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1.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 117(1): 92, 2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949726

RESUMO

Biological control is a promising approach to enhance pathogen and pest control to ensure high productivity in cash crop production. Therefore, PGPR biofertilizers are very suitable for application in the cultivation of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) and tobacco, but it is rarely reported so far. In this study, production of a consortium of three strains of PGPR were applied to tobacco and tea plants. The results demonstrated that plants treated with PGPR exhibited enhanced resistance against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (PstDC3000). The significant effect in improving the plant's ability to resist pathogen invasion was verified through measurements of oxygen activity, bacterial colony counts, and expression levels of resistance-related genes (NPR1, PR1, JAZ1, POD etc.). Moreover, the application of PGPR in the tea plantation showed significantly reduced population occurrences of tea green leafhoppers (Empoasca onukii Matsuda), tea thrips (Thysanoptera:Thripidae), Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintanca) and alleviated anthracnose disease in tea seedlings. Therefore, PGPR biofertilizers may serve as a viable biological control method to improve tobacco and tea plant yield and quality. Our findings revealed part of the mechanism by which PGPR helped improve plant biostresses resistance, enabling better application in agricultural production.


Assuntos
Nicotiana , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Doenças das Plantas , Pseudomonas syringae , Animais , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Nicotiana/microbiologia , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos/microbiologia , Tisanópteros/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Hemípteros/microbiologia
2.
PeerJ ; 12: e17679, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39011376

RESUMO

Background: Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) is a complex of cryptic species with subtle morphological differences and distinct genetic backgrounds; thus, species identification using traditional methods remains challenging. The existence of different haplotypes and genotypes within a species can significantly influence various aspects of its biology, including host preference, reproductive capacity, resistance to pesticides, and vector competence for plant viruses. Understanding the genetic diversity and population structure of cryptic species within T. tabaci will not only aid in the development of more effective control strategies tailored to specific genetic variants but also in monitoring population dynamics, tracking invasive species, and implementing quarantine measures to prevent the spread of economically damaging thrips biotypes. Methods: This study aims to explore intraspecies genetic diversity and molecular evolutionary relationships of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (mtCOI) in T. tabaci populations from India. To capture diversity within the Indian T. tabaci populations, amplicon sequencing was performed for the thrips mtCOI gene from eight diverse localities in India. A total of 48 sequences retrieved for the mtCOI gene from the NCBI Nucleotide database were analysed. Results: Multiple insertions and deletions were detected at various genomic positions across the populations from different localities, with the highest variation observed in the 300-400 genome position range. Molecular diversity analyses identified 30 haplotypes within the population, with certain subpopulations exhibiting higher gene flow. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism patterns within the mtCOI gene across diverse Indian locales revealed significant intrapopulation genetic heterogeneity and its potential repercussions on gene functionality. Elevated F statistics (Fst) values in the northern-western subpopulations suggested high genetic variability, particularly evident in haplotype networks originating mainly from the northern region, notably Delhi. While most populations displayed stable and ancient evolutionary histories, thrips populations from northern, western, and north-eastern regions indicated rapid growth.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Filogenia , Tisanópteros , Tisanópteros/genética , Animais , Índia/epidemiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Cebolas/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genética Populacional
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14947, 2024 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38942758

RESUMO

Although food is produced in aquaponics systems worldwide, no information is available on the occurrence of insect pests and natural enemies in aquaponic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. In this study, a survey was carried out in an aquaponic system combining lettuce with lambari, Astyanax altiparanae (Garutti & Briski), aiming to determine the insect pests and natural enemies associated with this system. We also determined the predominant insect species and the effect of meteorological factors on their populations. Insect abundance was estimated by visual sampling during 13 cultivation cycles, totaling 27 sampling dates. The meteorological factors considered were air temperature and relative humidity, and their effects were determined using the Pearson correlation. The thrips Frankliniella schultzei (Trybom) and Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood) and the aphid Aphis spiraecola (Patch) predominated. Ambient temperature and relative humidity were essential factors affecting C. phaseoli and F. schultzei. The natural enemies found on the lettuce plants were the thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Crawford) and Stomatothrips angustipennis (Hood) and the ladybugs Cycloneda sanguinea L., Eriopis connexa (Germar), and Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Méneville). These results constitute the first step for a lettuce-integrated pest-management program in aquaponics systems.


Assuntos
Lactuca , Animais , Lactuca/parasitologia , Lactuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Afídeos/fisiologia , Insetos/fisiologia , Umidade , Temperatura , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
4.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 582, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834623

RESUMO

The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a global invasive species that causes increasing damage by direct feeding on crops and transmission of plant viruses. Here, we assemble a previously published scaffold-level genome into a chromosomal level using Hi-C sequencing technology. The assembled genome has a size of 302.58 Mb, with a contig N50 of 1533 bp, scaffold N50 of 19.071 Mb, and BUSCO completeness of 97.8%. All contigs are anchored on 15 chromosomes. A total of 16,312 protein-coding genes are annotated in the genome with a BUSCO completeness of 95.2%. The genome contains 492 non-coding RNA, and 0.41% of interspersed repeats. In conclusion, this high-quality genome provides a convenient and high-quality resource for understanding the ecology, genetics, and evolution of thrips.


Assuntos
Genoma de Inseto , Tisanópteros , Tisanópteros/genética , Animais
5.
Environ Entomol ; 53(3): 326-337, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717091

RESUMO

It is essential to correctly identify and keep track of the abundance of thrips species on infested host crops to understand their population dynamics and implement control measures promptly. The current study was conducted to evaluate the performance of sticky traps in monitoring thrips species in exporters' eggplant and chili farms and to assess the impact of weather factors on thrips population dynamics. Thrips species were monitored using blue, yellow, and white sticky traps on chili and eggplant farms in Tuba, respectively, in 2020 and 2021. Each field was divided into 8 blocks, and in each replicate, all colors representing 3 treatments were randomly tied to stakes at the center of the respective crop. Data loggers were installed to record hourly weather variables. Three thrips species [Thrips parvispinus Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Franklinella schultzei Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), and Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)] were identified from both farms and the different species showed varied attractiveness to trap color for both seasons, with white proving more attractive to T. parvispinus. The population dynamics of the species varied significantly with the season and weather but not with the crop. Optimum temperatures (28-31 °C) and relative humidity (60%-78%) showed a positive linear relationship between the trapped insects with temperature and RH, while extreme temperatures (35 °C) negatively affected their abundance. All sticky trap colors attracted several nontarget organisms; however, yellow colors had higher populations, including the predator, Orius insidiosus. White sticky traps are recommended for inclusion in the country-wide monitoring for thrips, especially T. parvispinus.


Assuntos
Cor , Controle de Insetos , Dinâmica Populacional , Solanum melongena , Tisanópteros , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Animais , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Gana , Capsicum , Estações do Ano , Produtos Agrícolas
6.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 93(1): 99-114, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722436

RESUMO

The immature development and reproduction of the predatory mites Amblyseius largoensis (Muma), Proprioseiopsis lenis (Corpuz and Rimando), and Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were investigated using both thrips eggs and first instars of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, as prey in a controlled laboratory environment at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. When provided with thrips eggs as food, A. largoensis exhibited a notably shorter immature development period for both males (7.05 days) and females (6.51 days) as compared with A. swirskii (8.05 and 7.19 days, respectively) and P. lenis (8.10 days and 7.05 days, respectively). Amblyseius largoensis also displayed a higher oviposition rate (2.19 eggs/female/day) than A. swirskii and P. lenis (1.79 and 1.78 eggs/female/day, respectively). Moreover, it exhibited the highest fecundity (25.34 eggs/female), followed by P. lenis (24.23 eggs/female) and A. swirskii (22.86 eggs/female). These variations led to A. largoensis having the highest intrinsic rate of increase (rm) at 0.209, followed by A. swirskii at 0.188, and P. lenis at 0.165. However, when the predatory mites were provided with first instars of F. occidentalis, A. swirskii demonstrated a faster immature development period for both males (7.67 days) and females (7.59 days) as compared with P. lenis (9.00 days and 7.86 days, respectively) and A. largoensis (8.47 days and 8.61 days, respectively). While the oviposition rates of P. lenis (1.92 eggs/female/day) and A. swirskii (1.90 eggs/female/day) were similar when feeding on this prey, A. largoensis produced fewer eggs (1.83 eggs/female/day). Further, A. swirskii exhibited the highest fecundity (31.93 eggs/female), followed by A. largoensis (25.71 eggs/female) and P. lenis (23 eggs/female). Consequently, the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) on thrips first instars was highest in A. swirskii (0.190), followed by A. largoensis (0.186), and P. lenis (0.176). In summary, our findings indicate that in terms of life history parameters A. largoensis performs optimally when feeding on thrips eggs, whereas A. swirskii performs best when preying on the mobile first instars of the thrips. These insights into the dietary preferences and reproductive capabilities of the studied predatory mite species have important implications for their potential use as biological control agents against F. occidentalis in agricultural settings.


Assuntos
Larva , Ácaros , Oviposição , Comportamento Predatório , Tisanópteros , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ácaros/fisiologia , Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo Vegetal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo Vegetal/fisiologia , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Fertilidade
7.
J Gen Virol ; 105(5)2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717918

RESUMO

The tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a member of the Tospoviridae family and has an negative/ambisense single-stranded RNA genome. Frankliniella occidentalis and F. intonsa are known to be dominant pests in Capsicum annuum (hot pepper) and can cause damage to the plant either directly by feeding, or indirectly by transmitting TSWV in a persistent and propagative manner, resulting in serious economic damage. This study compared the immune responses of two different thrips species against TSWV infection by transcriptome analysis, which then allowed the assessment of antiviral responses using RNA interference (RNAi). Both adult thrips shared about 90 % of the transcripts in non-viruliferous conditions. Most signal components of the immune pathways were shared by these two thrips species, and their expression levels fluctuated differentially in response to TSWV infection at early immature stages. The functional assays using RNAi treatments indicated that the Toll and JAK/STAT pathways were associated with the antiviral responses, but the IMD pathway was not. The upregulation of dorsal switch protein one supported its physiological role in recognizing TSWV infection and triggering the eicosanoid biosynthetic pathway, which mediates melanization and apoptosis in thrips. In addition, the signal components of the RNAi pathways fluctuated highly after TSWV infection. Individual RNAi treatments specific to the antiviral signalling and response components led to significant increases in the TSWV amount in the thrips, causing virus-induced mortality. These findings suggest that immune signalling pathways leading to antiviral responses are operating in the thrips to regulate TSWV litres to prevent a fatal viral overload. This study also indicates the differential antiviral responses between the TSWV-transmitting F. occidentalis and F. intonsa.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Tisanópteros , Tospovirus , Tospovirus/imunologia , Tospovirus/fisiologia , Tospovirus/genética , Animais , Tisanópteros/virologia , Tisanópteros/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Capsicum/virologia , Capsicum/imunologia , Replicação Viral , Interferência de RNA , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Insetos Vetores/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 451, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704405

RESUMO

As the predominant pest of alfalfa, Odontothrips loti Haliday causes great damages over the major alfalfa-growing regions of China. The characteristics of strong mobility and fecundity make them develop rapidly in the field and hard to be controlled. There is a shortage of bioinformation and limited genomic resources available of O. loti for us to develop novel pest management strategies. In this study, we constructed a chromosome-level reference genome assembly of O. loti with a genome size of 346.59 Mb and scaffold N50 length of 18.52 Mb, anchored onto 16 chromosomes and contained 20128 genes, of which 93.59% were functionally annotated. The results of 99.20% complete insecta_odb10 genes in BUSCO analysis, 91.11% short reads mapped to the ref-genome, and the consistent tendency among the thrips in the distribution of gene length reflects the quality of genome. Our study provided the first report of genome for the genus Odontothrips, which offers a genomic resource for further investigations on evolution and molecular biology of O. loti, contributing to pest management.


Assuntos
Genoma de Inseto , Tisanópteros , Animais , Tisanópteros/genética , Cromossomos de Insetos/genética
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(21): e2321565121, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739796

RESUMO

With a continuous increase in world population and food production, chemical pesticide use is growing accordingly, yet unsustainably. As chemical pesticides are harmful to the environment and developmental resistance in pests is increasing, a sustainable and effective pesticide alternative is needed. Inspired by nature, we mimic one defense strategy of plants, glandular trichomes, to shift away from using chemical pesticides by moving toward a physical immobilization strategy via adhesive particles. Through controlled oxidation of a biobased starting material, triglyceride oils, an adhesive material is created while monitoring the reactive intermediates. After being milled into particles, nanoindentation shows these particles to be adhesive even at low contact forces. A suspension of particles is then sprayed and found to be effective at immobilizing a target pest, thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. Small arthropod pests, like thrips, can cause crop damage through virus transfer, which is prevented by their immobilization. We show that through a scalable fabrication process, biosourced materials can be used to create an effective, sustainable physical pesticide.


Assuntos
Adesivos , Adesivos/química , Animais , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Tricomas/metabolismo
10.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(3): 722-732, 2024 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597635

RESUMO

Weed management is challenging for vegetable crops that are highly sensitive to weed competition, such as onions. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are major insect pests of onions, causing damage through feeding, and vectoring bacterial pathogens causing bulb rot. Both thrips and their associated pathogens are known to survive on many weed species in onion growing regions. Combining weeding with biopesticides may synergistically manage thrips and reduce disease prevalence. However, disturbances from weeding may negatively impact natural enemies. We estimated the effects of organic weed management and biopesticides on weed density, thrips and natural enemy activity, disease severity, and yield. The experiment was a randomized complete block design, with 4 replications of each weeding (control, tine-weeded twice, tine-weeded 4 times, and hand-weeded) and biopesticide (control, OxiDate 2.0, Serenade) combination. Arthropods were monitored using yellow sticky cards, and weed counts, marketable yield, and bulb rot prevalence were estimated. Hand-weeding resulted in the lowest weed density and thrips abundance. Additionally, hand-weeding produced a 9× higher yield compared to all other treatments. Significant interactions were observed between tine-weeding and biopesticide treatments on the prevalence of bulb rot. Natural enemy abundance was slightly negatively impacted by weeding, dependent on the year. DNA metabarcoding results showed high parasitoid diversity in this onion system and high numbers of reads for multiple genera containing important known biological control agents. Our study suggests hand-weeding is necessary in the southeast for maximum onion yield. Future research should focus on exploring the impact of management on natural enemy communities in onion systems on a large scale.


Assuntos
Cebolas , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Daninhas , Tisanópteros , Controle de Plantas Daninhas , Animais , Agricultura Orgânica , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Cadeia Alimentar
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105837, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582599

RESUMO

Susceptibility to insecticides is one of the limiting factors preventing wider adoption of natural enemies to control insect pest populations. Identification and selective breeding of insecticide tolerant strains of commercially used biological control agents (BCAs) is one of the approaches to overcome this constraint. Although a number of beneficial insects have been selected for increased tolerance to insecticides the molecular mechanisms underpinning these shifts in tolerance are not well characterised. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms of enhanced tolerance of a lab selected strain of Orius laevigatus (Fieber) to the commonly used biopesticide spinosad. Transcriptomic analysis showed that spinosad tolerance is not a result of overexpressed detoxification genes. Molecular analysis of the target site for spinosyns, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), revealed increased expression of truncated transcripts of the nAChR α6 subunit in the spinosad selected strain, a mechanism of resistance which was described previously in insect pest species. Collectively, our results demonstrate the mechanisms by which some beneficial biological control agents can evolve insecticide tolerance and will inform the development and deployment of insecticide-tolerant natural enemies in integrated pest management strategies.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Receptores Nicotínicos , Tisanópteros , Animais , Tisanópteros/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Insetos/genética , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos
12.
Insect Mol Biol ; 33(4): 372-386, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450915

RESUMO

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a typical omnivorous insect that feeds on host plants, pollens and mite eggs, and poses a threat to crops worldwide. The insulin signalling pathway (ISP) is a typical nutrient-sensitive pathway that participates in the regulation of various functions in insects. Serine/threonine kinases (AKTs) and phosphoinositide-dependent kinases (PDKs) are key components of the ISP. In this study, the FoAKT and FoPDK genes in F. occidentalis were cloned, and the effects of three foods on their expression were determined. The expression of FoAKT and FoPDK in the thrips fed on kidney bean leaves supplemented with pine pollen or mite eggs was higher than in those primarily fed on leaves alone. Meanwhile, the fecundity of thrips fed on leaves supplemented with pine pollen was highest. In addition, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of FoAKT and FoPDK decreased vitellogenin (Vg) content and Vg expression in females, shortened ovariole length, delayed egg development and reduced fecundity and offspring hatching rates. Furthermore, the synthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) was reduced, and the contents of glucose, trehalose, glycogen and trehalase were affected. These results suggest that FoAKT and FoPDK regulate the reproduction of F. occidentalis by regulating Vg and JH production as well as carbohydrate metabolism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos , Reprodução , Tisanópteros , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Feminino , Tisanópteros/genética , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Pólen , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Ácaros/fisiologia , Fertilidade
13.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(3): 1113-1129, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483159

RESUMO

Thrips are devastating pests for various crops, and they can rasp tender leaves, terminal buds, and flowers, which specifically causing huge economic losses to cotton production. However, there is very little knowledge about the species composition of thrips in mainland China, as well as the genetic structure of the thrips populations, particularly in the cotton-producing regions. In this study, thrips were collected from 40 geographical locations at 8 different provinces which representing majority cotton-producing belts in China, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequence was used to identify species composition and evaluate the genetic diversity of collected thrips individuals. Based on experimental results proven that overall, 10 and 8 species of thrips were identified in seedling and flowering stage respectively, which is corresponding dominant species are Thrip tabaci (Lindeman) and Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom). Genetically, 24 haplotypes were identified in 310 T. tabaci individuals from 10 locations, and 263 haplotypes were detected in 1,861 F. intonsa individuals from 40 locations. Hap1 (T. tabaci) is the most widely distributed haplotype among all the T. tabaci samples. Likewise, Hap 2 is the most widely distributed and abundant haplotype among all samples of F. intonsa. The genetic differentiation degrees of T. tabaci between SXYC population and other 9 populations were high, but its gene flow in these 10 regions was relatively low, which might be due to geographical barriers. The Mantel tests showed no correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance of the 2 thrip species. Demographic analysis results showed that both T. tabaci and F. intonsa experienced population expansion in China. Taken together, this study identifies the species composition of thrips in major cotton-producing regions at different growth periods and evaluates effects of geomorphology on the geographical distribution of haplotypes of dominant thrips T. tabaci and F. intonsa.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Variação Genética , Gossypium , Tisanópteros , Animais , Tisanópteros/genética , China , Gossypium/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Haplótipos
14.
J Insect Sci ; 24(2)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442350

RESUMO

The Middle East Asia Minor 1 biotype of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a greenhouse and field crop pest of global significance. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of the generalist predatory thrips, Franklinothrips vespiformis Crawford (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae), as a biological control agent for B. tabaci. This was achieved by determining the functional responses of F. vespiformis larvae and adults to the egg and nymphal stages of B. tabaci under laboratory conditions. Analyses consisted of 10 replicates of each predator and prey stage combination on bean leaf discs for a 24-h period. Following logistic regression analyses to determine the functional response type exhibited, response parameters were estimated with nonlinear least squares regression using Roger's equation. Results showed that F. vespiformis larvae and adults exhibited a Type II functional response when feeding on immature B. tabaci. The handling times (Th) of F. vespiformis larvae and adults were magnitudes higher for B. tabaci nymphs than they were for eggs, which were in part driven by the higher attack rates (a) observed on eggs. The maximum attack rate (T/Th) for B. tabaci eggs and nymphs exhibited by first-stage larvae, second-stage larvae, and adult F. vespiformis increased with increasing predator age. Results from this study suggest that F. vespiformis larvae and particularly adults are promising biological control agents for B. tabaci and are efficient predators at both low and high prey densities.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Tisanópteros , Animais , Óvulo , Ásia Oriental , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Larva , Ninfa
15.
Zootaxa ; 5419(1): 53-84, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480337

RESUMO

The 250 species of the second largest genus of Thysanoptera, Liothrips, are known as feeding mainly on green leaves, with many inducing galls or associated with galls. In China, 33 species are recognized including L. brevis sp. n., L. elongatus sp. n., L. longistylus sp. n., L. motuoensis sp. n., L. piceae sp. n., L. populi sp. n. and L. tibetanus sp. n., also seven species are recorded from this country for the first time. Four Hans Liothrips species are considered as new synonymies of L. vaneeckei that might be widespread in the Holarctic region. Three species are newly combined as Liothrips aporosae comb.n., Teuchothrips fuscus comb.n. and T. turkestanicus comb.n. The illustrated identification key to Chinese Liothrips species excludes L. hsuae but includes L. mirabilis due to its potential as a pest of Piper plants are growing throughout Southern China. Biology, structural variation, and generic relationships are also discussed.


Assuntos
Piper , Tisanópteros , Animais , China , Folhas de Planta
16.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 280, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459039

RESUMO

The flower thrips Frankliniella intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a common insect found in flowers of many plants. Sometimes, F. intonsa causes damage to crops through direct feeding and transmission of plant viruses. Here, we assembled a chromosomal level genome of F. intonsa using the Illumina, Oxford Nanopore (ONT), and Hi-C technologies. The assembled genome had a size of 209.09 Mb, with a contig N50 of 997 bp, scaffold N50 of 13.415 Mb, and BUSCO completeness of 92.5%. The assembled contigs were anchored on 15 chromosomes. A set of 14,109 protein-coding genes were annotated in the genome with a BUSCO completeness of 95.0%. The genome contained 491 non-coding RNA and 0.57% of interspersed repeats. This high-quality genome provides a valuable resource for understanding the ecology, genetics, and evolution of F. intonsa, as well as for controlling thrips pests.


Assuntos
Genoma de Inseto , Tisanópteros , Animais , Cromossomos , Flores , Tisanópteros/genética
17.
J Insect Sci ; 24(2)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484108

RESUMO

Inbreeding can have detrimental effects on reproductive fitness, but the extent of lineage-specific variation in these effects remains poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of brother and sister inbreeding on reproductive fitness in 2 lineages (L1 and T) of T. tabaci. Inbred females from both lineages exhibited a significant reduction in longevity compared with the control group. The L1 lineage experienced a 27% and 43% decrease in longevity in the F2 and F3 generations, respectively, while the T lineage showed a similar trend with a 30% and 44% decrease. The T lineage consistently displayed slightly longer lifespans than the L1 lineage across all generations. Brother and sister inbreeding also led to a decrease in fecundity rates in both lineages. In the F3 generation, the number of eggs laid decreased by 59% compared with the F2 generation. The T lineage consistently exhibited slightly lower fecundity rates compared with the L1 lineage. Egg hatchability rates declined with subsequent inbreeding, with the F3 generation showing lower rates compared with the F2 generation. However, the T lineage did not exhibit a significant difference in inbreeding depression for egg hatchability rates, while the L1 lineage demonstrated a noticeable decrease. Deformities observed in male L1 lineage resulting from inbreeding were consistent with disruptions in normal developmental processes, affecting various body parts such as legs, antennae, and wings. Continued inbreeding increased susceptibility to inbreeding depression in terms of longevity, fecundity, and egg hatchability.


Assuntos
Tisanópteros , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Tisanópteros/genética , Endogamia , Óvulo , Fertilidade , Aptidão Genética
18.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 115(3): e22102, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500452

RESUMO

The structural cuticle proteins (CPs) play important roles in the development and fitness of insects. However, knowledge about CP gene superfamily is limited in virus-transmitting insect vectors, although its importance on transmission of plant virus has been gradually emphasized. In this study, the genome-wide identification of CP superfamily was conducted in western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis that is the globally invasive pest and plant virus vector pest. The pest transmits notorious tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) around the world, causing large damage to a wide array of plants. One hundred and twenty-eight F. occidentalis CP genes (FoCPs) were annotated in this study and they were classified into 10 distinct families, including 68 CPRs, 16 CPAP1s, 6 CPAP3s, 2 CPCFCs, 10 Tweedles, 4 CPFs, 16 CPLCPs, and 6 CPGs. The comprehensive analysis was performed including phylogenetic relationship, gene location and gene expression profiles during different development stages of F. occidentalis. Transcriptome analysis revealed more than 30% FoCPs were upregulated at least 1.5-fold when F. occidentalis was infected by TSWV, indicating their potential involvement in TSWV interactions. Our study provided an overview of F. occidentalis CP superfamily. The study gave a better understand of CP's role in development and virus transmission, which provided clues for reducing viral damages through silencing CP genes in insect vectors.


Assuntos
Tisanópteros , Tospovirus , Animais , Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos , Filogenia , Tisanópteros/genética , Tospovirus/genética
19.
Virus Res ; 344: 199362, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508402

RESUMO

We report the characterization of a novel tri-segmented RNA virus infecting Mercurialis annua, a common crop weed and model species in plant science. The virus, named "Mercurialis latent virus" (MeLaV) was first identified in a mixed infection with the recently described Mercurialis orthotospovirus 1 (MerV1) on symptomatic plants grown in glasshouses in Lausanne (Switzerland). Both viruses were found to be transmitted by Thrips tabaci, which presumably help the inoculation of infected pollen in the case of MeLaV. Complete genome sequencing of the latter revealed a typical ilarviral architecture and close phylogenetic relationship with members of the Ilarvirus subgroup 1. Surprisingly, a short portion of MeLaV replicase was found to be identical to the partial sequence of grapevine angular mosaic virus (GAMV) reported in Greece in the early 1990s. However, we have compiled data that challenge the involvement of GAMV in angular mosaic of grapevine, and we propose alternative causal agents for this disorder. In parallel, three highly-conserved MeLaV isolates were identified in symptomatic leaf samples in The Netherlands, including a herbarium sample collected in 1991. The virus was also traced in diverse RNA sequencing datasets from 2013 to 2020, corresponding to transcriptomic analyses of M. annua and other plant species from five European countries, as well as metaviromics analyses of bees in Belgium. Additional hosts are thus expected for MeLaV, yet we argue that infected pollen grains have likely contaminated several sequencing datasets and may have caused the initial characterization of MeLaV as GAMV.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Ilarvirus , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Pólen , Vitis , Vitis/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Pólen/virologia , Ilarvirus/genética , Ilarvirus/isolamento & purificação , Ilarvirus/classificação , Animais , RNA Viral/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Tisanópteros/virologia
20.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(2): 448-456, 2024 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408026

RESUMO

Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagrall) is one of the most important pests of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (Linn.) Walp in South China. Four Orius species, including Orius minutus (L.), Orius nagaii (Yasunaga), Orius sauteri (Poppius), and Orius strigicollis (Poppius), have been commercially produced and widely used as natural enemies of pests in China. In this study, we evaluated the control efficiency of these Orius species on M. usitatus in tropical Hainan Province, China, by recording the survival rates, developmental times, and predation effects in laboratory and semi-field conditions. Laboratory experiments showed that all these 4 Orius species preyed on M. usitatus under the experimental temperatures (25, 30, and 35 °C), and O. strigicollis exhibited the highest survival rate and predation effect. Semi-field cage experiments showed that the control effect of 4 Orius species on M. usitatus was significantly higher than that under normal chemical control, with O. strigicollis having the highest effect. Greenhouse experiments in Hainan Province, China, confirmed that O. strigicollis had a significant control effect on M. usitatus. Our study indicated that O. strigicollis has a significant potential for the control of M. usitatus in cowpea fields in southern China.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Tisanópteros , Vigna , Animais , Comportamento Predatório , China
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