the sub-basin due to differences in the water quality induced by anthropogenic activities related to land use practices and presence of industries. The MT3D engine coupled with visual MODFLOW identified that sulphate released from tanneries and leather factories is the main effluent contaminating the groundwater. Model reveals that both the flow and contaminant transport is towards southeast with maximum and minimum calculated head of 201.82 mg/l and 265.92 mg/l and calculated sulphate concentration of 394.40 mg/l and 46.79 mg/l respectively.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Índia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Sulfatos/análise
9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 304: 120454, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641184

RESUMO

CFP2 is a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from Codium fragile that shows excellent immunomodulatory activity. To reduce the side effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), CFP2 was used as a macromolecular carrier to react with carboxymethyl-5-fluorouracil (C-5-FU) to form CFP2-C-5-FU, which further reacted with folic acid (FA) via an ester bond to form novel conjugates (CFP2-C-5-FU-FA). CFP2-C-5-FU-FA was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. In vitro drug release results showed that the cumulative release rate of C-5-FU was 49.9% in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) after 96 h, which was much higher than that of the other groups, indicating that CFP2-C-5-FU-FA showed controlled drug release behavior. CFP2-C-5-FU-FA also exhibited enhanced apoptosis and cellular uptake in vitro. Further, intravenous administration of CFP2-C-5-FU-FA in an HCT-116 cell-bearing xenograft mouse showed that the conjugates were safe and effective drug delivery systems. These results suggest that folate-targeted conjugates can be used effectively for efficient chemotherapy of colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Mananas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Ácido Fólico/química , Sulfatos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Fluoruracila/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Portadores de Fármacos/química
10.
Environ Int ; 171: 107725, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599225

RESUMO

The Clean Air Plan has been active in China since 2013 to mitigate severe PM2.5 pollution. In this study, we applied the air quality model WRF-Chem to simulate PM2.5 in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China in 2017, with the aim of assessing the air quality improvement and its associated health burden in the final year of the Clean Air Plan. To better describe the fate of various PM2.5 compositions, we updated the chemical mechanisms in the model beforehand, including heterogeneous sulfate reactions, aqueous secondary organic aerosol (SOA) uptake, and volatility basis set (VBS) based SOA production. Both the observation and simulation results agreed that the stringent clear air action effectively reduced the PM2.5 pollution levels by âˆ¼ 30 %. The primary PM2.5 (-6 âˆ¼  - 16 % yr-1) showed a more significant decreasing trend than the secondary PM2.5 (-2 âˆ¼  - 8 % yr-1), which was mainly caused by the directivity of the clear air actions and the worsening ozone pollution in the recent years. The inconsistent decreasing trends of PM2.5 components subsequently led to an increasing proportion of secondary PM2.5. Nitrate particles, higher in the central and western YRD region, have replaced sulfate and have become the largest component of secondary inorganic aerosols year-round, except in summer, when strong ammonium nitrate evaporation occurs. In addition, SOA remains an important component (21 âˆ¼ 22 %) especially in summer, most of which is produced from the oxidation and ageing of semi/intermediate volatile organic compounds (S/IVOC). Furthermore, we quantified the associated health impacts and found that the Clean Air Plan has largely reduced premature mortality due to PM2.5 exposure in the YRD region from 399.1 thousand to 295.7 thousand. Our study highlights the benefits of the Clean Air Plan and suggests that subsequent PM2.5 improvement should be geared more towards controlling secondary pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Aerossóis/análise , Estações do Ano , Sulfatos/análise
11.
Water Res ; 230: 119566, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36642029

RESUMO

This work is focused on improving the understanding of the complex water matrix interactions occurring during the removal of a microcontaminants mixture (acetamiprid, carbamazepine and caffeine) by solar/Fe3+-EDDS/persulfate process. The individual and combined effects of sulfates (100-500 mg/L), nitrates (20-160 mg/L), bicarbonates (77-770 mg/L) and chlorides (300-1500 mg/L) were assessed by comparing the outcomes obtained in different synthetic and actual water matrices. In general, the results showed negligible effects of the different anions on Fe3+-EDDS concentration and PS consumption profiles, while the combination of bicarbonates and chlorides seemed to be the key for the MC removal efficiency decrease found when working with complex matrixes. Finally, the influence of dissolved organic matter on process performance was evaluated. It was concluded that there is neither any influence of this variable on Fe3+-EDDS concentration and PS consumption profiles. In contrast, there was a general negative effect on MC removal efficiency, which strongly depended on both the concentration and composition of the dissolved organic matter.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Cloretos , Bicarbonatos , Matéria Orgânica Dissolvida , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Oxirredução , Sulfatos
12.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 643: 105-110, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592583

RESUMO

The 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) molecule is essential during enzyme-catalyzed sulfation reactions as a sulfate donor and is an intermediate in the reduction of sulfate to sulfite in the sulfur assimilation pathway. PAPS is produced through a two-step reaction involving ATP sulfurylase and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase enzymes/domains. However, archaeal APS kinases have not yet been characterized and their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we first structurally characterized APS kinase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, (AfAPSK). We demonstrated the PAPS production activity of AfAPSK at the optimal growth temperature (83 °C). Furthermore, we determined the two crystal structures of AfAPSK: ADP complex and ATP analog adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP)/Mg2+/APS complex. Structural and complementary mutational analyses revealed the catalytic and substrate recognition mechanisms of AfAPSK. This study also hints at the molecular basis behind the thermal stability of AfAPSK.


Assuntos
Archaeoglobus fulgidus , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool) , Archaeoglobus fulgidus/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Sulfato Adenililtransferase/química , Adenosina Fosfossulfato/química , Adenosina Fosfossulfato/metabolismo , Fosfoadenosina Fosfossulfato , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
13.
Chemosphere ; 315: 137743, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608884

RESUMO

This study investigates an electrochemical approach for the treatment of water polluted with per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), looking at the impact of different variables, contributions from generated radicals, and degradability of different structures of PFAS. Results obtained from a central composite design (CCD) showed the importance of mass transfer, related to the stirring speed, and the amount of charge passed through the electrodes, related to the current density on decomposition rate of PFOA. The CCD informed optimized operating conditions which we then used to study the impact of solution conditions. Acidic condition, high temperature, and low initial concentration of PFOA accelerated the degradation kinetic, while DO had a negligible effect. The impact of electrolyte concentration depended on the initial concentration of PFOA. At low initial PFOA dosage (0.2 mg L-1), the rate constant increased considerably from 0.079 ± 0.001 to 0.259 ± 0.019 min-1 when sulfate increased from 0.1% to 10%, likely due to the production of SO4•-. However, at higher initial PFOA dosage (20 mg L-1), the rate constant decreased slightly from 0.019 ± 0.001 to 0.015 ± 0.000 min-1, possibly due to the occupation of active anode sites by excess amount of sulfate. SO4•- and •OH played important roles in decomposition and defluorination of PFOA, respectively. PFOA oxidation was initiated by one electron transfer to the anode or SO4•-, undergoing Kolbe decarboxylation where yielded perfluoroalkyl radical followed three reaction pathways with •OH, O2 and/or H2O. PFAS electrooxidation depended on the chemical structures where the decomposition rate constants (min-1) were in the order of 6:2 FTCA (0.031) > PFOA (0.019) > GenX (0.013) > PFBA (0.008). PFBA with a shorter chain length and GenX with -CF3 branching had slower decomposition than PFOA. While presence of C-H bonds makes 6:2 FTCA susceptible to the attack of •OH accelerating its decomposition kinetic. Conducting experiments in mixed solution of all studied PFAS and in natural water showed that the co-presence of PFAS and other water constituents (organic and inorganic matters) had adverse effects on PFAS decomposition efficiency.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fluorcarbonetos/química , Caprilatos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Água , Sulfatos/química
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36675196

RESUMO

L-cysteine S-sulfate, Cys-SSO3H, and their derivatives play essential roles in biological chemistry and pharmaceutical synthesis, yet their intrinsic molecular properties have not been studied to date. In this contribution, the deprotonated anion [cysS-SO3]- was introduced in the gas phase by electrospray and characterized by size-selected, cryogenic, negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy. The electron affinity of the [cysS-SO3]• radical was determined to be 4.95 ± 0.10 eV. In combination with theoretical calculations, it was found that the most stable structure of [cysS-SO3]- (S1) is stabilized via three intramolecular hydrogen bonds (HBs); i.e., one O-H⋯⋯N between the -COOH and -NH2 groups, and two N-H⋯⋯O HBs between -NH2 and -SO3, in which the amino group serves as both HB acceptor and donor. In addition, a nearly iso-energetic conformer (S2) with the formation of an O-H⋯⋯N-H⋯⋯O-S chain-type binding motif competes with S1 in the source. The most reactive site of the molecule susceptible for electrophilic attacks is the linkage S atom. Theoretically predicted infrared spectra indicate that O-H and N-H stretching modes are the fingerprint region (2800 to 3600 cm-1) to distinguish different isomers. The obtained information lays out a foundation to better understand the transformation and structure-reactivity correlation of Cys-SSO3H in biologic settings.


Assuntos
Cisteína , Sulfatos , Domínio Catalítico , Elétrons , Ânions
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 861: 160795, 2023 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493824

RESUMO

Persulfate has been applied extensively for waste activated sludge (WAS) decomposition due to the strong oxidizing sulfate radical generated as a product. However, the efficiency is not improved without activation to produce free radicals. In this study, a novel coupling strategy of heat-activated persulfate (Heat_PS) pretreatment and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) triggering was explored to enhance short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by WAS fermentation. The remaining sulfate acts as an essential acceptor of electrons for the metabolism of synergistic SRB, thereby boosting WAS acidification by energetic cooperation with anaerobic fermenters. The results showed that SCFAs yield in the Heat_PS + SRB group peaked at 431.89 mg COD/gVSS, with the proportion of acetate reaching 57.8 %. This was 6.33 and 1.75 times higher than that in raw and single Heat_PS treated WAS, respectively. Carbon balance revealed a conversion rate of 26.1 % of carbon content in WAS to SCFAs, with 4.5 % lower CO2 equivalents emitted than that in raw WAS fermentation by the assessments of environmental impacts. This was partially attributed to the strong decomposition of WAS by SO4•- and •OH oxidation from heat-activated PS and the SRB trigger. In addition, the synergistic relationship among acidogenic/fermentative bacteria and SRB consortia was further verified by the positive correlation among Desulfovibrio, the hydrolytic Escherichia-Shigella, Morganella and the fermetative Macellibacteroides and Bacteroides, as revealed by molecular ecological networks (MENs) analysis. The results of this study may highlight the cooperation of the synergistic micribial consortia as an additional perspective for the recovery of value-added biological metabolites from complex biotransformation.


Assuntos
Desulfovibrio , Esgotos , Fermentação , Esgotos/microbiologia , Consórcios Microbianos , Temperatura Alta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Óxidos de Enxofre , Sulfatos , Carbono , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 445: 130527, 2023 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495640

RESUMO

Hydroponic experiments were performed to examine the effect of prolonged sulfate limitation combined with cadmium (Cd) exposure in Arabidopsis thaliana and a potential Cd hyperaccumulator, Nicotiana tabacum. Low sulfate treatments (20 and 40 µM MgSO4) and Cd stress (4 µM CdCl2) showed adverse effects on morphology, photosynthetic and biochemical parameters and the nutritional status of both species. For example, Cd stress decreased NO3- root content under 20 µM MgSO4 to approximately 50% compared with respective controls. Interestingly, changes in many measured parameters, such as chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, the concentrations of anions, nutrients and Cd, induced by low sulfate supply, Cd exposure or a combination of both factors, were species-specific. Our data showed opposing effects of Cd exposure on Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn levels in roots of the studied plants. In A. thaliana, levels of glutathione, phytochelatins and glucosinolates demonstrated their distinct involvement in response to sub-optimal growth conditions and Cd stress. In shoot, the levels of phytochelatins and glucosinolates in the organic sulfur fraction were not dependent on sulfate supply under Cd stress. Altogether, our data showed both common and species-specific features of the complex plant response to prolonged sulfate deprivation and/or Cd exposure.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Fitoquelatinas , Cádmio/toxicidade , Tabaco , Sulfatos/farmacologia , Glucosinolatos/farmacologia , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Raízes de Plantas
17.
Environ Pollut ; 318: 120846, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496065

RESUMO

Organic aerosols (OA) are major components of fine particulate matter, yet their formation mechanism remains unclear, especially in polluted environments. In this study, we investigated the diurnal chemical compositions and formation processes of OA in carbonaceous particles during winter in Beijing using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We found that 84.5% of the measured carbonaceous particles underwent aging processes, characterized by larger diameter and more secondary species compared to fresh carbonaceous particles, and presented different chemical compositions of OA in the daytime and nighttime. During the day, under high O3 concentrations, organosulfates and oligomers existed in the aged carbonaceous particles, which were mixed with a higher signal of nitrate compared with sulfate. At night, under high relative humidity, distinct spectral signatures of hydroxymethanesulfonate and organic nitrogen compounds, and minor signals of other hydroxyalkylsulfonates and high molecular weight organic compounds were present in the aged carbonaceous particles, which were mixed with a higher signal of sulfate compared with nitrate. Our results indicated that photochemistry contributed to OA formation in the daytime, while aqueous chemistry played an important role in OA formation in the nighttime. The findings can help improve the performance of air quality and climate models on OA simulation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Pequim , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Nitratos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Estações do Ano , Aerossóis/análise , Sulfatos/análise , China
18.
Environ Res ; 218: 115033, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502897

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in geothermal fluids, which threatens both water supply safety and local ecology. The co-occurrence of sulfur (S) and As increases the complexity of As migration and transformation in hot springs. Microorganisms play important roles in As-S transformation processes. In the present study, two Tibetan alkaline hot springs (designated Gulu [GL] and Daba [DB]) with different total As concentrations (0.88 mg/L and 12.42 mg/L, respectively) and different sulfide/As ratios (3.97 and 0.008, respectively) were selected for investigating interactions between As-S geochemistry and microbial communities along the outflow channels. The results showed that As-S transformation processes were similar, although concentrations and percentages of As and S species differed between the two hot springs. Thioarsenates were detected at the vents of the hot springs (18% and 0.32%, respectively), and were desulfurized to arsenite along the drainage channel. Arsenite was finally oxidized to arsenate (532 µg/L and 12,700 µg/L, respectively). Monothioarsenate, total As, and sulfate were the key factors shaping the changes in microbial communities with geochemical gradients. The relative abundances of sulfur reduction genes (dsrAB) and arsenate reduction genes (arsC) were higher in upstream portions of GL explaining high thiolation. Arsenite oxidation genes (aoxAB) were relatively abundant in downstream parts of GL and at the vent of DB explaining low thiolation. Sulfur oxidation genes (soxABXYZ) were abundant in GL and DB. Putative sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), such as Desulfuromusa and Clostridium, might be involved in forming thioarsenates by producing reduced S for chemical reactions with arsenite. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), such as Elioraea, Pseudoxanthomonas and Pseudomonas, and arsenite-oxidizing bacteria (AsOB) such as Thermus, Sulfurihydrogenibium and Hydrogenophaga, may be responsible for the oxidation of As-bound S, thereby desulfurizing thioarsenates, forming arsenite and, by further abiotic or microbial oxidation, arsenate. This study improves our understanding of As and S biogeochemistry in hot springs.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Arsenitos , Fontes Termais , Microbiota , Arsênio/análise , Arseniatos/análise , Arseniatos/química , Fontes Termais/química , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Uganda , Bactérias/genética , Oxirredução , Sulfetos , Sulfatos , Enxofre
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 3): 159861, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397603

RESUMO

Microbial diversity and activities in petroleum reservoir systems can be altered by water-flooding operation, but the current understanding of the mechanism for such changes in microbial composition characteristics and community is inadequate. In this study, microbial communities especially functional groups in production water from five petroleum reservoirs in China were investigated by chemical and molecular biological analyses. The dominant and core phyla in the five oil reservoirs were Proteobacteria, Deferribacterota, Firmicutes, Desulfobacterota, Euryarchaeota and Thermoplasmatota. At the genus level, the dominant taxa in each petroleum reservoir were different, and not all of the dominant genera were the core members across the five oil reservoirs. The microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) were investigated for the functional groups in each production water. The corrosion rates in production water were higher than controls with a positive correlation to the abundances of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). The SRP diversity based on the aprA and dsrA gene analysis showed that obvious differences were evident between onshore (JS, SL, DQ and XJ) and offshore (BS) oilfields. The core SRP taxa in onshore oilfields were Desulfomicrobium and Desulfovibrio, also with Desulfotomaculum in medium/low-temperature oil reservoirs (DQ and XJ), but in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs (JS, BS and SL), Archaeoglobus, Thermodesulfobacterium and Thermodesulfovibrio were the core groups. Statistical analysis indicated that temperature, electron acceptors and donors showed significant influence on the SRP community. This research reveals the characteristics of microbial and functional community as well as their interaction mechanism on corrosion in petroleum reservoir environments, and will improve industrial bio-control and management of MIC in oilfields.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Petróleo , Sulfatos , Água , China
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 862: 160823, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521617

RESUMO

Anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) of sugarcane vinasse and glycerol can be profitable because of the destination of two biofuel wastes produced in large quantities in Brazil (ethanol and biodiesel, respectively) and the complementary properties of these substrates. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the effect of increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) from 2 to 20 kg COD m-3 d-1 on the AcoD of vinasse and glycerol (50 %:50 % on a COD basis) in a thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). The highest methane production rate was observed at 20 kg COD m-3 d-1 (8.83 L CH4 d-1 L-1), while the methane yield remained stable at around 265 NmL CH4 g-1 CODrem in all conditions, even when influent vinasse reached 1811 mg SO42- L-1 (10 kg COD m-3 d-1). Sulfate was not detected in the effluent. Bacterial genera related to sulfate removal, such as Desulfovibrio and Desulfomicrobium, were observed by means of shotgun metagenomic sequencing at 10 kg COD m-3 d-1, as well as the acetoclastic archaea Methanosaeta and prevalence of genes encoding enzymes related to acetoclastic methanogenesis. It was concluded that process efficiency and methane production occurred even in higher sulfate concentrations due to glycerol addition.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Glicerol , Anaerobiose , Sulfatos , Metano , Óxidos de Enxofre , Biocombustíveis , Digestão
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