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1.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272247, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating, OMIM %114110) is a complex disorder with multifactorial causes. Emotional strains and social stress increase symptoms and lead to a vicious circle. Previously, we showed significantly higher depression scores, and normal cortisol awakening responses in patients with primary focal hyperhidrosis (PFH). Stress reactivity in response to a (virtual) Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-VR) has not been studied so far. Therefore, we measured sweat secretion, salivary cortisol and alpha amylase (sAA) concentrations, and subjective stress ratings in affected and non-affected subjects in response to a TSST-VR. METHOD: In this pilot study, we conducted TSST-VRs and performed general linear models with repeated measurements for salivary cortisol and sAA levels, heart rate, axillary sweat and subjective stress ratings for two groups (diagnosed PFH (n = 11), healthy controls (n = 16)). RESULTS: PFH patients showed significantly heightened sweat secretion over time compared to controls (p = 0.006), with highest quantities during the TSST-VR. In both groups, sweating (p < 0.001), maximum cortisol levels (p = 0.002), feelings of stress (p < 0.001), and heart rate (p < 0.001) but not sAA (p = 0.068) increased significantly in response to the TSST-VR. However, no differences were detected in subjective ratings, cortisol concentrations and heart rate between PFH patients and controls (pall > 0.131). CONCLUSION: Patients with diagnosed PFH showed stress-induced higher sweat secretion compared to healthy controls but did not differ in the stress reactivity with regard to endocrine or subjective markers. This pilot study is in need of replication to elucidate the role of the sympathetic nervous system as a potential pathway involved in the stress-induced emotional sweating of PFH patients.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Hiperidrose , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Saliva/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Sudorese
2.
J Physiol Anthropol ; 41(1): 27, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836266

RESUMO

This review mainly aimed to introduce the findings of research projects comparing the responses of tropical and temperate indigenes to heat. From a questionnaire survey on thermal sensation and comfort of Indonesians and Japanese, we found that the thermal descriptor "cool" in tropical indigenes connotes a thermally comfortable feeling, suggesting that linguistic heat acclimatization exists on a cognitive level. Ten male students born and raised in Malaysia were invited to Fukuoka, Japan, and compared their responses with 10 Japanese male students with matched physical fitness and morphological characteristics. Cutaneous thermal sensitivity: The sensitivities were measured at 28 °C. The forehead warm sensitivity was significantly blunted in Malaysians. The less sensitivity to the warmth of tropical indigenes is advantageous in respect to withstanding heat stress with less discomfort and a greater ability to work in hot climates. Passive heat stress: Thermoregulatory responses, especially sweating, were investigated, during the lower leg hot bathing (42 °C for 60 min). The rectal temperature at rest was higher in Malaysians and increased smaller during immersion. There was no significant difference in the total amount of sweating between the two groups, while the local sweating on the forehead and thighs was lesser in Malaysians, suggesting distribution of sweating was different from Japanese. Exercise: Malaysian showed a significantly smaller increase in their rectal temperature during 55% maximal exercise for 60 min in heat (32 °C 70% relative humidity), even with a similar sweating and skin blood flow response in Japanese. The better heat tolerance in Malaysians could be explained by the greater convective heat transfer from the body core to the skin due to the greater core-to-skin temperature gradient. In addition, when they were hydrated, Malaysian participants showed better body fluid regulation with smaller reduction in plasma volume at the end of the exercise compared to the non-hydrated condition, whereas Japanese showed no difference between hydration conditions. We further investigated the de-acclimatization of heat adaptation by longitudinal observation on the heat tolerance of international students who had moved from tropical areas to Fukuoka for several years.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Alta , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Clima , Humanos , Masculino , Sudorese
3.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807766

RESUMO

Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are the most common symptoms among menopausal women; these include hot flashes and night sweats, and palpitations often occur along with hot flashes. Some studies in Mexico reported that around 50% of women presented with VMS mainly in the menopausal transition. It has been proven that VMS are not only triggered by an estrogen deficiency, but also by nutritional risk factors. Evidence of an association between nutritional risk factors and VMS is limited in Mexican women. The aim of this study is to identify nutritional risk factors associated with VMS in women aged 40-65 years. This is a comparative cross-sectional study, undertaken in a retrospective way. A sample group (n = 406 women) was divided into four stages according to STRAW+10 (Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop): late reproductive, menopausal transition, early postmenopause, and late postmenopause. Hot flashes were present mainly in the early postmenopause stage (38.1%, p&nbsp;≤ 0.001). Two or more VMS were reported in 23.2% of women in the menopausal transition stage and 29.3% in the early postmenopause stage (p < 0.001). The presence of VMS was associated with different nutritional risk factors (weight, fasting glucose levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, and tobacco use) in women living in the northeast of Mexico.


Assuntos
Fogachos , Menopausa , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fogachos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sudorese
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35805501

RESUMO

Power grid outdoor workers are usually exposed to hot environments and could suffer the threats to occupational health and safety like heat strain and injury. In order to predict and assess the thermophysiological responses of grid workers in the heat, the clothing thermal insulation of grid worker ensembles was measured by a thermal manikin and a multi-segment human bioheat model was employed to evaluate the thermophysiological response parameters of grid workers such as core temperature, skin temperature and sweat loss. The results show that working in a hot environment can cause a obvious increase in core temperature and skin temperature of grid workers, and the acceptable maximum working time of grid workers varies greatly in different hot environments. A reasonable work organization strategy can effectively decrease the core temperature and sweat loss, increasing the duration of acceptable maximum working time for grid workers. This study is helpful to assess heat-related risks of grid workers and support power grid companies to rationalize work organization strategies and personal protection guidelines.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Temperatura Alta , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Manequins , Temperatura Cutânea , Suor , Sudorese
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886494

RESUMO

The water cycle in urban areas is called the natural-social dualistic water cycle, and it is driven not only by natural forces, but also by human activities. As the drivers of the social water cycle, human perspire continuously, and this is often overlooked as a contributing factor to the water cycle. This paper proposes a method for quantifying the water evaporation induced by human perspiration and respiration in megacities. A calculation based on the sweating prediction model was applied to the city of Beijing to evaluate the evaporation from the human body. The results show that the greatest volume of evaporation produced by human occurs in summer, and the least in spring. The total evaporation produced by human was converted to the evaporation on unit area of the city and reached 5075.2 m3/km2 in the six core districts of Beijing. According to the calculation, the total volume was considerable and reached 14.0 million m3 in 2020, which was equivalent to the annual evapotranspiration from an area of 104.9 km2 of Acer truncatum forest (15 cm diameter at breast height, afforestation density 800 plants/hm2), and even twice the annual total water use in Tartu, Estonia. The results of the study provide a reference for dualistic water cycle research and water cycle flux calculation in urban areas.


Assuntos
Sudorese , Água , Pequim , Cidades , Humanos , Respiração
6.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2089-2101, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903938

RESUMO

Background: Identification of underlying diseases is crucial for secondary hyperhidrosis management, but data are lacking to guide appropriate investigation.Objective: To describe aetiologies of recurrent sweating in a hospital setting and the diagnostic performance parameters of their respective clinical/biological features.Patients and Methods: We performed a monocentric evaluative study in a tertiary care centre. Patients with recurrent generalised sweating were selected via the Clinical Data Warehouse (CDW) by screening all electronic hospital documents from the year 2018 using a keyword-based algorithm. All in and out-patients aged ≥ 18 years having reported recurrent sweating for at least 2 weeks in 2018 were included, with a minimum one-year follow-up after symptoms' onset.Results: A total of 420 patients were included. Over 130 different aetiologies were identified; 70 patients (16.7%) remained without diagnosis. Solid organ cancers (14.3% with 13 lung cancers), haematologic malignancies (14.0% with 35 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and Infectious Diseases (10.5% including 13 tuberculosis) were the most frequent diagnoses. Other aetiologies were gathered into inflammatory (16.9%) and non-inflammatory (27.6%) conditions. To distinguish non-inflammatory and undiagnosed hyperhidrosis from other causes, fever had a specificity of 94%, impaired general condition a sensitivity of 78%, and C-reactive protein (CRP) > 5.6 mg/l a positive predictive value of 0.86. Symptoms' duration over 1 year was in favour of non-infectious and non-malignant causes (94% specificity).Conclusions: We identified fever, impaired general condition, duration, and CRP as helpful orientation parameters to assess the need for complementary explorations for hyperhidrosis. The study provides a diagnostic algorithm for the investigation of recurrent sweating.KEY MESSAGESIn a hospital setting, malignancies and infections are the most frequently associated diseases, but 1/5 remain without diagnosis.Fever is a specific but not sensitive sign to distinguish inflammatory conditions.Over 1 year duration of symptoms significantly reduce the probability of malignancy or infection as the underlying diagnosis.


Assuntos
Hiperidrose , Sudorese , Humanos , Hiperidrose/diagnóstico , Hiperidrose/epidemiologia , Hiperidrose/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889887

RESUMO

The impaired vaso- and sudomotor functions limit sweat capacity in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) and might increase the risk for heat-related illness and decreased performance, especially in hot conditions (HOT). This study investigated the differences in fluid balance and thermal responses between wheelchair basketball (WCB) games in HOT and temperate conditions (TMP). Eleven male WCB athletes (39.8 y, 82.8 kg) with SCI (lesion level C5-L4) participated, five in HOT (31 °C) and eight in TMP games (21 °C). Fluid balance, sweat rate, body core temperature, distance, velocity and thermal sensation were assessed. The relative change in body mass was higher in the HOT group (median: -0.35%, interquartile-range: 0.15%, p = 0.02) compared to TMP (+0.11%, 0.35%) group. The sweat rate was significantly higher in the HOT group (0.93 L/h, 0.58 L/h, p = 0.02) compared to the TMP groups (0.48 L/h, 0.19 L/h). Body core temperature increased significantly higher in the TMP group (1.05 °C, 0.15 °C, p = 0.01) compared to the HOT group (0.8 °C, 0.4 °C). The mean velocity (HOT: 1.12 m/s, 0.11 m/s, TMP: 1.07 m/s, 0.08 m/s, p = 0.54) did not differ between the games. The WCB game in HOT leads to significantly higher sweat rate and loss in body mass compared to TMP. Even relative body mass loss was less than 2%. Athletes thus have to be supported with enough fluid, especially during games in HOT.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Cadeiras de Rodas , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Sudorese , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(15)2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897977

RESUMO

Epidermal wearable sweat biomarker sensing technologies are likely affected by sweat rate because of the dilution effect and limited measurement methods. However, there is a dearth of reports on the local sweat rate (LSR) monitored in real-time during exercise. This explorative study investigated the feasibility of real-time LSR monitoring and clarified LSR kinetics on the forehead and upper arm during constant-load exercise using a perspiration meter with an airflow compensation system. This observational cross-sectional study included 18 recreationally trained males (mean age, 20.6 ± 0.8 years). LSR on the forehead and upper arm (mg/cm2/min) were measured during a constant-load exercise test at 25% of their pre-evaluated peak power until exhaustion. The LSR kinetics had two inflection points, with a gradual decrease in the incremental slope for each section. After the second flexion point, the LSR slope slightly decreased and was maintained until exhaustion. However, the degree of change varied among the participants. Although the ratio of forehead LSR to upper arm LSR tended to decrease gradually over time, there was little change in this ratio after a second flexion point of LSR in both. These findings suggest possible differences in LSR control between the forehead and upper arm during constant-load exercise to prolonged exhaustion.


Assuntos
Suor , Sudorese , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684078

RESUMO

The role of alcohol consumption in the risk of vasomotor symptoms (VMS), the most cardinal climacteric symptoms, is not well established. We examined their relationship with early-onset VMS among premenopausal women. Moderately-to-severely bothersome VMS, the primary outcome, was assessed using the Korean version of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life questionnaire. The alcohol consumption categories included lifetime abstainer, former drinker, or current drinker, categorized as light, moderate, heavy, and very heavy. Compared with the lifetime-abstinence (reference), the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% CIs) for prevalent VMS in alcohol consumption of <10, 10-19, 20-39, and ≥40 g/day were 1.42 (1.02-1.99), 1.99 (1.27-3.12), 2.06 (1.19-3.57), and 3.52 (1.72-7.20), respectively (p trend <0.01). Compared with the lifetime-abstinence, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) for incident bothersome VMS among average alcohol consumption of <10, 10-19, 20-39, and ≥40 g/day were 1.10 (0.85-1.41), 1.03 (0.70-1.51), 1.72 (1.06-2.78), and 2.22 (1.16-4.23), respectively (p trend = 0.02). Increased alcohol consumption positively and consistently showed a relationship with increased risk of both prevalent and incident early-onset VMS. Refraining from alcohol consumption may help prevent bothersome VMS in premenopausal women.


Assuntos
Fogachos , Sistema Vasomotor , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fogachos/epidemiologia , Fogachos/etiologia , Humanos , Menopausa , Qualidade de Vida , Sudorese
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35681997

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in metabolic heat production (Hprod), evaporative heat loss (Hevap), and dry heat loss (Hdry), following heat acclimatization (HAz) and heat acclimation (HA). Twenty-two male endurance athletes (mean ± standard deviation; age, 37 ± 12 y; body mass, 73.4 ± 8.7 kg; height, 178.7 ± 6.8 cm; and VO2max, 57.1 ± 7.2 mL·kg-1·min-1) completed three trials (baseline; post-HAz; and post-HA), which consisted of 60 min steady state exercise at 59 ± 2% velocityVO2max in the heat (ambient temperature [Tamb], 35.2 ± 0.6 °C; relative humidity [%rh] 47.5 ± 0.4%). During the trial, VO2 and RER were collected to calculate Hprod, Hevap, and Hdry. Following the baseline trial, participants completed self-directed outdoor summer training followed by a post-HAz trial. Then, five days of HA were completed over eight days in the heat (Tamb, 38.7 ± 1.1 °C; %rh, 51.2 ± 2.3%). During the HA sessions, participants exercised to maintain hyperthermia (38.50 °C and 39.75 °C) for 60 min. Then, a post-HA trial was performed. There were no differences in Hprod between the baseline (459 ± 59 W·m-2), post-HAz (460 ± 61 W·m-2), and post-HA (464 ± 55 W·m-2, p = 0.866). However, Hevap was significantly increased post-HA (385 ± 84 W·m-2) compared to post-HAz (342 ± 86 W·m-2, p = 0.043) and the baseline (332 ± 77 W·m-2, p = 0.037). Additionally, Hdry was significantly lower at post-HAz (125 ± 8 W·m-2, p = 0.013) and post-HA (121 ± 10 W·m-2, p < 0.001) compared to the baseline (128 ± 7 W·m-2). Hdry at post-HA was also lower than post-HAz (p = 0.049). Hprod did not change following HAz and HA. While Hdry was decreased following HA, the decrease in Hdry was smaller than the increases in Hevap. Adaptations in body heat exchange can occur by HA following HAz.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2B1 , Temperatura Alta , Aclimatação , Adulto , Atletas , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sudorese
11.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 323(2): R161-R168, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670483

RESUMO

Both adult females and children have been reported to have a lower sweating capacity and thus reduced evaporative heat loss potential that may increase their susceptibility to exertional hyperthermia in the heat. Compared with males, females have a lower maximal sweat rate and thus a theoretically lower maximum skin wettedness due to a lower sweat output per gland. Similarly, children have been suggested to be disadvantaged in high ambient temperatures due to a lower sweat production and therefore reduced evaporative capacity, despite modifications of heat transfer due to physical attributes and possible evaporative efficiency. The reported reductions in the sudomotor activity of females and children suggest a lower sweating capacity in girls. However, because of the complexities of isolating sex and maturation from the confounding effects of morphological differences (e.g., body surface area-to-mass ratio) and metabolic heat production, limited evidence exists supporting whether children, and, more specifically, girls are at a thermoregulatory disadvantage. Furthermore, a limited number of child-adult comparison studies involve females and very few studies have directly compared regional and whole body sudomotor activity between boys and girls. This minireview highlights the exercise-induced sudomotor response of females and children, summarizes previous research investigating the sudomotor response to exercise in girls, and suggests important areas for further research.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Sudorese
12.
Exp Physiol ; 107(8): 844-853, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688020

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Do transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A) blockers modulate the activation of heat loss responses of sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation? What are the main finding and its importance? Relative to the vehicle control site, TMEM16A blockers T16Ainh-A01 and benzbromarone had no effect on sweat rate or cutaneous vascular conductance during whole-body heating inducing a 1.1 ± 0.1°C increase in core temperature above baseline resting levels. These results suggest that TMEM16A blockers T16Ainh-A01 and benzbromarone do not modulate the regulation of sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation during whole-body heat stress. ABSTRACT: Animal and in vitro studies suggest that transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A), a Ca2+ -activated Cl- channel, contributes to regulating eccrine sweating. However, direct evidence supporting this possibility in humans is lacking. We assessed the hypothesis that TMEM16A blockers attenuate sweating during whole-body heating in humans. Additionally, we assessed the associated changes in the heat loss response of cutaneous vasodilatation to determine if a functional role of TMEM16A may exist. Twelve young (24 ± 2 years) adults (six females) underwent whole-body heating using a water-perfused suit to raise core temperature 1.1 ± 0.1°C above baseline. Sweat rate and cutaneous vascular conductance (normalized to maximal conductance via administration of sodium nitroprusside) were evaluated continuously at four forearm skin sites treated continuously by intradermal microdialysis with (1) lactated Ringer's solution (control), (2) 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) serving as a vehicle control, or (3) TMEM16A blockers 1 mM T16Ainh-A01 or 2 mM benzbromarone dissolved in 5% DMSO solution. All drugs were administered continuously via intradermal microdialysis. Whole-body heating increased core temperature progressively and this was paralleled by an increase in sweat rate and cutaneous vascular conductance at all skin sites. However, sweat rate (all P > 0.318) and cutaneous vascular conductance (all P ≥ 0.073) did not differ between the vehicle control site relative to the TMEM16A blocker-treated sites. Collectively, our findings indicate that TMEM16A blockers T16Ainh-A01 and benzbromarone do not modulate the regulation of sweating and cutaneous vasodilatation during whole-body heating in young adults in vivo.


Assuntos
Benzobromarona , Sudorese , Benzobromarona/farmacologia , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pirimidinas , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Tiazóis , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 293: 115329, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490901

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a bulk medicinal material used in traditional Chinese medicine, that can cure cardiovascular diseases, neurasthenia, and other conditions. Sweating is a frequently used method of processing S. miltiorrhiza for medical applications. We previously demonstrated changes to the metabolic profile of linoleic acid, glyoxylate, and dicarboxylate after Sweating. However, this alteration has not been explained at the molecular level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fresh roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge were treated by the Sweating processing, and then the tandem mass tag technique was used to compare the proteome difference between Sweating S. miltiorrhiza and non-Sweating S. miltiorrhiza. RESULTS: We identified a total of 850 differentially expressed proteins after Sweating treatment in S. miltiorrhiza, including 529 upregulated proteins and 321 downregulated proteins. GO enrichment analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins are involved in external encapsulating structure, cell wall, oxidoreductase activity, ligase activity, and others. Further analysis showed that CYP450, the pathogenesis-related protein Bet v 1 family, and the peroxidase domain were the major protein domains. KEGG enrichment identified 18 pathways, of which phenylpropanoid biosynthesis is the most important one related to the metabolite profile and is the principal chemical component of S. miltiorrhiza. CONCLUSION: This study addressed potential molecular mechanisms in S. miltiorrhiza after Sweating, and the findings provide reasons for the changes in biochemical properties and metabolites changes which might cause pharmacological variation at the proteome level.


Assuntos
Salvia miltiorrhiza , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma , Proteômica , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Sudorese
15.
Exp Physiol ; 107(8): 834-843, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596934

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does acute intradermal administration of the antioxidant ascorbate augment local forearm cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating via nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent mechanisms during exercise-heat stress in older adults with uncomplicated controlled hypertension? What is the main finding and its importance? Relative to the control site, ascorbate had no effect on forearm cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate, although CVC was reduced with NOS inhibition in older adults with hypertension. Acute local administration of ascorbate to forearm skin does not modulate heat loss responses during exercise-heat stress in older adults with hypertension. ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) contributes to the heat loss responses of cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating during exercise. However, the contribution of NOS may be attenuated in individuals with uncomplicated, controlled hypertension due to elevated oxidative stress, which can reduce NO bioavailability. We evaluated the hypothesis that the acute local intradermal administration of the antioxidant ascorbate would enhance cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating via NOS-dependent mechanisms during an exercise-heat stress in adults with hypertension. Habitually active adults who were normotensive (n = 14, 7 females, 62 ± 4 years) or had uncomplicated, controlled hypertension (n = 13, 6 females, 62 ± 5 years) performed 30 min of moderate-intensity (50% of their pre-determined peak oxygen uptake) semi-recumbent cycling in the heat (35°C, 20% relative humidity). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were assessed at four forearm skin sites continuously perfused with (1) lactated Ringer solution (Control), (2) 10 mM antioxidant ascorbate, (3) 10 mM NG -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a non-selective NOS inhibitor, or (4) a combination of ascorbate and l-NAME. Relative to Control, no effect of ascorbate was observed on CVC or sweating in either group (P = 0.619). However, l-NAME reduced CVC relative to Control in both groups (P ≤ 0.038). No effect of any treatment on sweating was observed (P ≥ 0.306). Thus, acute local administration of ascorbate to forearm skin does not enhance the activation of heat loss responses of cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating in older adults, and those with hypertension during an exercise-heat stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Hipertensão , Idoso , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico , Óxido Nítrico Sintase , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Sudorese , Vasodilatação/fisiologia
16.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt D): 113475, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588774

RESUMO

The increase in average seasonal temperatures has an impact in the occupational field, especially for those sectors whose work activities are performed outdoors (agricultural, road and construction sectors). Among the adaptation measures and solutions developed to counteract occupational heat strain, personal cooling garments represent a wearable technology designed to remove heat from the human body, enhancing human performance. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness and the cooling power of a specific cooling garment, i.e. a ventilation jacket, by quantifying the evaporative heat losses and the total evaporative resistance both when worn alone and in combination with a work ensemble, at three adjustments of air ventilation speed. Standardised "wet" tests in a climatic chamber were performed on a sweating manikin in isothermal conditions considering three clothing ensembles (single jacket, work ensemble and a combination of both) and three adjustments of fan velocity. Results showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in evaporative heat loss values when the fan velocity increased, particularly within the trunk zones for all the considered clothing ensembles, showing that fans enhanced the dissipation by evaporation. The cooling power, quantified in terms of percent changes of evaporative heat loss, showed values exceeding 100% when fans were on, in respect to the condition of fans-off, for the trunk zones except for the Chest. A significant (p < 0.01) decrease (up to 42.3%) in the total evaporative resistance values of the jacket, coupled with the work ensemble, was found compared to the fans-off condition. Results confirmed and quantified the cooling effect of the ventilation jacket which enhanced the evaporative heat losses of the trunk zones, helping the body to dissipate heat and showing the potential for a heat adaptation measure to be developed.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Humanos , Roupa de Proteção , Sudorese , Local de Trabalho
17.
Anal Chem ; 94(18): 6893-6901, 2022 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35486709

RESUMO

Sweat sensors allow for new unobtrusive ways to continuously monitor an athlete's performance and health status. Significant advances have been made in the optimization of sensitivity, selectivity, and durability of electrochemical sweat sensors. However, comparing the in situ performance of these sensors in detail remains challenging because standardized sweat measurement methods to validate sweat sensors in a physiological setting do not yet exist. Current collection methods, such as the absorbent patch technique, are prone to contamination and are labor-intensive, which limits the number of samples that can be collected over time for offline reference measurements. We present an easy-to-fabricate sweat collection system that allows for continuous electrochemical monitoring, as well as chronological sampling of sweat for offline analysis. The patch consists of an analysis chamber hosting a conductivity sensor and a sequence of 5 to 10 reservoirs that contain level indicators that monitor the filling speed. After testing the performance of the patch in the laboratory, elaborate physiological validation experiments (3 patch locations, 6 participants) were executed. The continuous sweat conductivity measurements were compared with laboratory [Na+] and [Cl-] measurements of the samples, and a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.97) was found. Furthermore, sweat rate derived from ventilated capsule measurement at the three locations was compared with patch filling speed and continuous conductivity readings. As expected from the literature, sweat conductivity was linearly related to sweat rate as well. In short, a successfully validated sweat collection patch is presented that enables sensor developers to systematically validate novel sweat sensors in a physiological setting.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Íons/análise , Monitorização Fisiológica , Suor/química , Sudorese
18.
J Dermatol ; 49(7): 719-723, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393718

RESUMO

Head and forehead hyperhidrosis (HFH) is a disease that causes a large amount of sweating from the head region, and it significantly reduces patients' quality of life. Only a few reports have shown the effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) local injection therapy (BTX-A therapy) for HFH. To clarify the benefits of BTX-A for HFH, BTX-A therapy was performed in 15 patients, and its efficacy was evaluated. The amount of sweating was measured by the ventilation capsule method and Minor's iodine-starch test. Evaluation was also performed using the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). In most cases, a remarkable antiperspirant effect was observed from 2 weeks after the injection, and the effect lasted for approximately 30 weeks. HDSS and DLQI improved along with the decrease in sweating. Two patients (13.3%) complained of transient mild ptosis. There were no serious side-effects. This study showed that BTX-A therapy is a safe and effective treatment for HFH.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A , Hiperidrose , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapêutico , Testa , Humanos , Hiperidrose/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Sudorese , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(5): 1171-1176, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35482541

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Szymanski, M, Miller, KC, O'Connor, P, Hildebrandt, L, and Umberger, L. Sweat characteristics in individuals with varying susceptibilities of exercise-associated muscle cramps. J Strength Cond Res 36(5): 1171-1176, 2022-Many medical professionals believe dehydration and electrolyte losses cause exercise-associated muscle cramping (EAMC). Unlike prior field studies, we compared sweat characteristics in crampers and noncrampers but accounted for numerous factors that affect sweat characteristics including initial hydration status, diet and fluid intake, exercise conditions, and environmental conditions. Sixteen women and 14 men (mean ± SD; age = 21 ± 2 year, body mass = 69.1 ± 11.6 kg, height = 171.4 ± 9.9 cm) self-reported either no EAMC history (n = 8), low EAMC history (n = 10), or high EAMC history (n = 12). We measured V̇o2max, and subjects recorded their diet. At least 3 days later, subjects ran at 70% of their V̇o2max for 30 minutes in the heat (39.9 ± 0.6° C, 36 ± 2% relative humidity). Dorsal forearm sweat was collected and analyzed for sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]sw), sweat potassium concentration ([K+]sw), and sweat chloride concentration ([Cl-]sw). Sweat rate (SWR) was estimated from body mass and normalized using body surface area (BSA). Dietary fluid, Na+, and K+ ingestion was estimated from a 3-day diet log. We observed no differences for any variable among the original 3 groups (p = 0.05-p = 0.73). Thus, we combined the high and low cramp groups and reanalyzed the data against the noncramping group. Again, there were no differences for [Na+]sw (p = 0.68), [K+]sw (p = 0.86), [Cl-]sw, (p = 0.69), SWR/BSA (p = 0.11), dietary Na+ (p = 0.14), dietary K+ (p = 0.66), and fluid intake (p = 0.28). Fluid and electrolyte losses may play a more minor role in EAMC genesis than previously thought.


Assuntos
Cãibra Muscular , Suor , Adulto , Eletrólitos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cãibra Muscular/etiologia , Sódio , Sudorese , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410004

RESUMO

Physiologists have long regarded sweating as an effective and safe means of detoxification, and heavy metals are excreted through sweat to reduce the levels of such metals in the body. However, the body can sweat through many means. To elucidate the difference in the excretion of heavy metals among sweating methods, 12 healthy young university students were recruited as participants (6 men and 6 women). Sweat samples were collected from the participants while they were either running on a treadmill or sitting in a sauna cabinet. After they experienced continuous sweating for 20 min, a minimum of 7 mL of sweat was collected from each participant, and the concentrations of nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg) were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the sweating method affected the excretion of heavy metals in sweat, with the concentrations of Ni, Pb, Cu, and As being significantly higher during dynamic exercise than during sitting in the sauna (all p < 0.05). However, the concentrations of Hg were unaffected by the sweating method. This study suggests that the removal of heavy metals from the body through dynamic exercise may be more effective than removal through static exposure to a hot environment.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo , Masculino , Metais Pesados/análise , Níquel , Suor/química , Sudorese
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