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1.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 36(1): 84, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558357

RESUMO

This review critically assessed the existence of presbygeusia, i.e., the impairment in taste perception occurring in the elderly, as a natural part of the aging process and its potential clinical implications. Several factors might contribute to age-related taste alterations (TAs), including structural changes in taste buds, alterations in saliva composition, central nervous system changes, and oral microbiota dysbiosis. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to disentangle the effects of age from those of the several age-related diseases or conditions promoting TAs. Most of the included studies reported TAs in healthy elderly people, suggesting that presbygeusia is a relatively frequent condition associated with age-related changes in the absence of pathological conditions. However, the impact of TAs on dietary preferences and food choices among the elderly seems to be less relevant when compared to other factors, such as cultural, psychological, and social influences. In conclusion, presbygeusia exists even in the absence of comorbidities or drug side effects, but its impact on dietary choices in the elderly is likely modest.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Paladar , Humanos , Idoso , Paladar/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Saliva/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares
2.
Nature ; 628(8008): 506-507, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600187
3.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 59(4): 389-393, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548597

RESUMO

Gustation is one of the most important human senses. Taste dysfunctions, which may be due to aging, tongue cancer surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, affect life quality. That is why the need for taste bud regeneration has received more attention. At present, research on development and renewal of taste cells provides a basis for taste bud regeneration; molecular mechanisms related to taste bud regeneration are being continuously uncoverd, aiding in the identification of more accurate targets for therapy. New methods such as nerve regeneration, tissue engineering, and cytokine therapy have emerged. The author reviews the mechanism and the latest methods of taste bud regeneration of lingual epithelium, aiming to open new horizions for the prevention and treatment of gustatory diseases, and provide theoretical references for its regeneration.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Humanos , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Língua , Epitélio , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia
4.
BMC Neurosci ; 25(1): 19, 2024 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515045

RESUMO

Since antiquity human taste has been divided into 4-5 taste qualities. We realized in the early 1970s that taste qualities vary between species and that the sense of taste in species closer to humans such as primates should show a higher fidelity to human taste qualities than non-primates (Brouwer et al. in J Physiol 337:240, 1983). Here we present summary results of behavioral and single taste fiber recordings from the distant South American marmoset, through the Old World rhesus monkey to chimpanzee, the phylogenetically closest species to humans. Our data show that in these species taste is transmitted in labelled-lines to the CNS, so that when receptors on taste bud cells are stimulated, the cell sends action potentials through single taste nerve fibers to the CNS where they create taste, whose quality depends on the cortical area stimulated. In human, the taste qualites include, but are perhaps not limited to sweet, sour, salty, bitter and umami. Stimulation of cortical taste areas combined with inputs from internal organs, olfaction, vision, memory etc. leads to a choice to accept or reject intake of a compound. The labelled-line organization of taste is another example of Müller's law of specific nerve energy, joining other somatic senses such as vision (Sperry in J Neurophysiol 8:15-28, 1945), olfaction (Ngai et al. in Cell 72:657-666, 1993), touch, temperature and pain to mention a few.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Paladar , Animais , Humanos , Paladar/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6296, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491261

RESUMO

Protein residues within binding pockets play a critical role in determining the range of ligands that can interact with a protein, influencing its structure and function. Identifying structural similarities in proteins offers valuable insights into their function and activation mechanisms, aiding in predicting protein-ligand interactions, anticipating off-target effects, and facilitating the development of therapeutic agents. Numerous computational methods assessing global or local similarity in protein cavities have emerged, but their utilization is impeded by complexity, impractical automation for amino acid pattern searches, and an inability to evaluate the dynamics of scrutinized protein-ligand systems. Here, we present a general, automatic and unbiased computational pipeline, named VirtuousPocketome, aimed at screening huge databases of proteins for similar binding pockets starting from an interested protein-ligand complex. We demonstrate the pipeline's potential by exploring a recently-solved human bitter taste receptor, i.e. the TAS2R46, complexed with strychnine. We pinpointed 145 proteins sharing similar binding sites compared to the analysed bitter taste receptor and the enrichment analysis highlighted the related biological processes, molecular functions and cellular components. This work represents the foundation for future studies aimed at understanding the effective role of tastants outside the gustatory system: this could pave the way towards the rationalization of the diet as a supplement to standard pharmacological treatments and the design of novel tastants-inspired compounds to target other proteins involved in specific diseases or disorders. The proposed pipeline is publicly accessible, can be applied to any protein-ligand complex, and could be expanded to screen any database of protein structures.


Assuntos
Proteínas , Papilas Gustativas , Humanos , Ligantes , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas/metabolismo , Paladar , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
6.
Zoology (Jena) ; 163: 126157, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428124

RESUMO

The evolution of the tongue in tetrapods is associated with feeding in the terrestrial environment. This study analyzes the tongue morphology of two closely related frog species, Telmatobius oxycephalus and T. rubigo, which exhibit contrasting feeding mechanisms. Telmatobius oxycephalus, a semi-aquatic species, relies on its tongue to capture terrestrial prey whereas T. rubigo, a secondarily aquatic species, uses suction feeding not involving the tongue. Through anatomical, histological and scanning electron microscopy analyses, we revealed remarkable differences in tongue morphology between these species. Telmatobius oxycephalus exhibits a well-developed tongue whose dorsal epithelium has numerous and slender filiform papillae. The epithelial cells of the papillae are protruded and have a complex array of microridges. In contrast, T. rubigo possesses a reduced tongue with flat and less numerous filiform papillae. The epithelial cells are completely flat and lack microridges. These findings highlight the remarkable adaptability of lingual morphology in Telmatobius to respond to the contrasting ecological niches and prey capture mechanisms. This study sheds light on the relationship between tongue shape and the different functional demands, contributing to our understanding of the evolution of prey capture mechanisms in amphibians.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Compostos Férricos , Papilas Gustativas , Animais , Água , Língua , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia , Anuros , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
7.
J Oral Biosci ; 66(1): 241-248, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study determined the early development of taste buds by observing the changes in the three-dimensional structures of taste pores and microvilli in the circumvallate papillae (CVP) of mice, from pre- and postnatal stages to the adult stages. METHODS: Fragments of mouse CVP tissue were collected on embryonic day (E) 18 and postnatal days (P) 0, 3, 6, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56. The surfaces of the tissue fragments located pore apertures via scanning electron microscopy, and the sizes of the CVP and maximum diameters of the pores were estimated from the recorded images. Likewise, changes in the structures of the epithelium around the pore aperture and microvilli protruding from the pores were examined. RESULTS: The size of the CVP exhibited a linear increase with age from E18 to P56. The epithelium around the pore aperture demonstrated changes to form microridges, indicating a characteristic pattern during CVP development. The size of the pore aperture also increased with age from E18 to P56. Furthermore, an increase in the number of pores with protruding microvilli was observed at the base of the epithelial trench. A significant positive correlation was observed between the maximum diameter of the pore and the size of the CVP. CONCLUSIONS: The expansion in the lateral view of the CVP was associated with the developmental stage from E18 to P56, suggesting that the growth of the CVP leads to the opening and enlargement of the taste pores with microvillus projections during these stages.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Camundongos , Animais , Papilas Gustativas/química , Paladar , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Epitélio
8.
Chem Senses ; 492024 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421250

RESUMO

Many common chemotherapeutics produce disruptions in the sense of taste which can lead to loss of appetite, nutritional imbalance, and reduced quality of life, especially if taste loss persists after treatment ends. Cyclophosphamide (CYP), an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, affects taste sensitivity through its cytotoxic effects on mature taste receptor cells (TRCs) and on taste progenitor cell populations, retarding the capacity to replace TRCs. Mechanistic studies have focused primarily on taste cells, however, taste signaling requires communication between TRCs and the gustatory nerve fibers that innervate them. Here, we evaluate cyclophosphamide's effects on the peripheral gustatory nerve fibers that innervate the taste buds. Following histological analysis of tongue tissues, we find that CYP reduces innervation within the fungiform and circumvallates taste buds within 4 days after administration. To better understand the dynamics of the denervation process, we used 2-photon intravital imaging to visualize the peripheral gustatory nerve fibers within individual fungiform taste buds up to 20 days after CYP treatment. We find that gustatory fibers retract from the taste bud properly but are maintained within the central papilla core. These data indicate that in addition to TRCs, gustatory nerve fibers are also affected by CYP treatment. Because the connectivity between TRCs and gustatory neurons must be re-established for proper function, gustatory fibers should continue to be included in future studies to understand the mechanisms leading to chemotherapy-induced persistent taste loss.


Assuntos
Ageusia , Papilas Gustativas , Animais , Camundongos , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Língua , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Paladar
9.
J Oral Biosci ; 66(1): 249-252, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220089

RESUMO

This study aimed to achieve a better understanding of taste receptor cell development relative to endothelin receptor B (ETB) in circumvallate papillae (CVP). ETB localization was assessed by immunohistochemistry during tongue development of the mouse. Co-localization of ETB with taste receptor type III cell marker, Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 kDa (SNAP25), was evident in both the developing and adult CVP. ETB was strongly localized in the stromal core region. As development progressed, ETB became localized in the CVP mesenchyme and partially in the epithelium. ETB and SNAP25 co-localization indicates that ETB may regulate innervation from the CVP mesenchyme to taste buds.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Papilas Gustativas , Animais , Camundongos , Epitélio , Imuno-Histoquímica , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo
10.
J Cell Physiol ; 239(2): e31179, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219077

RESUMO

Type 2 taste receptors (TAS2Rs), traditionally known for their role in bitter taste perception, are present in diverse reproductive tissues of both sexes. This review explores our current understanding of TAS2R functions with a particular focus on reproductive health. In males, TAS2Rs are believed to play potential roles in processes such as sperm chemotaxis and male fertility. Genetic insights from mouse models and human polymorphism studies provide some evidence for their contribution to male infertility. In female reproduction, it is speculated that TAS2Rs influence the ovarian milieu, shaping the functions of granulosa and cumulus cells and their interactions with oocytes. In the uterus, TAS2Rs contribute to uterine relaxation and hold potential as therapeutic targets for preventing preterm birth. In the placenta, they are proposed to function as vigilant sentinels, responding to infection and potentially modulating mechanisms of fetal protection. In the cervix and vagina, their analogous functions to those in other extraoral tissues suggest a potential role in infection defense. In addition, TAS2Rs exhibit altered expression patterns that profoundly affect cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis in reproductive cancers. Notably, TAS2R agonists show promise in inducing apoptosis and overcoming chemoresistance in these malignancies. Despite these advances, challenges remain, including a lack of genetic and functional studies. The application of techniques such as single-cell RNA sequencing and clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonuclease 9 gene editing could provide deeper insights into TAS2Rs in reproduction, paving the way for novel therapeutic strategies for reproductive disorders.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Genitália , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Sêmen , Paladar/genética , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo
11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 249: 116001, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199084

RESUMO

Taste sensor, a useful tool which could detect and identify thousands of different chemical substances in liquid environments, has attracted continuous concern from beverage and foodstuff industry and its consumers. Although many taste sensing methods have been extensively developed, the assessment of tastant content remains challenging due to the limitations of sensor selectivity and sensitivity. Here we present a novel biomimetic electrochemical taste-biosensor based on bioactive sensing elements and immune amplification with nanomaterials carrier to address above concerns, while taking sweet taste perception as a model. The proposed biosensor based on ligand binding domain (T1R2 VFT) of human sweet taste receptor protein showed human mimicking character and initiated the application of immune recognition in gustation biosensor, which can precisely and sensitively distinguish sweet substances against other related gustation substances with detection limit of 5.1 pM, far less than that of taste sensors without immune amplification whose detection limit was 0.48 nM. The performance test demonstrated the biosensor has the capacity of monitoring the response of sweet substances in real food environments, which is crucial in practical. This biomimetic electrochemical taste-biosensor can work as a new screening platform for newly developed tastants and disclose sweet perception mechanism.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Papilas Gustativas , Humanos , Paladar , Percepção Gustatória , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química , Biomimética , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo
12.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 25(2): 421-446, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206483

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nutrient sensing via taste receptors may contribute to weight loss, metabolic improvements, and a reduced preference for sweet and fatty foods following bariatric surgery. This review aimed to investigate the effect of bariatric surgery on the expression of oral and post-oral gastrointestinal taste receptors and associations between taste receptor alterations and clinical outcomes of bariatric surgery. A systematic review was conducted to capture data from both human and animal studies on changes in the expression of taste receptors in oral or post-oral gastrointestinal tissue following any type of bariatric surgery. Databases searched included Medline, Embase, Emcare, APA PsychInfo, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL. Two human and 21 animal studies were included. Bariatric surgery alters the quantity of many sweet, umami, and fatty acid taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. Changes to the expression of sweet and amino acid receptors occur most often in intestinal segments surgically repositioned more proximally, such as the alimentary limb after gastric bypass. Conversely, changes to fatty acid receptors were observed more frequently in the colon than in the small intestine. Significant heterogeneity in the methodology of included studies limited conclusions regarding the direction of change in taste receptor expression induced by bariatric surgeries. Few studies have investigated associations between taste receptor expression and clinical outcomes of bariatric surgery. As such, future studies should look to investigate the relationship between bariatric surgery-induced changes to gut taste receptor expression and function and the impact of surgery on taste preferences, food palatability, and eating behaviour.Registration code in PROSPERO: CRD42022313992.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Derivação Gástrica , Papilas Gustativas , Animais , Humanos , Paladar/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos
13.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 262(2): 201-208, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37879363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diagnosing equine grass sickness (EGS) requires histopathological evidence of chromatolysis and/or neuronal loss in peripheral autonomic ganglia. Previous investigators performed postmortem biopsies of gustatory papillae located on the tongue and found chromatolytic subgemmal neurons in all 13 EGS horses. The present study aimed to design a standardized lingual biopsy sampling method through a transbuccal approach in healthy standing horses and assess the quality of the obtained samples, to allow antemortem diagnosis of EGS in clinical cases. ANIMALS: 6 healthy horses. METHODS: A transbuccal approach was performed bilaterally in 6 healthy standing horses. After having reached a deep level of sedation, horses were placed in stocks and a Günther mouth gag was inserted. Local anesthesia followed by a vertical full thickness incision was performed on both cheeks. Foliate papillae biopsies were carried out using an arthroscopic rongeur inserted through each incision site under oral endoscopic control. Tongue movements were restricted with diazepam. Histological assessment of taste buds and subgemmal plexi neurons was performed using H&E-stained longitudinal sections. RESULTS: The procedure was well tolerated in all horses. Minor complications observed were a transient facial paralysis, some incisional fluid collection, and abscesses. Ten samples (10/12) were suitable for assessment of neuronal perikarya. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This procedure was safe for subgemmal plexus biopsy in healthy standing horses. The obtained samples were adequate as long as they were neatly cut lengthwise for inclusion. The technique was also used for 2 clinical cases and revealed the complete absence of neuronal perikarya, confirming chronic EGS.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Gastroenteropatias , Doenças dos Cavalos , Papilas Gustativas , Cavalos , Animais , Papilas Gustativas/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/veterinária , Biópsia/veterinária , Neurônios/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia
14.
Pflugers Arch ; 476(1): 111-121, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37922096

RESUMO

To evaluate the effect of decreased salivary secretion on taste preference, we investigated taste preference for five basic tastes by a 48 h two-bottle preference test using a mouse model (desalivated mice) that underwent surgical removal of three major salivary glands: the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. In the desalivated mice, the avoidance behaviors for bitter and salty tastes and the attractive behaviors for sweet and umami tastes were significantly decreased. We confirmed that saliva is necessary to maintain normal taste preference. To estimate the cause of the preference changes, we investigated the effects of salivary gland removal on the expression of taste-related molecules in the taste buds. No apparent changes were observed in the expression levels or patterns of taste-related molecules after salivary gland removal. When the protein concentration and composition in the saliva were compared between the control and desalivated mice, the protein concentration decreased and its composition changed after major salivary gland removal. These results suggest that changes in protein concentration and composition in the saliva may be one of the factors responsible for the changes in taste preferences observed in the desalivated mice.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Paladar , Percepção Gustatória , Glândulas Salivares , Papilas Gustativas/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Glândula Submandibular
15.
J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol ; 341(2): 151-162, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38078554

RESUMO

The present work attempted to provide a comprehensive description of the morphoanatomical, histological, and ultrastructural characteristics of the tongue in the desert hedgehog (Paraechinus aethiopicus), and to correlate lingual modifications to the feeding lifestyle. Five adult male hedgehogs were utilized in our investigation. The macroscopic observations revealed elongated, with a moderately pointed apex, tongue and the tongue dorsum lacks both lingual prominence and median sulcus. The main subdivisions of the tongue are radix linguae (root), corpus linguae (body), and apex linguae (apex). The tongue dorsum carries two types of mechanical (conical and filiform) and gustatory (fungiform and circumvallate) papillae. The lingual apex is characterized by the existence of a unique encapsulated muscular structure. Additionally, the lingual glands were interposed between the muscular strands and no lingual glands were detected on the lingual apex. The dorsal surface of the lingual apex exhibited the highest level of keratinization as revealed by histochemical staining while the root showed moderate staining. The topography of the tongue was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results are important to provide basic knowledge that can contribute to better understanding of the nourishment, feeding habits and behavior in this species. Furthermore, the addition of the newly investigated species may help us to determine the evolutionary relationships among species.


Assuntos
Ouriços , Papilas Gustativas , Masculino , Animais , Língua , Papilas Gustativas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Evolução Biológica
16.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 307(2): 414-425, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37818703

RESUMO

Taste sensitivity decreases with age. Therefore, we investigated the histological and immunohistochemical changes in the receptive fields circumvallate papilla (CvP) and fungiform papilla (FfP) to explore the mechanism underlying age-related changes in taste sensitivity in 6- to 72-week-old rats. We analyzed papilla size, the thickness of the keratin layer of the papilla and stratified squamous epithelium, taste bud size, the keratin layer around the taste pores in the CvP and FfP, and the number and distribution of taste buds in the CvP coronal section. We further assessed the expression of marker proteins for Type II and III cells, phospholipase C subtype beta 2 (PLCß2), and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25). The cellular activity of these taste cells was examined through co-localization with the senescence cell marker protein-30 (SMP30). There were no differences in the number of taste bud sections in the CvP among the age groups. However, the size of the CvP increased and the density of the taste bud area in the CvP area decreased with increasing age. In contrast, the number of cells with co-expression of SMP30, PLCß2, and SNAP-25 decreased with age. Furthermore, the morphological structures of the CvP, FfP, and taste buds in these regions changed with age, but not the overall taste bud number in the CvP coronal section. The decrease in cell count with co-expression of SMP30 and PLCß2, or SNAP-25 may indicate reduced cellular functions of taste cells with aging.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Epitélio/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Queratinas/metabolismo , Língua/anatomia & histologia
17.
Microsc Microanal ; 30(1): 160-168, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38123367

RESUMO

Morphological study of the tongue is an interesting way of understanding evolutionary processes associated with feeding habits. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the tongue morphology of the Antillean manatee and to understand possible morphological relationships with its way of capturing food. Macroscopic dissections and light and scanning electron microscopy analyses of seven manatee tongues were performed. The tongue in Antillean manatees is a muscular and robust organ, divided into apex, body, and root. It is firmly adhered to the floor of the oral cavity. Lingual papillae were distributed over the entire tongue surface. They were identified as filiform papillae concentrated in the apex. Fungiform papillae were present on the apex and lateral regions. Foliate papillae were located on the dorsolateral portion of the root. Lentiform papillae were located across the dorsal tongue surface. The mucosa was lined by a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium presenting compound tubuloacinar glands and taste buds in the foliate papillae. The tongue of the Antillean manatee is similar to other Sirenia species, both of which share a completely herbivorous diet.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Trichechus manatus , Animais , Língua/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Boca
18.
Physiol Behav ; 275: 114446, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38128683

RESUMO

Human studies have linked stress exposure to unhealthy eating behavior. However, the mechanisms that drive stress-associated changes in eating behavior remain incompletely understood. The sense of taste plays important roles in food preference and intake. In this study, we use a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model in mice to address whether chronic stress impacts taste sensation and gene expression in taste buds and the gut. Our results showed that CSDS significantly elevated circulating levels of corticosterone and acylated ghrelin while lowering levels of leptin, suggesting a change in metabolic hormones that promotes food consumption. Stressed mice substantially increased their intake of food and water 3-5 days after the stress onset and gradually gained more body weight than that of controls. Moreover, CSDS significantly decreased the expression of multiple taste receptors and signaling molecules in taste buds and reduced mRNA levels of several taste progenitor/stem cell markers and regulators. Stressed mice showed significantly reduced sensitivity and response to umami and sweet taste compounds in behavioral tests. In the small intestine, the mRNA levels of Gnat3 and Tas1r2 were elevated in CSDS mice. The increased Gnat3 was mostly localized in a type of Gnat3+ and CD45+ immune cells, suggesting changes of immune cell distribution in the gut of stressed mice. Together, our study revealed broad effects of CSDS on the peripheral taste system and the gut, which may contribute to stress-associated changes in eating behavior.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Paladar , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Paladar/fisiologia , Derrota Social , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro , Expressão Gênica , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
19.
NEJM Evid ; 2(9)2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38145006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether ongoing taste disturbance in the postacute sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 period is associated with persistent virus in primary taste tissue. METHODS: We performed fungiform papillae biopsies on 16 patients who reported taste disturbance lasting more than 6 weeks after molecularly determined severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Then, on multiple occasions, we rebiopsied 10 of those patients who still had taste complaints for at least 6 months postinfection. Fungiform papillae obtained from other patients before March 2020 served as negative controls. We performed hematoxylin and eosin staining to examine fungiform papillae morphology and immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization to look for evidence of persistent viral infection and immune response. RESULTS: In all patients, we found evidence of SARS-CoV-2, accompanying immune response and misshapen or absent taste buds with loss of intergemmal neurite fibers. Six patients reported normal taste perception by 6 months postinfection and were not further biopsied. In the remaining 10, the virus was eliminated in a seemingly random fashion from their fungiform papillae, but four patients still, by history, reported incomplete return to preinfection taste perception by the time we wrote this report. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show a temporal association in patients between functional taste, taste papillae morphology, and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and its associated immunological changes. (Funded by Intramural Research Program/National Institute on Aging/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT03366168 and NCT04565067.).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Disgeusia , Papilas Gustativas , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Paladar , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia , Papilas Gustativas/patologia , Percepção Gustatória , Língua/anatomia & histologia , Língua/patologia , Estados Unidos , Disgeusia/etiologia , Disgeusia/patologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 21529, 2023 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38097616

RESUMO

The tongue surface houses a range of papillae that are integral to the mechanics and chemistry of taste and textural sensation. Although gustatory function of papillae is well investigated, the uniqueness of papillae within and across individuals remains elusive. Here, we present the first machine learning framework on 3D microscopic scans of human papillae ([Formula: see text]), uncovering the uniqueness of geometric and topological features of papillae. The finer differences in shapes of papillae are investigated computationally based on a number of features derived from discrete differential geometry and computational topology. Interpretable machine learning techniques show that persistent homology features of the papillae shape are the most effective in predicting the biological variables. Models trained on these features with small volumes of data samples predict the type of papillae with an accuracy of 85%. The papillae type classification models can map the spatial arrangement of filiform and fungiform papillae on a surface. Remarkably, the papillae are found to be distinctive across individuals and an individual can be identified with an accuracy of 48% among the 15 participants from a single papillae. Collectively, this is the first evidence demonstrating that tongue papillae can serve as a unique identifier, and inspires a new research direction for food preferences and oral diagnostics.


Assuntos
Papilas Gustativas , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise de Dados , Sensação
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