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1.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 40(2): 365-379, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461628

RESUMO

The most common chemicals used in riot control agents are chlorobenzylidene malononitrile, chloroacetophenone, dibenz[b,f]-[1,4]-oxazepine, and oleoresin capsicum. They cause ocular, respiratory, and dermal effects usually within seconds to minutes of exposure, but delayed effects have been reported. In addition, the canisters containing these chemicals can cause traumatic injuries when launched as projectiles. Although most effects are mild, some may be serious, especially in those with preexisting respiratory disease. Treatment consists of removing the patient from the source of exposure, removing contaminated clothes, and copiously irrigating the affected areas with water.


Assuntos
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis , Humanos
2.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 405: 115188, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805267

RESUMO

Cardiopulmonary functions such as respiratory depression, severe irritation, inflamed respiratory tract, hyperventilation and, tachycardia are the most affected ones when it comes to the riot control agent oleoresin capsicum (OC) exposure. However, no studies have been done to elucidate the mechanism underlying deterioration of the combined cardiopulmonary functions. Parameters such as acute respiratory, cardiac, parameters and ultrasonography (USG) measurements were investigated in an in vivo setup using Wistar rats at 1 h and 24 h post inhalation exposure to 2%, 6% and 10% OC, whereas, cell migration in rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs), metabolomics and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were investigated in an in vitro setup. Results obtained from electrophysiological recording indicated that OC exposure produces apnea and decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) was obtained from hemodynamic parameters whereas cardiac parameters assessment revealed increase in the level of cardiac output (CO) and decrease in stroke volume (SV) with recovery towards the post-exposure period. A decrease in the percentage area of certain fatty acid pathway metabolites in BALF appropriately linked the lung injury following OC exposure which was further cemented by increasing concentration of EPO. Histopathology and SEM also proved to be favorable techniques for the detection of OC induced physiological cardiac and pulmonary modifications respectively. Furthermore, Boyden chamber experiment established the chemoattractant property of OC. It may be concluded from the above studies that these newly reported facets may be utilized pharmacologically to mitigate cardiopulmonary adverse effects owing to OC exposure.


Assuntos
Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Eletrocardiografia , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Função Respiratória , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
Exp Lung Res ; 46(3-4): 81-97, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131645

RESUMO

Aim: The use of oleoresin capsicum (OC) sprays, due to their irreversible health effects has now grown into a matter of heated debate. In the present study, the early phase pulmonary events involving chemotactic and inflammatory mediators after short-exposure duration to OC have been presented.Materials and methods: Female Wistar rats used in the evaluation of respiratory parameters at 1 h, 3 h, and 24 h post-exposure, were sacrificed for the evaluation of blood cell counts, BALF cytokine estimation, lung capillary leakage, study of oxidative stress and histopathology of the lungs.Results: Results confirmed a dose-dependent effect of OC exposure on serum clinical chemistry and hematological parameters. Subsequent upregulation of IL-l and TNF-α indicated lung's responses to acute oxidant-induced injury and inflammation after OC exposure. Significant alterations in the pulmonary levels of reactive oxygen intermediates were seen following the inhalation of OC. Infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mostly neutrophils, into the site of infection was evident in the cytocentrifuged samples of BALF. Histological samples of rat lung sections revealed the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the airways and around blood vessels in the subepithelium of conducting airways.Conclusion: Results of the present study demonstrated that, exposure to OC spray may mitigate inflammatory response and development of acute lung injury in rats. However, it can be concluded that although OC spray causes pulmonary hazards in the aforementioned concentrations, it can be used as a non-lethal riot control agent in minimal concentration. Understanding the in-depth mechanism of action in the molecular and receptor level will help in developing effective antagonist against OC.


Assuntos
Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Edema Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/toxicidade , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/imunologia , Edema Pulmonar/sangue , Ratos Wistar , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/imunologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12153, 2018 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108241

RESUMO

Eye irritation assessment is compulsory to anticipate health risks in military personnel exposed to riot control agents such as capsaicin, the principal constituent of oleoresin capsicum, or pepper sprays. The present work investigates certain fundamental yet unaddressed pharmacological manifestations on ocular exposure to capsaicin. Ocular pharmacology of capsaicin was studied using acute eye irritation (AEI), bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay, corneal fluorescein staining and indirect ophthalmoscopy studies, transcorneal permeation, Schirmer tear secretion test, nerve conduction velocity study and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, histopathology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of bovine corneas and rat optic nerves were done to further estimate capsaicin induced morphological variations. Our findings demonstrated that AEI, BCOP, corneal fluorescein staining and indirect ophthalmoscopy were useful in assessing capsaicin induced ocular irritation; AEI and BCOP also contributed towards indicating the eye irritation potential of capsaicin as per the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals categorization. Additional experimental observations include considerable transcorneal permeation of capsaicin, capsaicin induced reduction in tear secretions and nerve conduction velocity and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines by ELISA. Histopathology and SEM were favourable techniques for the detection of capsaicin induced ocular physiological modifications.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/toxicidade , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Opacidade da Córnea/induzido quimicamente , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/toxicidade , Animais , Bioensaio , Capsaicina/farmacocinética , Bovinos , Córnea/metabolismo , Córnea/ultraestrutura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Aparelho Lacrimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Militares , Condução Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Óptico/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Óptico/ultraestrutura , Permeabilidade , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/farmacocinética , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
6.
Inhal Toxicol ; 30(2): 89-97, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595092

RESUMO

Riot control agents (RCA) are lachrymatory, irritating compounds which temporarily incapacitate the uncontainable crowd. Ortho-Chlorobenzylidene-malononitrile (CS), 2-chloroacetophenone (CN), dibenz[b,f]1:4-oxazepine (CR), and nonivamide (PAVA) are synthetic RCAs, while oleoresin extract of chili known as oleoresin capsicum (OC) a natural irritant has been in use by various law enforcement agencies. Though efficacy of these agents is beyond doubt, they suffer from certain drawbacks including toxicity, production cost, and ecological compatibility. Presently, we have evaluated the safety of CR, OC, and PAVA on inhalation variables along with oral lethality. Additionally, the liver function test (LFT) in serum and lungs function was evaluated in broncho-alveolar-lavage fluid (BALF), both collected on the 14th day after RCA exposure. Animals then sacrificed and histopathology of liver and lungs was carried out. Results showed OC and PAVA to be more toxic than CR with an oral LD50 of 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, while CR was safe at >3 g/kg body weight. All three agents caused severe impairment of respiratory variables bringing down normal respiration by >80% with rise in sensory irritation. Recovery from the irritating effect of CR was more rapid than OC and PAVA. LFT and BALF variables were not significantly different from that of control. There were no remarkable histopathological changes in liver and lungs. Hence, as per results, CR is safest among all synthetic and natural origin RCAs and can be safely used for effective dispersion of disobedient mob.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/análogos & derivados , Dibenzoxazepinas/toxicidade , Irritantes/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/toxicidade , Administração por Inalação , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Capsaicina/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Pulmão/anatomia & histologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos
7.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 14(9): 712-719, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604270

RESUMO

This study was conducted among U.S. Army soldiers to evaluate the association between exposure to o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS riot control agent) and urinary metabolite 2-chlorohippuric acid (CHA) detected in test subjects (n = 87) after completion of Mask Confidence Training. CS exposures ranged 0.086-4.9 mg/m³ ([Formula: see text] = 2.7 mg/m³). CHA levels (corrected for creatinine) at 2-, 8-, 24-, and 30-hr post-exposure resulted in ranges of 94.6-1120 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 389 µg/g-cr), 15.80-1170 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 341 µg/g-cr), 4.00-53.1 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 19.3 µg/g-cr), and 1.99-28.4 µg/g-cr ([Formula: see text] = 10.6 µg/g-cr), respectively. Spearman's correlation revealed CHA levels strongly correlated with time sampled (r = -0.748, p < 0.05) and weakly correlated with CS concentration (r = 0.270, p < 0.05). A linear relationship was observed between CHA, CS concentration, and time of urine sample according to the following regression equation: ln(CHA, µg/g-cr) = 5.423 + 0.316 (CS conc., mg/m³) - 0.002 (time sampled), (R = 0.910, R² = 0.827, p < 0.05). This relationship suggests that CHA has the potential to be an effective retrospective indicator of CS exposure in future biomarker developments.


Assuntos
Hipuratos/análise , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/metabolismo , o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo , o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/toxicidade
8.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 45: 47-52, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002785

RESUMO

Turkey has experienced a wave of demonstrations in the summer of 2013, called Gezi Park Demonstrations. Between 31 May and 30 August, 297 people who had been subjected to trauma by several methods of demonstration control and Riot Control Agents applied to the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey Rehabilitation Centers to receive treatment/rehabilitation and/or documentation. 296 patients except one 5-year-old child were included in the study. Of the 296 patients; 175 were male, 120 were female, and one was a transgender individual. The highest number of applications was received by the Istanbul center with 216 patients. The mean age of applicants was 33.85, and the age range was 15-71 years. While 268 of applicants (91%) stated that they had been exposed to Riot Control Agents, 62 patients suffered only chemical exposure who had no other traumatic injuries whereas 234 patients suffered at least one blunt trauma injury. Blunt trauma injuries are due to being shot by gas canisters in 127 patients (43%), by plastic bullets in 31 patients (10%). 59 patients (20%) were severely beaten, and 30 patients (10%) were injured by pressurized cold water ejected by water cannons. Thirteen patients (4.4%) suffered injuries that caused loss of vision or eye. Psychiatric evaluations were carried out for 117 patients while 43% of them were diagnosed with Acute Stress Disorder. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder followed this diagnosis. This study includes the medical evaluation of injuries allegedly sustained during Gezi Park demonstrations in 2013 as a result of several methods of demonstration control and/or by being exposed to Riot Control Agents. The aim is to discuss different types of injuries due to those methods and health consequences of Riot Control Agents.


Assuntos
Aplicação da Lei , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/toxicidade , Tumultos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Med Leg J ; 84(1): 22-5, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26658556

RESUMO

Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/intoxicação , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/história
10.
Hong Kong Med J ; 21(6): 542-52, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26554271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pepper (oleoresin capsicum) spray is one of the most common riot-control measures used today. Although not lethal, exposure of pepper spray can cause injury to different organ systems. This review aimed to summarise the major clinicopathological effects of pepper spray in humans. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE database, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were used to search for terms associated with the clinicopathological effects of pepper spray in humans and those describing the pathophysiology of capsaicin. A phone interview with two individuals recently exposed to pepper spray was also conducted to establish clinical symptoms. STUDY SELECTION: Major key words used for the MEDLINE search were "pepper spray", "OC spray", "oleoresin capsicum"; and other key words as "riot control agents", "capsaicin", and "capsaicinoid". We then combined the key words "capsaicin" and "capsaicinoid" with the major key words to narrow down the number of articles. A search with other databases including EMBASE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was also conducted with the above phrases to identify any additional related articles. DATA EXTRACTION: All article searches were confined to human study. The bibliography of articles was screened for additional relevant studies including non-indexed reports, and information from these was also recorded. Non-English articles were included in the search. DATA SYNTHESIS: Fifteen articles were considered relevant. Oleoresin capsicum causes almost instantaneous irritative symptoms to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Dermatological effects include a burning sensation, erythema, and hyperalgesia. Ophthalmic effects involve blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, peri-orbital oedema, and corneal pathology. Following inhalation, a stinging or burning sensation can be felt in the nose with sore throat, chest tightness, or dyspnoea. The major pathophysiology is neurogenic inflammation caused by capsaicinoid in the pepper spray. There is no antidote for oleoresin capsicum. Treatment consists of thorough decontamination, symptom-directed supportive measures, and early detection and treatment of systemic toxicity. Decontamination should be carefully carried out to avoid contamination of the surrounding skin and clothing. CONCLUSION: Pepper (oleoresin capsicum) spray is an effective riot-control agent and does not cause life-threatening clinical effects in the majority of exposed individuals. Early decontamination minimises the irritant effects.


Assuntos
Inflamação Neurogênica/induzido quimicamente , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/toxicidade , Aerossóis , Descontaminação , Dispneia/induzido quimicamente , Oftalmopatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Nariz/efeitos dos fármacos , Faringite/induzido quimicamente , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente
11.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 29: 36-42, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25572084

RESUMO

The aim of this is to review deaths associated with the use of Riot Control Agents (RCAs) and to assess how the presenting pathologies is such cases may better inform cause of death conclusions upon autopsy. We also sought to present which additional steps should be added to the Minnesota protocol and the European harmonization of medico-legal autopsy rules in suspected cases of deaths associated with the use of RCAs. We included 10 lethal cases in our study. In three cases, RCAs were found to be the sole cause of death, in three cases RCAs were ruled a secondary cause of death due asphyxia or asthma subsequent to exposure to RCAs and in four cases RCAs were contributory factors to death. In three cases the responsible agents were identified as Chloroacetophenone (CN), Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) and Oleoresin capsicum (OC) and in the remaining 7 cases, the agent was OC alone. As there are no specific findings in suspected cases of death associated with RCA use, establishing cause of death and whether RCAs are the sole cause or only a contributory factor will be based on the elimination of other possible causes of death. For this reason, a specifically structured autopsy is essential. This specifically structured autopsy should contain basic principles of the Minnesota Protocol and the European harmonization of medico-legal autopsy rules with the following additional steps taken: examination of clothing, eyes, and skin; examination of pharyngeal, tracheobronchial, and eusophegeal mucosas; and a thorough recording of the steps taken by the party conducting the arrest, including other possible causes of in-custody death, as well as a detailed medical history of the deceased.


Assuntos
Patologia Legal/métodos , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/efeitos adversos , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/intoxicação , Adulto , Asfixia/induzido quimicamente , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Toxicologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/intoxicação , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/efeitos adversos , o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/intoxicação , ômega-Cloroacetofenona/efeitos adversos , ômega-Cloroacetofenona/intoxicação
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 12(2): 1397-411, 2015 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25633030

RESUMO

o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) is one of the most extensively used riot control agents. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the potential health effects related to CS exposure. We searched for papers in English between 1991 and 2014. Thirty five (35) studies (25 case reports, seven descriptive studies and three analytical studies) were included in the review. In the twenty five case reports/series 90 cases of exposure to CS and their clinical effects are presented. Their mean age was 25.7 years and 62.0% were males. In addition, 61% of the cases described dermal, 40% respiratory, 57% ocular clinical effects. Life threatening situations as well as long-term health effects were found and were related with exposure to confined/enclosed space. Descriptive and analytical studies have shown attack rates ranging from 12% to 40%. Subjects who were sprayed by the police more often needed special treatment and reported adverse health effects. Apart from transient clinical effects, CS could have lasting and serious effects on human health. Better surveillance of the subjects exposed to CS and completion of cohort studies among exposed populations will illuminate the spectrum of the health effects of exposure to CS.


Assuntos
Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis , o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/toxicidade , Humanos
13.
J R Army Med Corps ; 161(2): 94-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24379300

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: 2-Chloroacetophenone (CN), o-chlorobenzylidene malonitrile (CS) and oleoresin capsicum (OC) are common riot control agents. While serious systemic effects are uncommon, exposure to high concentrations may lead to severe complications and even death. The aim of this narrative review is to summarise all main aspects of the riot control agents CN, CS and OC toxicology, including mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features and management. METHODS: OVID MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science were searched for terms associated with CN, CS and OC toxicity in humans and those describing the mechanism of action, clinical features and treatment protocols. RESULTS: CN, CS and OC are effective lacrimating agents; evidence for toxicity, as measured by the threshold for irritation, is greatest for CN, followed by CS and OC. Typically, ocular and respiratory tract irritation occurs within 20-60 s of exposure. Ocular effects involve blepharospasm, photophobia, conjunctivitis and periorbital oedema. Following inhalation, effects may include a stinging or burning sensation in the nose, tight chest, sore throat, coughing, dyspnoea and difficulty breathing. Dermal outcomes are variable, more severe for CN and include dermal irritation, bulla formation and subcutaneous oedema. Removal from the contaminated area and fresh air is a priority. There is no antidote; treatment consists of thorough decontamination and symptom-directed supportive care. Ocular exposure requires thorough eye decontamination, an eye exam and appropriate pain management. Monitoring and support of respiratory function is important in patients with significant respiratory symptoms. Standard treatment protocols may be required with patients with pre-existing respiratory conditions. Dermal exposures may require systemic steroids for patients who develop delayed contact dermatitis. CONCLUSIONS: CN, CS and OC are effective riot control agents. In the majority of exposures, significant clinical effects are not anticipated. The irritant effects can be minimised both by rapid evacuation from sites of exposure, decontamination and appropriate supportive care.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis , o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila , ômega-Cloroacetofenona , Humanos , Medicina Militar , Militares , Equipamentos de Proteção , Tumultos/prevenção & controle
14.
Mil Med ; 179(7): 793-8, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25003867

RESUMO

Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are among the leading causes for hospital visits in U.S. military training populations and historically peak during U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT) following mandatory exposure to the riot control agent o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS). This observational prospective cohort studied the association between CS exposures and ARI-related health outcomes in 6,723 U.S. Army recruits attending BCT at Fort Jackson, South Carolina from August 1 to September 25, 2012 by capturing and linking the incidence of ARI before and after the mask confidence chamber to CS exposure data. Recruits had a significantly higher risk (risk ratio = 2.44; 95% confidence interval = 1.74, 3.43) of being diagnosed with ARI following exposure to CS compared to the period of training preceding exposure, and incidence of ARI after CS exposure was dependent on the CS exposure concentration (p = 0.03). There was a significant pre-/postexposure ARI difference across all CS concentration levels (p < 0.01), however, no significant differences were detected among these rate ratios (p = 0.72). As CS exposure is positively associated with ARI health outcomes in this population, interventions designed to reduce respiratory exposures could result in decreased hospital burden and lost training time in the U.S. Army BCT population.


Assuntos
Militares/educação , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Toxins (Basel) ; 6(6): 1761-84, 2014 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24902078

RESUMO

This article describes a brief history of chemical warfare, which culminated in the signing of the Chemical Weapons Convention. It describes the current level of chemical weapons and the risk of using them. Furthermore, some traditional technology for the development of chemical weapons, such as increasing toxicity, methods of overcoming chemical protection, research on natural toxins or the introduction of binary technology, has been described. In accordance with many parameters, chemical weapons based on traditional technologies have achieved the limit of their development. There is, however, a big potential of their further development based on the most recent knowledge of modern scientific and technical disciplines, particularly at the boundary of chemistry and biology. The risk is even higher due to the fact that already, today, there is a general acceptance of the development of non-lethal chemical weapons at a technologically higher level. In the future, the chemical arsenal will be based on the accumulation of important information from the fields of chemical, biological and toxin weapons. Data banks obtained in this way will be hardly accessible and the risk of their materialization will persist.


Assuntos
Armas Biológicas/história , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Guerra Química/história , Animais , Guerra Química/tendências , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/química , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , História Medieval , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Ciência Militar/história , Nanotecnologia/tendências , Política Pública , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/química , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/história , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade
16.
J Environ Health ; 77(3): 14-21, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25603650

RESUMO

All U.S. Army soldiers participate in mask confidence training during initial military training and periodically throughout their careers. Training is conducted by dispersing the riot control agent, o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS), in a relatively air-tight structure where soldiers enter and conduct a series of exercises that culminate with mask removal. The study described here quantified CS concentrations experienced by 6,723 trainees and seven chamber operators during U.S. Army basic combat training at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, from August 1 to September 25, 2012. All 6,723 trainees were potentially exposed to CS concentrations exceeding the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value-ceiling (TLV-C) (0.39 mg/m3), 6,589 of which were potentially exposed to concentrations exceeding the value deemed immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) (2.0 mg/m3) by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. All chamber operators were exposed to concentrations exceeding both the TLV-C and the IDLH.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Militares , Exposição Ocupacional , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/análise , o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/análise , Humanos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , South Carolina , Estados Unidos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23624235

RESUMO

The analysis of biomedical samples such as urine and blood can provide evidence of exposure to chemicals for a range of applications including occupational exposure monitoring, detection of drugs of abuse, performance enhancement in sport and investigations of poisoning and incapacitation. This paper reports the development of an analytical method for two suspected urinary metabolites of the riot control agent 2-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS): 2-chlorohippuric acid and 2-chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine. 2-Chlorohippuric acid was identified in all 2h post-exposure samples from a set of urine samples taken from army recruits exposed to low levels of thermally dispersed CS during training. 2-Chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine, a metabolite known to be formed in the rat, was not identified in any of the samples. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) for 2-chlorohippuric acid and 2-chlorobenzyl-N-acetylcysteine was 1ng/ml and 0.5ng/ml in pooled urine from the pre-exposed subjects. 2-Chlorohippuric acid was rapidly excreted but was detectable in the urine of 17 of the 19 subjects tested 20h after exposure.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Hipuratos/urina , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/metabolismo , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/metabolismo , o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Ratos , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem , o-Clorobenzilidenomalonitrila/administração & dosagem
18.
Med. interna (Caracas) ; 29(4): 239-248, 2013.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-778709

RESUMO

Los gases lacrimógenos (GL) son métodos de control de manifestaciones públicas por los órganos represivos, muy utilizados y efectivos globalmente. El objetivo de esta revisión es actualizar información técnica sobre los gases lacrimógenos, añadiendo aspectos más recientes legales, éticos, médicos y preventivos del uso y abuso de estos agentes químicos durante las acciones de las fuerzas policiales y represivas. Las fuentes de información secundarias seleccionadas son portales generales con el buscador Google, académicos (Google académico), PubMed y de las organizaciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales, también se incluyen hemerotecas de artículos periodísticos sobre su uso desde 2000 hasta 2014. La exposición aguda a (GL) se expresa con manifestaciones clínicas de afección respiratoria, irritación de los ojos y de la piel, requiriendo en la mayoría de los casos medidas generales de atención fuera del hospital. Sin embargo, en casos de personas con co-morbilidades respiratorias, alérgicas, glaucoma y del corazón, acarrean mayores consecuencias que requieren atención médica y hospitalaria. Se han reportado fatalidades relacionadas al uso y abuso de los agentes químicos. Desde el punto de vista de salud pública existe controversia sobre su uso, y definitivamente causan consternación en los afectados y los abusos de su utilización en manifestaciones pacíficas. Se hace un listado de recomendaciones ante exposiciones durante manifestaciones, como prevenir intoxicaciones severas y dar los primeros auxilios...


Tear gases (TG) are methods for public control used by police forces. The objective of this review is to update technical information about tear gas, adding more recent legal, ethical, medical and preventive aspects of the use and abuse of these chemicals during the actions of the police and repressive forces. Selected secondary sources of information are Google, Academic Google, PubMed and of governmental and non-governmental organizations, also included are newspaper archives about its use from 2000 to 2014. Acute exposure to (GL) is expressed with clinical manifestations of respiratory conditions, irritation of the eyes and skin, requiring in most cases general ambulatory measures of care. However, in persons with respiratory, allergic, glaucoma and heart comorbidities, they carry greater consequences requiring hospital care. Fatalities have been reported related to the use and abuse of chemical agents. From the viewpoint of public health there is a controversy about its use, and definitely cause consternation in the affected in peaceful demonstrations. A list of recommendations is made about how to prevent severe intoxications and give first aid...


Assuntos
Humanos , Gases Lacrimogênios/efeitos adversos , Gases Lacrimogênios/efeitos da radiação , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/análise , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/efeitos adversos , Glaucoma , Doenças Respiratórias , Testes de Irritação da Pele
19.
Przegl Lek ; 69(8): 632-4, 2012.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23243951
20.
J Anal Toxicol ; 36(9): 647-56, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23002178

RESUMO

On October 26, 2002, Russian Special Forces deployed a chemical aerosol against Chechen terrorists to rescue hostages in the Dubrovka theatre. Its use confirmed Russian military interest in chemicals with effects on personnel and caused 125 deaths through a combination of the aerosol and inadequate medical care. This study provides evidence from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of extracts of clothing from two British survivors, and urine from a third survivor, that the aerosol comprised a mixture of two anaesthetics--carfentanil and remifentanil--whose relative proportions this study was unable to identify. Carfentanil and remifentanil were found on a shirt sample and a metabolite called norcarfentanil was found in a urine sample. This metabolite probably originated from carfentanil.


Assuntos
Vestuário , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Piperidinas/urina , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/urina , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Fentanila/sangue , Fentanila/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moscou , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/sangue , Remifentanil , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/efeitos adversos , Substâncias para Controle de Distúrbios Civis/sangue , Extração em Fase Sólida , Manejo de Espécimes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Terrorismo/prevenção & controle
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