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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133859, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987001

RESUMO

Astringency removal is important for the quality of Torreya grandis nut and occurs after harvest. Here, we evaluated the effect of NaHCO3 treatment on astringency removal and compared the differential metabolites of the seed coat and kernel using a UHPLC QQQ-MS-based metabolomics approach. The result revealed the nut astringency was primarily enriched in the seed coat with more soluble tannins. The NaHCO3 treatment greatly shortened the de-astringency process, as indicated by a faster conversion of soluble tannins to insoluble tannins and more acetaldehyde production. Besides, a total of 293 metabolites, including 92 phenolic acids and 37 flavonoids, were tentatively characterized in the seed coat. A further comparative analysis of the metabolomics indicated epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, catechin, procyanidin B1, B2, B3 and C1 to be the major metabolites influenced by the NaHCO3 treatment. This study provides new insights regarding the metabolite differences of Torreya grandis nuts processed with different de-astringent treatments.


Assuntos
Adstringentes , Taxaceae , Metabolômica , Nozes/metabolismo , Taninos/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 27(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36080335

RESUMO

Torreya grandis is an important economic forestry product in China, whose seeds are often consumed as edible nuts, or used as raw materials for oil processing. To date, as an important by-product of Torreya grandis, comprehensive studies regarding the Torreya grandis seed coat phenolic composition are lacking, which greatly limits its in-depth use. Therefore, in the present study, the Torreya grandis seed coat was extracted by acid aqueous ethanol (TE), and NMR and UHPLC-MS were used to identify the major phenolics. Together with the already known phenolics including protocatechuic acid, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate, the unreported new compound 2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenylethyl) malonic acid was discovered. The results of the antioxidant properties showed that both TE and 2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenylethyl) malonic acid exhibited strong ABTS, DPPH, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, and significantly improved the O/W emulsion's oxidation stability. These results indicate that the TE and 2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenylethyl) malonic acid could possibly be used in the future to manufacture functional foods or bioactive ingredients. Moreover, further studies are also needed to evaluate the biological activity of TE and 2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenylethyl) malonic acid to increase the added value of Torreya grandis by-products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Taxaceae , Antioxidantes/química , Etanol/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Taxaceae/química
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 849: 157832, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932857

RESUMO

Torreya grandis (Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii) is a unique nut tree species in China. Currently, researches on Torreya grandis focus on nuts quality and yield, while few works are related to the soil quality of Torreya grandis plantation. In this study, the typical Torreya grandis production areas of Zhuji, Shengzhou, Keqiao and Dongyang cities along the Kuaiji Mountain were selected. A total of 121 topsoil samples (0-20 cm) were collected based on a grid of 1 km × 1 km. The results indicated that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Ni and Pb in soils were 0.12, 49.01, 27.95, 14.28, 26.97 and 40.28 mg kg-1, respectively. The concentrations of six heavy metals all exceeded the background values, and there were different degrees of pollution levels. The results of Moran's I indicated that the spatial high-high clusters of soil heavy metals were mainly distributed in Zhuji and the junction of Shengzhou and Keqiao. The partial least squares path analysis of structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) showed that OM and soil nutrients had extremely significant effects on soil heavy metals. Sources identification of principle component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization model (PMF) revealed that agricultural activities, natural factors and mining were the main sources of soil heavy metals. The human health risks caused by soil heavy metals pollution were generally acceptable based on Monte Carlo simulation method. For the heavy-metal polluted area, management measures should be considered in order to protect human health.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Taxaceae , Cádmio/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Phytochemistry ; 201: 113278, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716715

RESUMO

Twelve undescribed abietane-type diterpenoids, along with ten known analogues were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Torreya grandis var. merrillii Hu. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic data analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and ECD spectra. Torgranols A-C possess three different architectures shaped via a common 6,7-seco-procedure and subsequent ring formations. In particular, torgranol A represents the first example of a 6,7-seco-abietane diterpenoid featuring a unique oxygen bridge between C-3 and C-6. The biosynthetic pathways for torgranols A-C were proposed. Some compounds displayed antimicrobial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and/or Staphylococcus aureus.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Diterpenos , Taxaceae , Abietanos/química , Abietanos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/química , Folhas de Planta/química
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 436: 129181, 2022 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643006

RESUMO

Micro/nanoplastic has become an emerging pollutant of global concern. At present, ecotoxic researches on micro/nanoplastics mostly focus on marine aquatic organisms and freshwater algae. Research on the ecological impacts of plastics on higher terrestrial plants, especially on forest plants, is relatively limited. Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii, a species of conifer in the family Taxaceae, is a unique and economically valuable tree species in China. The physiological and biochemical responses of T. grandis seedlings to polystyrene nanoplastics (PSNPs) with a diameter of 100 nm were systematically studied inthe present study. The results showed that nanoplastics enhanced the accumulation of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and the activities of catalase and peroxidase. The concentrations of iron, sulfur, and zinc were reduced after nanoplastic exposure. PSNP treatment had an important effect on a series of chemical and genetic indicators of T. grandis, includingantioxidants, small RNA, gene transcription, protein expressions, and metabolite accumulation. Multi-omic analysis revealed that PSNPs modulate terpenoid- and flavonoid-biosynthesis pathways by regulating small RNA transcription and protein expression. Our study provided novelty insights into the responses of forest plants to nanoplastic treatment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Taxaceae , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , RNA , Taxaceae/química , Taxaceae/genética , Taxaceae/metabolismo
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 837: 155573, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504392

RESUMO

Excessive nutrient inputs imperil the stability of forest ecosystems via modifying the interactions among soil properties, microbes, and plants, particularly in forests composed of cash crops that are under intensive disturbances of agricultural activities, such as Torreya grandis. Understanding the potential drivers of soil microbial community helps scientists develop effective strategies for balancing the protection and productivity of the ancient Torreya forest. Here, we assayed the link between plant and soil parameters and prokaryote communities in bulk soil and T. grandis rhizosphere in 900-year-old stands by detecting plant and soil properties in two independent sites in southeastern China. Our results showed no apparent influence of stand age on the compositions of prokaryote communities in bulk soil and T. grandis rhizosphere. In contrast, soil abiotic factors (i.e., soil pH) overwhelm plant characteristics (i.e., height, plant tissue carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content) and contribute most to the shift in prokaryote communities in bulk soil and T. grandis rhizosphere. Soil pH leads to an increase in microbiota alpha diversity in both compartments. With the help of a random forest, we found a critical transition point of pH (pH = 4.9) for the dominance of acidic and near-neutral bacterial groups. Co-occurrence network analysis further revealed a substantially simplified network in plots with a pH of <4.9 versus samples with a pH of ≥4.9, indicating that soil acidification induces biodiversity loss and disrupts potential interactions among soil microbes. Our findings provide empirical evidence that soil abiotic properties nearly completely offset the roles of host plants in the assembly and potential interactions of rhizosphere microorganisms. Hence, reduction in inorganic fertilization and proper liming protocols should be seriously considered by local farmers to protect ancient Torreya forests.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Taxaceae , Produtos Agrícolas , Rizosfera , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 4472751, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464771

RESUMO

Background: Recent experimental studies have shown that vegetable oil supplementation ameliorates high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in mice via modulating hepatic lipid metabolism and the composition of the gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the Torreya grandis kernel oil (TKO) rich in unpolysaturated fatty acid against hyperlipidemia and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Methods: Normal mice were randomly divided into three groups: ND (normal diet), LO (normal diet supplement with 4% TKO), and HO (normal diet supplement with 8% TKO). Hyperlipidemia mice were randomly divided into two groups: HFN (normal diet) and HFO (normal diet supplement with 8% TKO). Blood biochemistry and histomorphology were observed; liver RNA-seq, metabolomics, and gut 16S rRNA were analyzed. Results: Continuous supplementation of TKO in normal mice significantly ameliorated serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and free fatty acid (FFA) accumulation, decreased blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA), and enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels. According to GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid pathways, and significantly changed metabolites (SCMs) might be involved in the metabolism of lipids. High-dose TKO improved gut alpha diversity and beta diversity showing that the microbial community compositions of the five groups were different. Conclusion: Supplementation of TKO functions in the prevention of hyperlipidemia via regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and enhancing microbiota richness in normal mice. Our study is the first to reveal the mechanism of TKO regulating blood lipid levels by using multiomics and promote further studies on TKO for their biological activity.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperlipidemias , Taxaceae , Animais , HDL-Colesterol , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Taxaceae/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 384: 132454, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228003

RESUMO

The seeds of Torreya grandis are necessary to go through a ripening process, which eventually leads to nutrition conversion and the production of edible nuts. However, the molecular basis of nutrition conversion remains unclear. Here, transcriptome sequencing was performed on seeds treated with different temperature and humidity. A total of 881 unigenes related to nutrition conversion were identified. The correlations between nutrient content and gene expression suggested that sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase component of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and Pyruvate kinase (PK) may play key roles in nutrition conversion. Transient over-expression of TgDLST, TgPK and TgGPAT in tobacco leaves promoted nutritional conversion. Moreover, enzyme activity analysis indicated that diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activities may also accelerate the nutritional conversion. This study uncovers the molecular basis of nutrition conversion in T. grandis seeds, which critical for shortening the time of nutrition conversion.


Assuntos
Nozes , Taxaceae , Umidade , Nozes/química , Folhas de Planta , Sementes/genética , Taxaceae/química
9.
Phytochemistry ; 198: 113161, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35283166

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation on the MeOH extract of the leaves and twigs of the endangered conifer Torreya jackii Chun led to the isolation and characterization of 21 structurally diverse diterpenoids. Among them, six are previously undescribed, including four abietane-type (torreyins A-D, resp.) and two labdane-type diterpenoids (torreyins E and F). Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by a combination of spectroscopic methods, calculated/experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. In particular, torreyins A-C are rare 11,12-seco-abietane type diterpenoids possessing a dilactone moiety, and their biosynthetic pathway starting from a co-occurring abietane derivative (i.e., cyrtophyllone B) was briefly proposed. Among the isolates, 7-oxo-dehydroabietic acid and 15-methoxy-7,13-abietadien-18-oic acid showed considerable inhibitory effects against acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase 1 (ACC1) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 B (PTP1B), with IC50 values of 3.1 and 6.8 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Taxaceae , Traqueófitas , Diterpenos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Folhas de Planta/química
10.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159241

RESUMO

To study the photosynthetic energy mechanism and electron transfer in yellow leaves, transcriptomics combined with physiological approaches was used to explore the mechanism of the yellow leaf mutant Torreya grandis 'Merrillii'. The results showed that chlorophyll content, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), and the parameters related to the OJ phase of fluorescence (φEo, φRo) were all decreased significantly in mutant-type T. grandis leaves. The efficiency needed for an electron to be transferred from the reduced carriers between the two photosystems to the end acceptors of the PSI (δRo) and the quantum yield of the energy dissipation (φDo) were higher in the leaves of mutant-type T. grandis compared to those in wild-type leaves. Analysis of the prompt fluorescence kinetics and modulated 820 nm reflection showed that the electron transfer of PSII was decreased, and PSI activity was increased in yellow T. grandis leaves. Transcriptome data showed that the unigenes involved in chlorophyll synthesis and the photosynthetic electron transport complex were downregulated in the leaves of mutant-type T. grandis compared to wild-type leaves, while there were no observable changes in carotenoid content and biosynthesis. These findings suggest that the downregulation of genes involved in chlorophyll synthesis leads to decreased chlorophyll content, resulting in both PSI activity and carotenoids having higher tolerance when acting as photo-protective mechanisms for coping with chlorophyll deficit and decrease in linear electron transport in PSII.


Assuntos
Taxaceae , Transcriptoma , Carotenoides , Clorofila , Clorofila A , Fluorescência , Folhas de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
11.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(1): 9, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35090314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Torreya are similar in morphology, and their morphological taxonomic characteristics are not stable because of environmentally induced changes. Therefore, morphology is insufficient for understanding their relationships. Chloroplast genome sequencing technology provides a powerful tool for molecular analysis to get more infomation for classification and identification of Torreya genus. METHODS: A total of 4 chloroplast genome of Torreya, including T. Parvifolia, T. nucifera, T. fargesii var. Yunnanensis and T. grandis var. jiulongshanensis, were sequenced and annotated. Campartive genome and phylogenetic tree were provided for variation analysis. RESULTS: The chloroplast genome size of the four samples is about 137 kb, the inverted repeat (IR) regions are identified in the genus Torreya. Genome comparison using mVISTA showed high sequence similarity among different species. Regions with divergence in exon regions include accD, ndhB, ndhF, psbA, psbJ, rpl2, rps3, rps16, rps18, ycf1, and ycf2. The phylogenetic tree based on 73 single-copy genes showed a clearer relationships among different species of Torreya. CONCLUSIONS: All genomes of the four Torreya species consist of two short IR regions, and results of the phylogenetic analysis concluded that T. parvifolia should be considered as T. fargesii var. yunnanensis or treated as a sister species. T. grandis var. jiulongshanensis should be treated as a variety of T. grandis according to molecular evidence, supporting the originally published proposal.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Taxaceae , Sequência de Bases , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Filogenia
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(1): 530-539, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989538

RESUMO

In order to explore the impacts of the land use conversion from a Phyllostachy pubescens (moso bamboo) forest to a Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii plantation, as well as the cultivating years of the T. grandis cv. Merrillii plantation, on the soil microbial community, this research studied the soil microbial structure and diversity of a moso bamboo forest, T. grandis cv. Merrillii plantations (5, 10, and 30 a), and a T. grandis cv. Merrillii-mountain rice interplanting plantation (5 a) using the high-throughput sequencing technique, and the relationship between the microbial community and environmental factors was further explored. The results showed that after the land use change, the Shannon index and Chao1 index of the soil bacterial community increased significantly; the Simpson index increased significantly in the 30 a T. grandis cv. Merrillii plantation, whereas the Shannon index decreased significantly. Both the Simpson index and Chao index of the soil fungal community had no significant difference under different land use types. whereas the Shannon index was significantly decreased in the 30 a T. grandis cv. Merrillii plantation. PCoA analysis of the soil microbial community at the genus level showed that land use type played a vital role in driving the changes in soil bacterial and fungal communities. The compositions of the soil microbial communities between the two 5 a stands were most similar. The dominant phyla of soil bacteria mainly included Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi. The results of cluster analysis showed that the soil bacterial community changed significantly at the genus level after the conversion of land use; the abundance of most dominant bacterial communities decreased with increasing cultivation. The fungal community was mainly composed of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, whose changes in community characteristics were similar to those of bacteria. The results of RDA analysis showed that pH, organic matter, available phosphorus, available potassium, and water-soluble organic carbon and nitrogen were significantly correlated with soil microbial community. Therefore, these soil fertility properties might be the driving factors affecting the structure of bacterial communities. This study provided a theoretical basis for solving the problem of soil quality deterioration in T. grandis cv. Merrillii stand land management.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Taxaceae , Florestas , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Food Chem ; 379: 132078, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063846

RESUMO

Torreya grandis has high economic and nutritional value due to the high nutrients in its kernels. The kernels of different development stages vary enormously in their amino acids content. However, the molecular basis and the regulatory mechanism of amino acid biosynthesis remain unclear. Here, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were performed. Correlation analysis result showed that 4 unigenes were significantly and positively correlated with at least 10 amino acids. The full length CDS of 2 unigenes (TgDAHP2 and TgASA1) were successfully cloned from the 4 unigenes for DAHP, ASA and CITS. Subcelluar localization analysis showed that both TgDAHP2 and TgASA1 were localized to the chloroplast. Overexpression of TgDAHP2 and TgASA1 in Arabidopsis can greatly increase the content of most amino acids. Moreover, 3 transcription factors were found to positively regulate the expression of TgASA1. This research contributes to understand the molecular regulatory mechanisms of amino acid biosynthesis in T. grandis.


Assuntos
Taxaceae , Transcriptoma , Aminoácidos/genética , Cloroplastos , Metaboloma
14.
Food Chem ; 374: 131558, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794838

RESUMO

The kernel of Torreya grandis (T. grandis) is a rare nut with a variety of bioactive compounds. Flavonoids are a very important class of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant activity in T. grandis kernels. However, the flavonoid compositions which mainly contribute to antioxidant capacity and the molecular basis of flavonoid biosynthesis in T. grandis remain unclear. Here, transcriptome sequencing and metabolomics analysis for kernels were performed. In total, 124 flavonoids were identified. Among them, 9 flavonoids were highly correlated with antioxidant activity. Furthermore, unigenes encoding CHS, DFR and ANS showed significant correlation with the 9 flavonoids. Transient overexpression of TgDFR1 in tobacco leaves resulted in increased antioxidant activity. Moreover, several transcription factors from MYB, bHLH and bZIP families were identified by co-expression assay, suggesting that they may regulate flavonoid biosynthesis. Our findings provide a molecular basis and new insights into the flavonoid biosynthesis in T. grandis kernels.


Assuntos
Taxaceae , Transcriptoma , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Humanos , Metabolômica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(6): 2647-2662, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140695

RESUMO

SARS CoV-2 is the causative agent of the pandemic disease COVID-19. There is an urgent need for effective drugs or vaccines which can effectively combat this outbreak. The main protease (Mpro), a key component for the SARS CoV-2 replication, is considered to be one of the important drug targets for developing anti-COVID-19 drugs. This SARS CoV-2 Mpro/cysteine protease has high sequence similarity with the same protease from SARS CoV-1. Previously, it has been shown experimentally that eight diterpenoids and four biflavonoids derived from the leaf of Torreya nucifera show inhibitory effect on the cleavage/catalytic activity of the SARS CoV-1 Mpro. But whether these phytochemicals exhibit any inhibitory effect on SARS CoV-2 Mpro is unclear. To understand this fact, here, we have adopted various in-silico approaches. Diterpenoids and biflavonoids those qualified pharmacological test (hinokiol, amentoflavone, bilobetin and ginkgetin) and two well-known Mpro inhibitors (N3 and lopinavir) were subjected for molecular docking studies. Only three biflavonoids (amentoflavone, bilobetin and ginkgetin) were selected by comparing their binding affinities with N3 and lopinavir. They interacted with two most important catalytic residues of Mpro (His41 and Cys145). Molecular dynamics studies further revealed that these three Mpro-biflavonoid complexes are highly stable and share a similar degree of compactness. Besides, these complexes experience less conformational fluctuations and more expansion than Mpro-N3 and/or Mpro-lopinavir complex. MM-GBSA and H-bond analysis further corroborated these findings. Altogether, our study suggested that these three biflavonoids could possibly inhibit the proteolytic/catalytic activity of SARS CoV-2 Mpro and might be useful for COVID-19 treatment.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides , COVID-19 , Diterpenos , Taxaceae , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Computadores , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Folhas de Planta , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia
16.
Food Chem ; 368: 130836, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411862

RESUMO

The postharvest ripening stage is necessary for Torreya grandis (T. grandis) nuts to complete aromatic synthesis, which requires appropriate temperature and relative humidity (RH). Currently, scarce information is available regarding the changes in aroma profiles in T. grandis nuts and the relationship with their response to different environmental conditions. Therefore, the interaction of temperature (20 °C or 30 °C) and relative humidity (70% RH or 90% RH) was investigated on aromatic substances after harvest. The results showed that 56 aromatic components were detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and mainly divided into five categories, among which terpenes were the most abundant (56.2-86.7%). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that both temperature and humidity can affect the aroma composition, and terpenes were mainly influenced by humidity. Specifically, d-limonene occupied the largest proportion of terpenes (63.0-90.8%) and was significantly upregulated by high humidity.


Assuntos
Nozes , Taxaceae , Umidade , Odorantes , Temperatura
17.
Food Chem ; 368: 130819, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411865

RESUMO

Squalene and ß-sitosterol are health-benefit compounds due to their nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been reported that the content of these bioactive compounds is relatively high in Torreya grandis nuts. However, it is not yet known what changes in squalene and ß-sitosterol accumulation occur during the special post-ripening process of T. grandis nuts and the effect of the well-known ripening hormone ethylene on the regulatory mechanism of their biosynthetic pathways. Thus, we performed transcriptome and metabolite analyses. The results showed that ethylene not only promoted the post-ripening process but also enhanced the accumulation of squalene by inducing gene expression in the mevalonate pathway. At the same time, ethylene treatment also promoted the accumulation of other sterols but inhibited gene expression in the ß-sitosterol biosynthesis pathway. In addition, co-expression and correlation analysis suggested a framework for the transcriptional regulation of squalene and ß-sitosterol biosynthesis genes under ethylene treatment.


Assuntos
Nozes , Taxaceae , Etilenos , Frutas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Sitosteroides , Esqualeno
18.
Food Chem ; 371: 131050, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537615

RESUMO

Vitamin B3, derived primarily from plant sources, is an essential nutrient for humans. Torreya grandis is rich in vitamin B3, however, the mechanism underlying the biosynthesis and regulation of vitamin B3 in T. grandis remains unclear. A systematic transcriptomic investigation was thus conducted to identify the gene expression pattern of vitamin B3 biosynthesis in 10 T. grandis cultivars. The findings suggest that biosynthesis occurs mainly via the aspartate pathway. Expression and correlation analyses indicate that aspartate oxidase (AOX) and quinolinate synthase (QS) may play important roles in vitamin B3 accumulation. Furthermore, co-expression network and ethephon treatments indicate that the ethylene response factor (ERF) may be involved in the regulation of vitamin B3 biosynthesis in T. grandis nuts. Our findings not only help to elucidate the biosynthesis of vitamin B3, but also provide valuable resource material for future genomic research and molecular-assisted breeding to develop genotypes with higher vitamin B3 levels.


Assuntos
Niacinamida , Nozes , Taxaceae , Etilenos , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Humanos , Nozes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitaminas
19.
J Food Biochem ; 46(2): e14044, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964134

RESUMO

For the first time, the volatiles of three varieties of fresh and roasted Torreya yunnanensis nuts were investigated by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that roasting had the greatest effect on the volatiles of millet capsules. Fresh nuts had many terpenes, esters, and aldehydes, while roasting led to the formation of pyrazines and furans. In subsequent work, short-term low temperature and small sample area exposed to high temperature had a large effect on the increase in some volatiles and was characterized by a green flavor, such as α-pinene, while ultrahigh-temperature (200 and 230°C) resulted in a decrease in the total volatiles with the generation of unpleasant flavors. Finally, the combination of 170°C for 40 min and slight crushing was found to be the best roasting conditions for samples by means of GC-MS and two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Torreya yunnanensis and its nuts have broad development prospects because of their wide use and rich nutrition. However, inappropriate processing and lack of attention to natural materials such as nuts and wood leads to their poor usage. In addition, volatile compounds make a major contribution to the nut aroma, which is an important indicator of their sensory quality. However, no one has applied roasting technology to Torreya yunnanensis nuts or studied the volatile compounds of the roasted nuts. This study revealed the changes in the composition and content of volatile compounds in Torreya yunnanensis nuts before and after roasting, and the influence of different process points, suggesting that they are key contributors to the development of the related products.


Assuntos
Taxaceae , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Nozes/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
20.
Ann Bot ; 129(7): 753-760, 2022 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Florin model is the commonly accepted theory of coniferous seed scale evolution. It describes the derivation of extant seed scale morphology from the morphology of fossil conifers via the reduction of complex to simple axillary structures. In this framework the seed scale is composed of a reduced lateral shoot with fertile and sterile appendages which are interpreted as leaf homologues. SCOPE: The Florin model has three crucial problems that we address here: (1) the original derivation series does not take the ontogeny of extant conifers into account, (2) it cannot explain the morphology of all extant conifers and (3) Taxaceae were originally excluded. Examination of seed cones of extant conifers shows that ovules occur in three different positions in the cone: in an axillary position, replacing a leaf or terminating the cone axis. By interpreting the fertile appendage or seed-bearing structure as a leaf, not all positions are possible. The exclusion of Taxaceae from conifers is in stark contrast to recent molecular phylogenetic studies, which include Taxaceae in conifers as sister to Cupressaceae. Therefore, the Florin model does not offer an adequate explanation for taxaceous morphology. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the seed-bearing structure of conifers cannot be interpreted as homologous to a leaf. In the interpretation we present here, the seed-bearing structure is the modified funiculus of the ovule, multiples of which laterally fuse to form the seed scale. The seed scales of all extant conifers can be derived from a Cunninghamia-like morphology via fusion and reduction of individual funiculi.


Assuntos
Cupressaceae , Taxaceae , Traqueófitas , Cycadopsida , Fósseis , Filogenia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Traqueófitas/anatomia & histologia
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