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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 33(1): e020323, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597570

RESUMO

Schyzocotyle acheilognathi is a fish tapeworm native to Asia but has been reported as an alien species on practically all other continents. Its invasive potential is due to its low host specificity and high adaptability to different environments, and its spread to new areas can result in economic and ecological impacts. Studies reporting this species in South America are still scarce, indicating the need to monitor its dispersion to new areas. Herein, tapeworms found in guppies, Poecilia reticulata, from an urban stream located in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in April 2021 were subjected to morphological and molecular characterization. As a result, 5/13 (38.5%) of the P. reticulata specimens evaluated were infected with intestinal tapeworms. It was verified a mean intensity of infection of 7.8 (1-25) and a mean abundance of infection of 3 (0-25). The morphology of the cestodes obtained was compatible with that of S. acheilognathi. Moreover, genetic analysis based on cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (Cox-1) revealed 97.89-99.77% similarity to isolates of this species from different localities. The possibility that S. acheilognathi is expanding to new regions of South America is discussed.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Doenças dos Peixes , Poecilia , Taenia , Animais , Poecilia/parasitologia , Rios , Brasil , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
2.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1376907, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38571957

RESUMO

Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death, with an estimated 19.3 million new cases every year. Our paper presents the tumor-suppressing effect of Taenia crassiceps and Mesocestoides corti on B16F10 melanoma, the intraperitoneal application of which followed the experimental infection with these tapeworms, resulting in varying degrees of effectiveness in two strains of mice. In the case of M. corti-infected ICR mice, a strong tumor growth suppression occurred, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in the formation of distant metastases in the liver and lung. Tapeworm-infected C57BL/6J mice also showed a suppression of tumor growth and, in addition, the overall survival of infected C57BL/6J mice was significantly improved. Experiments with potential cross-reaction of melanoma and tapeworm antigens with respective specific antibodies, restimulation of spleen T cells, or the direct effect of tapeworm excretory-secretory products on melanoma cells in vitro could not explain the phenomenon. However, infections with T. crassiceps and M. corti increased the number of leukocytes possibly involved in anti-tumor immunity in the peritoneal cavity of both ICR and C57BL/6J mice. This study unveils the complex interplay between tapeworm infections, immune responses, and melanoma progression, emphasizing the need for further exploration of the mechanisms driving observed tumor-suppressive effects.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Melanoma , Mesocestoides , Taenia , Camundongos , Animais , Mesocestoides/fisiologia , Melanoma/complicações , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Infecções por Cestoides/complicações , Infecções por Cestoides/patologia
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 172, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antigen detection in Taenia solium cysticercosis confirms viable infection in the intermediate host (either pig or human). The reference B158/B60 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based Ag-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity in human neurocysticercosis with multiple brain cysts, although its sensitivity is lower in cases with single brain cysts, whereas in porcine cysticercosis the assay specificity is affected by its frequent cross-reaction with Taenia hydatigena, another common cestode found in pigs. Our group has produced 21 anti-T. solium mAbs reacting against antigens of the whole cyst, vesicular fluid, and secretory/excretory products, identifying TsW8/TsW5 as the most promising pair of mAbs for an Ag-ELISA. METHODS: We report the use of the TsW8/TsW5 Ag-ELISA to measure cysticercus antigen levels [expressed as optical density (OD) values] in two panels of sera collected from day 0 (baseline) to day 90 postinfection (PI) from pigs experimentally infected with T. solium (n = 26) and T. hydatigena (n = 12). At baseline and on days 28 and 90 PI, we used Bland-Altman (BA) analysis and Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) to determine the concordance between the TsW8/TsW5 and the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. RESULTS: The TsW8/TsW5 Ag-ELISA was able to efficiently measure circulating antigen levels in T. solium-infected pigs, similar to that obtained with the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Almost all paired log-OD differences between assays were within the limits of agreement (LoA) in the BA analysis at baseline and on days 28 and 90 PI (92.3%, 100%, and 100%, respectively), and a high concordance of log-ODs between assays was also found (Lin's CCC: 0.69, 0.92, and 0.96, respectively, all P < 0.001). In pigs infected with T. hydatigena, almost all paired log-OD differences were within the LoA in the BA analysis, whereas the concordance of log-ODs between assays was low at baseline (Lin's CCC: 0.24) but increased on days 28 and 90 PI (Lins' CCC: 0.88 and 0.98, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The TsW8/TsW5 Ag-ELISA recognizes antigens in pigs with T. solium cysticercosis and is highly concordant with the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. However, its diagnostic use is hampered by cross-reactions with T. hydatigena, as in other mAb-based Ag-ELISAs.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Cistos , Doenças dos Suínos , Taenia solium , Taenia , Animais , Humanos , Suínos , Cysticercus , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Cisticercose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Antígenos , Antígenos de Helmintos , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos
4.
PeerJ ; 12: e17196, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563013

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, with an estimated 19.3 million new cases and 10 million deaths worldwide in 2020 alone. Approximately 2.2 million cancer cases are attributed to infectious diseases, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Despite the apparent involvement of some parasitic helminths (especially trematodes) in cancer induction, there are also records of the potential suppressive effects of helminth infections on cancer. Tapeworms such as Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia crassiceps, and more seem to have the potential to suppress malignant cell development, although in a few cases the evidence might be contradictory. Our review aims to summarize known epidemiological data on the cancer-helminth co-occurrence in the human population and the interactions of tapeworms with cancers, i.e., proven or hypothetical effects of tapeworms and their products on cancer cells in vivo (i.e., in experimental animals) or in vitro. The prospect of bioactive tapeworm molecules helping reduce the growth and metastasis of cancer is within the realm of future possibility, although extensive research is yet required due to certain concerns.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Neoplasias , Taenia , Animais , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
5.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 107: 102152, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447382

RESUMO

Cysticercus fasciolaris (C. fasciolaris) is the larval stage of a cestode parasite named Taenia taeniaeformis (T. taeniaeformis). C. fasiolaris is found in small rodents, especially rats. Rattus species are listed as intermediate hosts of this parasite, and cats are the main definitive host of C. fasiolaris. The objective of this study was to study the pathological, microscopic, and molecular aspects of C. fasciolaris in rodents residing in human residence areas. One hundred and two rodents were trapped in human settlements and dissected for larva-containing cyst examinations in the body cavity. The larvae of C. fasciolaris were investigated using histopathological examination, microscopic observations under a stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope, and molecular detection using polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of hepatic cysts containing larvae was 8.91% (95% CI = 4.16-16.24). In addition, the older larvae also had longer micropapillae. Histopathological investigation revealed normal hepatic tissue containing larvae and a scanty fluid cyst. The cyst capsule contains mostly mononuclear cells and spindle cells in all infected rats. The molecular detection using two primer sets revealed the amplicons were similar to the clade of C. fasciolaris. In the future, more investigation is necessary to fully understand the parasite's molecular pathogenesis and virulent molecules, which are less obvious.


Assuntos
Cistos , Taenia , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Cysticercus , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Taenia/genética , Roedores , Larva , Cistos/veterinária
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 259: 108726, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428664

RESUMO

Cysticercus fasciolaris is a parasitic helminth that usually infects feline and canine mammal hosts. The intermediate hosts (rodents, occasionally lagomorphs, and humans) get infected by the consumption of feed or water contaminated with eggs. Rodents are vectors of disease and reservoirs of various zoonotic parasites. The current survey was aimed at determining endoparasitic helminth infections in rodents in central Morocco. Sampled rodents after specific identification were sacrificed and examined to identify parasitic helminths following ethical guidelines. Parasites were identified using morphological characteristics. A total of 197 specimens of rodents were collected and examined in this study. Ten rodent species were identified morphologically as Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus, Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus musculus, M. spretus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Meriones shawi, M. libycus, Gerbillus campestris, and Lemniscomys barbarus. The parasitological results showed that metacestode of tapeworms was found encysted in the liver, the larval stage of Taenia taeniaeformis develops large multinodular fibrosarcomas which envelope the tapeworm cysts in the liver of the R. rattus and R. norvegicus. Based on morphological data, the metacestode was identified as C. fasciolaris in 23 (23/80) R. rattus 2 (2/8) and R. norvegicus with a prevalence of 11.7 % and 1.0 %, respectively. Rodents are major vectors of human and domestic animal diseases worldwide, and therefore, important parasitic zoonotic agents (C. fasciolaris), which are transmitted by black rats (R. rattus) and brown rats (R. norvegicus), must be considered to prevent the infectivity of humans, domestic animals, and livestock such as cattle, sheep, and rabbits.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Doenças dos Roedores , Taenia , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Coelhos , Bovinos , Ovinos , Cysticercus , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Animais Domésticos , Gerbillinae
7.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 48: 100978, 2024 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316507

RESUMO

This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of Taenia ovis (sheep measles) in sheep and goats among the unlicensed butcher's settings in Bagdad, Iraq. A total of 1194 sheep comprising 798 males and 396 females were inspected and out of these 41 and 17 (5.1 and 4.2%) were positive of T. ovis respectively. In goat a total of 162 comprising 122 males and 40 females were inspected out of which 39 and 19 (31.9 and 47.5%) were positive for T. ovis for male and female respectively. In this study, the prevalence of T. ovis in sheep of <18 months of age (5.3%) was higher as compared to those in sheep of over 18 months of age (4.9%), the prevalence of T. ovis was higher in male sheep (5.1%) as compared to the female sheep (4.2%). The trend of the prevalence of this parasite in goats was different from what was obtained in sheep, in this case the prevalence was higher in female goats as compared to male goats. Also the prevalence of T. ovis was significantly higher in older goats as compared to younger goats. For the breed the trend was similar to that of sheep where the local breed harbored more of T. ovis as compared to the imported breeds. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the T. ovis infestations in the unlicensed butcher's settings is of great concern for public health, therefore authorities are to design a preventive program to curtail this problem.


Assuntos
Taenia , Animais , Ovinos , Masculino , Feminino , Prevalência , Iraque/epidemiologia , Cabras , Saúde Pública
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(3): 555-559, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38407150

RESUMO

A neurocysticercosis-like lesion in an 11-year-old boy in the Netherlands was determined to be caused by the zoonotic Taenia martis tapeworm. Subsequent testing revealed that 15% of wild martens tested in that region were infected with T. martis tapeworms with 100% genetic similarity; thus, the infection source was most likely local.


Assuntos
Neurocisticercose , Taenia , Masculino , Criança , Animais , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Taenia/genética , Países Baixos
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338740

RESUMO

Some parasites are known to influence brain proteins or induce changes in the functioning of the nervous system. In this study, our objective is to demonstrate how the two-dimensional gel technique is valuable for detecting differences in protein expression and providing detailed information on changes in the brain proteome during a parasitic infection. Subsequently, we seek to understand how the parasitic infection affects the protein composition in the brain and how this may be related to changes in brain function. By analyzing de novo-expressed proteins at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-infection compared to the brains of the control mice, we observed that proteins expressed at 2 weeks are primarily associated with neuroprotection or the initial response of the mouse brain to the infection. At 8 weeks, parasitic infection can induce oxidative stress in the brain, potentially activating signaling pathways related to the response to cellular damage. Proteins expressed at 8 weeks exhibit a pattern indicating that, as the host fails to balance the Neuro-Immuno-Endocrine network of the organism, the brain begins to undergo an apoptotic process and consequently experiences brain damage.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias , Taenia , Animais , Camundongos , Encéfalo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
10.
Vet Q ; 44(1): 1-8, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241082

RESUMO

Southern pudu (Pudu puda) is a threatened endemic deer of the temperate forests of Chile. In recent years pudu populations rates have decreased mainly due to anthropogenic causes including forest loss and landscape fragmentation. In this context, the parasitic fauna of Chilean pudu has been scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the parasitic status of rescued pudu n = 13 from its natural habitat in Central Chile (Maule region) during March 2022 and June 2023 by applying morphological, histopathological, and molecular analyses. As result, we report the presence of transmission of parasites from dogs to pudus as showed by the presence of metacestodes of the parasite Taenia hydatigena on omentum, liver, and pleura of pudus during postmortem examinations, being the first molecular report on the presence of this parasite on Chilean pudu. Meanwhile, ectoparasite examinations determined the presence of chewing and sucking lice on pudu exemplars here analysed. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of lice revealed new insights on Bovicola and Anoplura lice parasitizing P. puda in Chile, equally being the first genetic characterization of lice parasitizing pudu exemplars in Chile. In addition, parasite loads of lice and metacestodes were analysed. However, no statistically significance was observed when comparing environmental and individual traits influence on parasite load variation. Overall, the study area is the northern limit of habitat distribution of this specie in Chile and we here provide novel information on pudu deer parasites, thus making a useful and valuable contribution to the parasitological knowledge on this threatened species.


Assuntos
Anoplura , Cervos , Parasitos , Taenia , Animais , Cães , Taenia/genética , Chile/epidemiologia , Filogenia
11.
Parasitology ; 151(1): 84-92, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38018240

RESUMO

Recently, there have been epidemics of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Kyrgyzstan. This study investigated 2 districts for the presence of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. and Echinococcus multilocularis eggs; species identity was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in dog feces and the level of environmental contamination with parasite eggs in 2017­2018 was also investigated. In the Alay district 5 villages with a high reported annual incidence of AE of 162 cases per 100 000 and 5 villages in the Kochkor district which had a much lower incidence of 21 cases per 100 000 were investigated. However, the proportion of dog feces containing E. granulosus s.l. eggs was ~4.2 and ~3.5% in Alay and Kochkor respectively. For E. multilocularis, the corresponding proportions were 2.8 and 3.2%. Environmental contamination of Echinococcus spp. eggs was estimated using the McMaster technique for fecal egg counts, weight and density of canine feces. The level of environmental contamination with E. multilocularis eggs was similar at 4.4 and 5.0 eggs per m2 in Alay and Kochkor respectively. The corresponding values for E. granulosus s.l. were 8.3 and 7.5 eggs per m2. There was no association between village or district level incidence of human AE or CE and the proportion of dog feces containing eggs of Echinococcus spp. or the level of environmental contamination. Increased contamination of taeniid eggs occured in the autumn, after the return of farmers with dogs from summer mountain pastures.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus multilocularis , Taenia , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Quirguistão/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia
12.
Vet Med Sci ; 10(1): e1341, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38117665

RESUMO

Cysticercosis develops in lambs following a Cysticercus tenuicollis infestation, which is the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena. A 7-day-old lamb was examined for depression, anorexia, fever (40.5°C), congested mucus membranes, reluctance to move, and a hunched back. Upon necropsy, congestion was noted in the intestines and brain, and the heart had a loose consistency. Soft and pulpy kidneys were evident coupled with watery intestinal contents. Epsilon toxin (Clostridium perfringens type D toxin) was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A transparent cystic structure was incidentally found attached to the pancreas, within which a scolex was well demonstrated upon histopathology. Chronic active peritonitis was diagnosed at the cyst attachment site. C. tenuicollis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and genome sequencing. This report describes prenatal transmission of C. tenuicollis in the present lamb, although this condition is quite rare.


Assuntos
Cisticercose , Taenia , Feminino , Gravidez , Animais , Ovinos , Cysticercus/genética , Cisticercose/diagnóstico , Cisticercose/patologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Carneiro Doméstico
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 29(12): 2569-2572, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37987597

RESUMO

Neurocysticercosis is almost exclusively caused by Taenia solium tapeworms. We describe a case of neurocysticercosis in Switzerland caused by infection with Taenia martis, the marten tapeworm, and review all 5 published cases of human infection with the marten tapeworm. In epidemiologically nonplausible cases of neurocysticercosis, zoonotic spillover infections should be suspected.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Neurocisticercose , Taenia solium , Taenia , Animais , Humanos , Neurocisticercose/diagnóstico por imagem , Suíça
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 17929, 2023 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37863934

RESUMO

This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of oxidative stress (OS), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), ADAMTS (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs), and neuropathology associated with coenurus cerebralis (Taenia multiceps). ADAMTS-13, HMGB1, glutathione reductase (GR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) expression levels were studied. The study found that ADAMTS-13 (P < 0.005), HMGB1 (P < 0.005), GR (P < 0.005), Cu/Zn SOD (P < 0.005), and 8-OHdG (P < 0.005) levels were significantly higher in T. multiceps (c. cerebralis)-infected animals compared to healthy control animals. This study's most important finding was that HMGB1 up-regulation in neurons, endothelial cells, and glial cells can directly cause brain parenchymal destruction and that HMGB1-mediated oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the neuropathogenesis of coenurosis. The results also showed that increased levels of ADAMTS-13 may play a pivotal role in regulating and protecting the blood-brain barrier integrity and neuroprotection. These findings also suggest that ADAMTS-13 and HMGB1 compete in the prevention or formation of microthrombi, which was regarded as a remarkable finding. ADAMTS-13 and HMGB1 are valuable biomarkers for disease risk assessment, estimating host neuropathy following T. multiceps (c. cerebralis) exposure, and providing a new therapeutic target. This is the first study to show that HMGB1 and ADAMTS-13 are expressed in reactive cells and are associated with neuroimmunopathology in coenurosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cestoides , Cisticercose , Proteína HMGB1 , Taenia , Animais , Proteína ADAMTS13/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 353, 2023 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37807080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the domestic cat as definitive host for Echinococcus multilocularis and thus in environmental contamination with eggs has not yet been entirely resolved. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of E. multilocularis and other gastrointestinal parasites in Swiss domestic cats and to compare the diagnostic sensitivity of different methods for the detection of intestinal taeniid infection. METHODS: Faecal samples from 146 cats were included in the study. Faecal samples only were available from 55 cats; for the other 91 cats, necropsy was performed in addition to faecal sample testing. All (n = 146) faecal samples were analysed by a combined sedimentation/flotation technique (44% ZnCl2) and by the sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) sedimentation technique; when sufficient material was available (n = 121 samples) the Baermann-Wetzel technique was also used. Additionally, all samples were analysed by two coproantigen (copro)-quantitative PCRs (qPCR): (i) a multiplex qPCR able to detect and differentiate between E. multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Taenia spp./other cestodes (CEST-qPCR) and (ii) an E. multilocularis-specific qPCR (EM-qPCR). Finally, the intestines were examined macroscopically and microscopically for parasite stages at necropsy (n = 91) and using an intestinal scraping technique (IST) (n = 64). RESULTS: Of the 146 cats examined, 24 (17.1%) were infected by intestinal parasites, namely Hydatigera (syn. Taenia) taeniaeformis (8.9%), Toxocara cati (6.1%), Capillaria sp. (3.4%), hookworms (3.4%), Mesocestoides litteratus (1.4%), Giardia sp. (1.4%), Cystoisospora rivolta (1.4%), Cystoisospora felis (0.7%), Toxoplasma gondii (0.7%), Hammondia hammondi (0.7%) and Strongyloides sp. (0.7%). Necropsy and the IST revealed adult H. taeniaeformis in 12 animals, of which eight faecal samples were positive by the CEST-qPCR (sensitivity = 67%) and six samples by the sedimentation/flotation technique (sensitivity = 50%). No E. multilocularis infection was detected in the sampled cats. Using Bayesian latent class analysis, the mean posterior prevalence probability was 0.0% (95% confidence interval 0-0.83%) for E. multilocularis. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of E. multilocularis infection among the 146 cats examined, suggesting that the prevalence of this parasite is low (< 1%) in the Swiss domestic cat population. Nonetheless, some of the sampled cats were infected by parasites that have rodents as intermediate hosts, demonstrating successful predation by these cats, and some were infected with zoonotic parasites. Cats therefore should not be disregarded as potential hosts for E. multilocularis and other zoonotic parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Echinococcus multilocularis , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Taenia , Animais , Gatos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 122(12): 2999-3012, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37874392

RESUMO

Ecological associations between wild felids and parasites from the Taeniidae family are related to predator-prey interactions, where felids act as definitive hosts while their prey, herbivores and/or omnivores, act as intermediate hosts. In the Atlantic Forest, six neotropical felid species coexist in sympatry, but the ecological parasite-host interactions remain poorly studied. Taenia omissa is a tapeworm that parasitizes cougars (Puma concolor) as its only definitive host and their ungulate prey as intermediate hosts. The aim of this study was to identify tapeworms present in road-killed fauna using both molecular and morphological characteristics and their predator-prey relationship. Adult tapeworms found in a cougar, a jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), and two ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); and metacestodes found in a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) and a wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea) were analyzed. Through morphological analysis of rostellar hooks and molecular analysis of the mitochondrial genetic marker cox1, Taenia omissa adult individuals were identified in the cougar, and metacestodes in the red brocket deer, proving the existence of a full host-parasite life cycle in the Atlantic Forest region. This new report reveals the southernmost record of T. omissa and broadens its geographic distribution. In addition, isolates of the Taenia genus divergent from those described so far in molecular databases were reported and suggested a wild cycle that involves the jaguarundi and agouti (Dasyprocta asarae) as definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. These results highlight the complexity of the tapeworm population in the region and the need to study it with both morphological and molecular approaches.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Cervos , Felidae , Puma , Taenia , Humanos , Animais , Cobaias , Cervos/parasitologia , Cestoides/genética , Florestas
17.
Parasitology ; 150(10): 894-900, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37621007

RESUMO

Four methods were compared for the diagnosis of human taeniasis caused by Taenia solium. Fecal samples from persons living in a T. solium endemic region of Madagascar were examined for taeniid eggs by the Kato­Katz method. Subsequently, samples positive (n = 16) and negative (n = 200) for T. solium eggs were examined by (i) amplification of the fragment of small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS) gene using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and (ii) a nested PCR of a fragment of the T. solium Tso31 gene. Additionally, 12 egg-positive and all egg-negative samples were tested for coproantigen detection. A further 9 egg-positive fecal samples were examined using both PCRs. Of the 12 egg-positive samples tested by PCRs and coproantigen methods, 9 (75%) were positive by rrnS PCR, 3 (25%) using Tso31-nested PCR and 9 (75%) by coproantigen testing. None of the 200 egg-negative fecal samples was positive in either rrnS or Tso31-nested PCR. Twenty of the 25 egg-positive samples (80%) were positive in rrnS PCR, and DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons was obtained from 18 samples, all confirmed to be T. solium. Twelve of the 25 egg-positive samples (48%) were positive in the Tso31-nested PCR, all of which were also positive by rrnS PCR. It is suggested that species-specific diagnosis of T. solium taeniasis may be achieved by either coprological examination to detect eggs or coproantigen testing, followed by rrnS PCR and DNA sequencing to confirm the tapeworm species in egg-positive or coproantigen-positive samples.


Assuntos
Taenia solium , Taenia , Teníase , Humanos , Animais , Taenia solium/genética , Teníase/diagnóstico , Teníase/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fezes , Especificidade da Espécie , Taenia/genética
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 44: 100913, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37652632

RESUMO

We present the case of Taenia martis metacestode infection in a white-headed lemur (Eulemur albifrons) from a zoological park. A post-mortem examination was conducted on the unexpectedly perished animal and focal granulomatous pneumonia with metacestodic tissue was discovered. Identification of T. martis was conducted through amplification and sequencing of a 12S rRNA gene fragment. We discuss the possible sources of infection and underline the importance of this infection in public health and conservation.


Assuntos
Lemuridae , Taenia , Teníase , Animais , Taenia/genética , Alemanha , Teníase/veterinária
19.
Genomics ; 115(5): 110690, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37488054

RESUMO

Infection of Taenia pisiformis cysticercus is very frequently found in lagomorphs and causes serious economic losses to rabbit breeding industry. T. pisiformis cysticercus has evolved numerous strategies to manipulate their hosts. The release of exosomes is of importance in the interaction between host and parasite. However, the mechanism by which T. pisiformis cysticercus evades the host immune system for long-term survival within the host remains unclear. Using small RNA sequencing and TMT labelling proteomic, we profiled the expression patterns of miRNAs and proteins in rabbit peritoneal macrophages treated with T. pisiformis cysticercus exosomes. Seven differentially expressed (DE)-miRNAs and six DE-proteins were randomly selected to validate the accuracy of the sequencing data by qRT-PCR or western blot. Functions of DE-miRNAs and proteins were analyzed using public data bases. And DE-miRNAs-DE-proteins correlation network were established. CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate the effect of exosomes on macrophages proliferation. Cell cycle of macrophages, isolated from T. pisiformis-infected rabbits, was determined using flow cytometry. A total of 21 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed, including three worm-derived miRNAs. The expressions of miRNAs and proteins were consistent with the sequencing results. DE-miRNAs targets were related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. Exosomes treatment resulted in a decrease of macrophages proliferation. In vivo, T. pisiformis cysticercus significantly induced S phase cell arrest. Moreover, DE-proteins were related to production of interferon-gamma and interleukin-12, and immunoregulation. Correlation network analysis revealed a negative correlation relationship between DE-miRNAs and DE-proteins. Among them, novel334 and tpi-let-7-5p have potential regulatory effects on IL1ß and NFκB2 respectively, which imply that novel334-IL1ß/tpi-let-7-5p-NFκB2 axis may be an important way that T. pisiformis cysticercus modulates host immune response through exosomes. Further understanding of these potential regulatory mechanisms will contribute to clarify the mechanism of escape mediated by T. pisiformis exosomes.


Assuntos
Exossomos , MicroRNAs , Taenia , Animais , Coelhos , Cysticercus/genética , Taenia/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Macrófagos Peritoneais , Exossomos/genética , Proteômica
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 16(1): 250, 2023 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37491284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hydatigera (Cestoda: Taeniidae) is a recently resurrected genus with the description of a new species, Hydatigera kamiyai, a cryptic entity within the Hydatigera taeniaeformis species complex. Rodents are intermediate hosts and correct taxonomic identification of H. taeniaeformis sensu lato (s.l.) species is difficult without the use of molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and explore the genetic diversity of Hydatigera and other taeniid species. METHODS: Ten different small mammals species (856 individuals) (Rattus rattus, three Apodemus, three Arvicolinae and three Soricidae species) were examined from 2013 to 2023. Captured animals were visually examined for cysts and visible lesions. Two markers were used for amplification and sequencing: cox1 and 12S rDNA. RESULTS: Molecular analysis of cysts and visible lesions revealed four taeniid species: Hydatigera kamiyai, H. taeniaeformis sensu stricto (s.s.), Taenia martis and T. crassiceps. Hydatigera kamiyai was found in Apodemus flavicollis, A. agrarius, Microtus arvalis and Crocidrua leucodon, while H. taeniaeformis s.s. is registered in R. rattus. Hydatigera kamiyai cox1 sequences clustered with European populations and showed at least 25 nucleotid differences compared to Asian, African, Australian and one of our isolates of H. taeniaeformis s.s acquired from a rat, followed by large sequence distances (9.4% to 12.9%), indicating clear molecular distinction of two species. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the few mitochondrial gene-based studies performed after the description of cryptic entities within the Hydatigera taeniaeformis s.l. complex and represents a valuable contribution to understanding of genetic diversity, host suitability and geographic distribution of these tapeworm species. Also, our study provides an important basis of molecular data from this part of Europe for further studies. We emphasize the importance of additional studies of intermediate hosts, especially rats from Europe and Apodemus spp. and voles from Asia and Africa.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Taenia , Ratos , Animais , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Austrália , Taenia/genética , Cestoides/genética , Murinae
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