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1.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 52(1): 66-69, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454892

RESUMO

The authors take inspiration from a case of hysterical psychosis to illustrate a typical condition of this evocative disease: the symbolic language of hysteria, conjurer of archetypical images. The authors encourage the clinician not to decode such aspects in rational analytical terms, rather to have a more wide-open approach that promotes the emergence of the individual unconscious, reconnecting with the collective imagination. This approach could help psychiatrists better understand a subject's inner experiences and interpersonal behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno Conversivo , Transtornos Psicóticos , Humanos , Histeria , Simbolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0297440, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466741

RESUMO

This study investigates the sound symbolic expressions of gender in Japanese names with machine learning algorithms. The main goal of this study is to explore how gender is expressed in the phonemes that make up Japanese names and whether systematic sound-meaning mappings, observed in Indo-European languages, extend to Japanese. In addition to this, this study compares the performance of machine learning algorithms. Random Forest and XGBoost algorithms are trained using the sounds of names and the typical gender of the referents as the dependent variable. Each algorithm is cross-validated using k-fold cross-validation (28 folds) and tested on samples not included in the training cycle. Both algorithms are shown to be reasonably accurate at classifying names into gender categories; however, the XGBoost model performs significantly better than the Random Forest algorithm. Feature importance scores reveal that certain sounds carry gender information. Namely, the voiced bilabial nasal /m/ and voiceless velar consonant /k/ were associated with femininity, and the high front vowel /i/ were associated with masculinity. The association observed for /i/ and /k/ stand contrary to typical patterns found in other languages, suggesting that Japanese is unique in the sound symbolic expression of gender. This study highlights the importance of considering cultural and linguistic nuances in sound symbolism research and underscores the advantage of XGBoost in capturing complex relationships within the data for improved classification accuracy. These findings contribute to the understanding of sound symbolism and gender associations in language.


Assuntos
Idioma , Simbolismo , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Som , Linguística
3.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 36(1): 6-11, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37642582

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Since 1993, when the Gold Foundation held its first White Coat Ceremony (WCC) to highlight humanism in medicine, many health professions have launched these ceremonies. In 2021, the University of Colorado College of Nursing hosted its first WCC. Postevent, a seven-question survey was sent to all faculty, staff, and student participants. The analytic question driving this program evaluation was as follows: "What is the significance of the White Coat Ceremony to APRN students?" Quantitative data from survey items were overwhelmingly positive; qualitative analysis of open-ended survey text reinforced the central WCC concept of Being/Becoming an APRN and elicited four themes: recognition, transition, symbolism, and connection. A detailed analysis of these themes is presented.


Assuntos
Prática Avançada de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Simbolismo
4.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 77(1): 191-203, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36847470

RESUMO

It has been suggested that actions can provide a fruitful conceptual context for sound symbolism phenomena, and that tight interaction between manual and articulatory processes might cause that hand actions, in particular, are sound-symbolically associated with specific speech sounds. Experiment 1 investigated whether novel words, built from speech sounds that have been previously linked to precision or power grasp responses, are implicitly associated with perceived actions that present precision manipulation or whole-hand grasp tool-use or the corresponding utilisation pantomimes. In the two-alternative forced-choice task, the participants were more likely to match novel words to tool-use actions and corresponding pantomimes that were sound-symbolically congruent with the words. Experiment 2 showed that the same or even larger sound-action symbolism effect can be observed when the pantomimes present unfamiliar utilisation actions. Based on this we propose that the sound-action symbolism might originate from the same sensorimotor mechanisms that process the meaning of iconic gestural signs. The study presents a novel sound-action phenomenon and supports the view that hand-mouth interaction might manifest itself by associating specific speech sounds with grasp-related utilisations.


Assuntos
Fonética , Simbolismo , Humanos , Mãos , Gestos , Força da Mão
5.
Actas esp. psiquiatr ; 52(1): 66-69, Feb. 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-231259

RESUMO

The authors take inspiration from a case of hysterical psychosis to illustrate a typical condition of this evocative disease: the symbolic language of hysteria, conjurer of archetypical images. The authors encourage the clinician not to decode such aspects in rational analytical terms, rather to have a more wide-open approach that promotes the emergence of the individual unconscious, reconnecting with the collective imagination. This approach could help psychiatrists better understand a subject's inner experiences and interpersonal behavior. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Simbolismo , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Psiquiatria
6.
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0287831, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37943758

RESUMO

The maluma/takete effect refers to an association between certain language sounds (e.g., /m/ and /o/) and round shapes, and other language sounds (e.g., /t/ and /i/) and spiky shapes. This is an example of sound symbolism and stands in opposition to arbitrariness of language. It is still unknown when sensitivity to sound symbolism emerges. In the present series of studies, we first confirmed that the classic maluma/takete effect would be observed in adults using our novel 3-D object stimuli (Experiments 1a and 1b). We then conducted the first longitudinal test of the maluma/takete effect, testing infants at 4-, 8- and 12-months of age (Experiment 2). Sensitivity to sound symbolism was measured with a looking time preference task, in which infants were shown images of a round and a spiky 3-D object while hearing either a round- or spiky-sounding nonword. We did not detect a significant difference in looking time based on nonword type. We also collected a series of individual difference measures including measures of vocabulary, movement ability and babbling. Analyses of these measures revealed that 12-month olds who babbled more showed a greater sensitivity to sound symbolism. Finally, in Experiment 3, we had parents take home round or spiky 3-D printed objects, to present to 7- to 8-month-old infants paired with either congruent or incongruent nonwords. This language experience had no effect on subsequent measures of sound symbolism sensitivity. Taken together these studies demonstrate that sound symbolism is elusive in the first year, and shed light on the mechanisms that may contribute to its eventual emergence.


Assuntos
Fonética , Simbolismo , Adulto , Lactente , Humanos , Idioma , Som , Audição
7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 46: e247, 2023 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37779270

RESUMO

To the extent that we expect ideographs to be closer to the reality they depict than spoken or written words we are succumbing to the perennial allure of positivistic thinking. Morin powerfully argues that human communication, including ideography, cannot be understood apart from practice, thus removing the positivistic assumption that made the "puzzle of ideography" puzzling in the first place.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Conhecimento , Simbolismo , Humanos , Filosofia
8.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 31(Special Issue 1): 725-727, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37742240

RESUMO

It has long been a tradition for doctors to dress professionally in white coats - a universal symbol of belonging to the medical profession. This tradition dates back to the time of Hippocrates, but during the XIX-XXI centuries, the symbolism of the white coat was criticized in connection with research on the spread of infections through tissue. Currently, many doctors refuse to use the oldest symbol of the profession, and the practice of medical activity is replete with new variants of the uniform of a medical worker (both in style and in color palette. However, it should be noted that the white coat symbolizes another important part of the medical education of students, the standard of professionalism and care, as well as a symbol of the trust they must earn from patients.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Medicina , Médicos , Humanos , Simbolismo , Renda
9.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 52(6): 2339-2355, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37581753

RESUMO

This article was aimed to study the demonstration of urban images as topographic or background effects for depicting the social reality of life in large megacities. The research considered four literary works of Japanese and Chinese writers, namely the manga 'Hanzawa Naoki' (2020) by Jun Ikeido, the novel 'Convenience Store Woman' (2016) by Sayaka Murata, the manga 'Tokyo Ghoul' (2011) by Sui Ishida, and the Chinese novel 'Northern Girls' (2004) by Sheng Keyi. It was found that each literary work demonstrated the symbolism of the urban platform, on which specific cultural and social rules were formed (in the Japanese sense, the term 'joshiki' was used). So, there was a certain transformation of the Japanese traditional worldview to a mutually beneficial life activity, which can lead to marginalization. The study results also showed that the folklore images of Japanese yokai have transformed in the fantasy genre as metaphorical social roles that lack a sense of tolerance and liberality in the context of modern society.


Assuntos
Metáfora , Simbolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Japão
10.
Neuropsychologia ; 188: 108657, 2023 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37543139

RESUMO

Non-arbitrary mapping between the sound of a word and its meaning, termed sound symbolism, is commonly studied through crossmodal correspondences between sounds and visual shapes, e.g., auditory pseudowords, like 'mohloh' and 'kehteh', are matched to rounded and pointed visual shapes, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a crossmodal matching task to investigate the hypotheses that sound symbolism (1) involves language processing; (2) depends on multisensory integration; (3) reflects embodiment of speech in hand movements. These hypotheses lead to corresponding neuroanatomical predictions of crossmodal congruency effects in (1) the language network; (2) areas mediating multisensory processing, including visual and auditory cortex; (3) regions responsible for sensorimotor control of the hand and mouth. Right-handed participants (n = 22) encountered audiovisual stimuli comprising a simultaneously presented visual shape (rounded or pointed) and an auditory pseudoword ('mohloh' or 'kehteh') and indicated via a right-hand keypress whether the stimuli matched or not. Reaction times were faster for congruent than incongruent stimuli. Univariate analysis showed that activity was greater for the congruent compared to the incongruent condition in the left primary and association auditory cortex, and left anterior fusiform/parahippocampal gyri. Multivoxel pattern analysis revealed higher classification accuracy for the audiovisual stimuli when congruent than when incongruent, in the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal (Broca's area), the left supramarginal, and the right mid-occipital gyri. These findings, considered in relation to the neuroanatomical predictions, support the first two hypotheses and suggest that sound symbolism involves both language processing and multisensory integration.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo , Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Idioma , Simbolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Percepção Auditiva , Percepção Visual , Mapeamento Encefálico
11.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 76(3): e20220476, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37377316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to present a theoretical model for the interactional context of health professionals and families of children and adolescents under palliative care. METHODS: qualitative study based on the theoretical frameworks of Grounded Theory and Symbolic Interactionism. Ten palliative care professionals took part in this study through semi-structured interviews employing snowball technique from 2020 to 2021. RESULTS: the comparative data analysis resulted in the theoretical model "Searching for human connection to transcend symbolisms in pediatric palliative care". It reveals symbolic elements that substantiate the construction of a collaborative context integrating two phenomena: "Overcoming boundaries and intertwining paths" and "Embracing suffering to weave meaningful experiences". Symbolisms in palliative care guide the behavior of families and professionals, which makes them the key factor to be managed. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: symbolisms and suffering continually integrate the interactional experience of professionals. Empathy and compassion are fundamental elements to enable their connection with families.


Assuntos
Empatia , Cuidados Paliativos , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pessoal de Saúde , Simbolismo
12.
Stud Hist Philos Sci ; 99: 89-96, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37141842

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to explore the conception of artificial life forms and the interactions we have with them by paying a particular attention to the analogies that characterize them and the mental processes they give rise to. The article adopts a crossed perspective, focusing on the representations conveyed by artificial life but also on the way we deal with the presence of so-called intelligent or social machines. Based on a multi-sited ethnography of design practices and human-machine interaction experiments, this article hypothesizes that robots and AI constitute a symbolic means of addressing problems regarding our understanding of what life could be whether it is biological or social. Starting from the history of automata, this article will first address the modalities by which an "artificial life" is conceived by analogy with vital processes. It will then focus on the way these processes come into play in an experimental interaction situation.


Assuntos
Robótica , Humanos , Simbolismo , Antropologia , Processos Mentais , Antropologia Cultural
13.
Cogn Sci ; 47(4): e13287, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37062824

RESUMO

A classic example of the arbitrary relation between the way a word sounds and its meaning is that microorganism is a very long word that refers to a very small entity, whereas whale is a very short word that refers to something very big. This example, originally presented in Hockett's list of language's design features, has been often cited over the years, not only by those discussing the arbitrary nature of language, but also by researchers of sound symbolism. While the two groups disagreed regarding the role of arbitrariness and sound symbolism in language, they both agreed there is a nonsound symbolic relation between word length and entity size in this case. This paper shows that the length of the words whale and microorganism in fact reflects a sound symbolic pattern. An analysis of >600 languages from >100 language families shows that languages use longer words to denote the concept small than they do to denote the concept big. The paper thus shows how explicit judgments might differ from implicit cognitive association and the problem of relying on these in sound symbolism research.


Assuntos
Intuição , Baleias , Humanos , Animais , Idioma , Linguística , Simbolismo
14.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 54: 374-381, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36963883

RESUMO

Since the Antiquity, many artists have represented food in their paintings. Most of them are European painters originating essentially from the Southern Europe. There is no doubt that the Greco-Roman culture and Christianity - that became the official religion of the Roman Empire - influenced these artists since two millenars. Throughout the painting's production, we have tried to discover information of the dietary habits at a particular period, to scrutinize some dietary recommendations but also to detect the symbolic dimension of the represented foods.


Assuntos
Dietética , Pinturas , Humanos , Religião , Alimentos , Simbolismo
15.
Nurse Educ ; 48(3): 125-130, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36730625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critical thinking is an essential nursing competency. Faculty can teach students how to think critically by emphasizing the connections between their philosophy and nursing curricula to ensure that students recognize the cognitive processes they use to make complex decisions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to examine the definitions, history, and utility of philosophical perspectives that inform critical thinking. We explain several approaches: Socratic inquiry, syllogism, schematic cases, and symbolism. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review about educational approaches and their associated philosophies. RESULTS: Philosophical awareness can enhance students' abilities to examine data, communicate ideas, evaluate diverse opinions, understand theories, and apply innovative solutions to problems they will encounter in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical issue dialogues, dramatizations (that link philosophical and practical themes), self-reflection exercises, and case studies (that are less content-laden and more focused on nurses' theories and decision-making processes) represent important and innovative critical thinking skill-building exercises.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pensamento , Simbolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279350, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598905

RESUMO

This study constructs machine learning algorithms that are trained to classify samples using sound symbolism, and then it reports on an experiment designed to measure their understanding against human participants. Random forests are trained using the names of Pokémon, which are fictional video game characters, and their evolutionary status. Pokémon undergo evolution when certain in-game conditions are met. Evolution changes the appearance, abilities, and names of Pokémon. In the first experiment, we train three random forests using the sounds that make up the names of Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Pokémon to classify Pokémon into pre-evolution and post-evolution categories. We then train a fourth random forest using the results of an elicitation experiment whereby Japanese participants named previously unseen Pokémon. In Experiment 2, we reproduce those random forests with name length as a feature and compare the performance of the random forests against humans in a classification experiment whereby Japanese participants classified the names elicited in Experiment 1 into pre-and post-evolution categories. Experiment 2 reveals an issue pertaining to overfitting in Experiment 1 which we resolve using a novel cross-validation method. The results show that the random forests are efficient learners of systematic sound-meaning correspondence patterns and can classify samples with greater accuracy than the human participants.


Assuntos
Algoritmo Florestas Aleatórias , Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Simbolismo , Som , Algoritmos
17.
Behav Res Methods ; 55(2): 807-823, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35469089

RESUMO

Symbol systems have a profound influence on human behavior, spanning countless modalities such as natural language, clothing styles, monetary systems, and gestural conventions (e.g., handshaking). Selective impairments in understanding and manipulating symbols are collectively known as asymbolia. Here we address open questions about the nature of asymbolia in the context of both historical and contemporary approaches to human symbolic cognition. We describe a tripartite perspective on symbolic cognition premised upon (1) mental representation of a concept, (2) a stored pool of symbols segregated from their respective referents, and (3) fast and accurate mapping between concepts and symbols. We present an open-source toolkit for assessing symbolic knowledge premised upon matching animated video depictions of abstract concepts to their corresponding verbal and nonverbal symbols. Animations include simple geometric shapes (e.g., filled circles, squares) moving in semantically meaningful ways. For example, a rectangle bending under the implied weight of a large square denotes "heaviness." We report normative data for matching words and images to these target animations. In a second norming study, participants rated target animations across a range of semantic dimensions (e.g., valence, dominance). In a third study, we normed a set of concepts familiar to American English speakers but lacking verbal labels (e.g., the feeling of a Sunday evening). We describe how these tools may be used to assess human symbolic processing and identify asymbolic deficits across the span of human development.


Assuntos
Cognição , Simbolismo , Humanos , Idioma , Semântica , Gestos
19.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 76(1): 28-43, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045778

RESUMO

Sound symbolism is the phenomenon by which certain kinds of phonemes are associated with perceptual and/or semantic properties. In this article, we explored size sound symbolism (i.e., the mil/mal effect) in which high-front vowels (e.g., /i/) show an association with smallness, while low-back vowels (e.g., /ɑ/) show an association with largeness. This has previously been demonstrated with nonwords, but its impact on the processing of real language is unknown. We investigated this using a size judgement task, in which participants classified words for small or large objects, containing a small- or large-associated vowel, based on their size. Words were presented auditorily in Experiment 1 and visually in Experiment 2. We did not observe an effect of vowel congruence (i.e., between object size and the size association of its vowel) in either of the experiments. This suggests that there are limits to the impact of sound symbolism on the processing of real language.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Navios , Humanos , Resultados Negativos , Idioma , Simbolismo
20.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 49(7): 1113-1129, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35611400

RESUMO

An astonishing cultural phenomenon is where, far away from or close to a city center, people in different societies localize cemeteries that function as both sites of memory of lost ones and symbols of mortality. Yet a psychological account of such differences in behavioral responses to symbols of mortality is lacking. Across five studies (N = 1,590), we tested a psychological model that religious afterlife beliefs decrease behavioral avoidance of symbols of mortality (BASM) by developing and validating a word-position task for quantifying BASM. We showed evidence that religious believers, including Christians, Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists, exhibited decreased BASM relative to nonbelievers. We also provide evidence for a causal relationship between religious afterlife beliefs and reduced BASM. Our findings provide new insight into the functional role of religious afterlife beliefs in modulating human avoidance behavior in response to symbols of mortality.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Budismo , Cristianismo , Hinduísmo , Islamismo , Religião e Psicologia , Simbolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Budismo/psicologia , Cemitérios/estatística & dados numéricos , China/etnologia , Cristianismo/psicologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Cultura , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Hinduísmo/psicologia , Islamismo/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Autoimagem , População do Leste Asiático/psicologia
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