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1.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 148: 109503, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479567

RESUMO

Prohibitins (PHBs) are ubiquitously expressed conserved proteins in eukaryotes that are associated with apoptosis, cancer formation, aging, stress responses and cell proliferation. However, the function of the PHBs in immune regulation has largely not been determined. In the present study, we identified PHB2 in the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. PHB2 was found to be widely distributed in several tissues, and its expression was significantly upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. PHB2 significantly reduced the amount of WSSV in crayfish and the mortality of WSSV-infected crayfish. Here, we observed that PHB2 promotes the nuclear translocation of STAT by binding to STAT. After blocking PHB2 or STAT with antibodies or interfering with PHB2 or STAT, the expression levels of the antiviral genes ß-thymosin (PcThy-4) and crustin2 (Cru2) decreased. The gene sequence of PHB2 was analyzed and found to contain a nuclear introgression sequence (NIS). After in vivo injection of PHB2 with deletion of NIS (rΔNIS-PHB2), the nuclear translocation of STAT did not change significantly compared to that in the control group. These results suggest that PHB2 promoted the nuclear translocation of STAT through NIS and mediated the expression of antiviral proteins to inhibit WSSV infection.


Assuntos
Timosina , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1 , Animais , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia , Astacoidea , Alimentos Marinhos , Antivirais
2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 1): 130502, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428779

RESUMO

Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is a crucial step in the development of liver fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that antler stem cells (AnSCs) inhibited HSC activation, suggesting that this may be achieved through secreting or releasing peptides. This study aimed to investigate whether AnSC-derived peptides (AnSC-P) could reduce liver fibrosis. The results showed that AnSC-P effectively reduced liver fibrosis in rats. Furthermore, we found that thymosin ß10 (Tß-10) was rich in AnSC-P, which may be the main component of AnSC-P contributing to the reduction in liver fibrosis. A further study showed that Tß-10 reduced liver fibrosis in rats, with a reduction in HYP and MDA levels in the liver tissues, a decrease in the serum levels of ALP, ALT, AST, and TBIL and an increase in TP and ALB. Moreover, Tß-10 decreased the expression levels of the genes related to the TGF-ß/SMAD signaling pathway in vivo. In addition, Tß-10 also inhibited TGF-ß1-induced HSC activation and decreased the expression levels of the TGF-ß/SMAD signaling pathway-related genes in HSCs in vitro. In conclusion, antler Tß-10 is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis, the effect of which may be achieved via inhibition of the TGFß/SMAD signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado , Timosina , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Ratos , Animais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Chifres de Veado/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
3.
Microb Cell Fact ; 23(1): 40, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, biosafety and green food safety standards have increased the demand for immune enhancers and adjuvants. In the present study, recombinant food-grade Lactococcus lactis (r-L. lactis-Tα1-IFN) expressing thymosin Tα1 and chicken interferon fusion protein was constructed. RESULTS: The in vitro interactions with macrophages revealed a mixture of recombinant r-L. lactis-Tα1-IFN could significantly activate both macrophage J774-Dual™ NF-κB and interferon regulator (IRF) signaling pathways. In vitro interactions with chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) demonstrated that a mixture of recombinant r-L. lactis-Tα1-IFN significantly enhanced the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-10, CD80, and CD86 proteins in chicken PBMCs. Animal experiments displayed that injecting a lysis mixture of recombinant r-L. lactis-Tα1-IFN could significantly activate the proliferation of T cells and antigen-presenting cells in chicken PBMCs. Moreover, 16S analysis of intestinal microbiota demonstrated that injection of the lysis mixture of recombinant r-L. lactis-Tα1-IFN could significantly improve the structure and composition of chicken intestinal microbiota, with a significant increase in probiotic genera, such as Lactobacillus spp. Results of animal experiments using the lysis mixture of recombinant r-L. lactis-Tα1-IFN as an immune adjuvant for inactivated chicken Newcastle disease vaccine showed that the serum antibody titers of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the vaccine control group, and the expression levels of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-2 were significantly higher than those of the vaccine control group. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that food-safe recombinant r-L. lactis-Tα1-IFN has potential as a vaccine immune booster and immune adjuvant. This study lays the foundation for the development of natural green novel animal immune booster or immune adjuvant.


Assuntos
Lactococcus lactis , Timosina , Vacinas , Animais , Interferons/metabolismo , Lactococcus , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Timosina/metabolismo , Vacinas/metabolismo , Galinhas , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(4)2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38396631

RESUMO

Resistance and toxicity associated with current treatments for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection highlight the need for alternatives and immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy. This study examined the in vitro immunological effects of co-administration of Thymosin-alpha-1 (Tα1) and polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers (PCDs) on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during HCMV infection. The biocompatibility of PCDs was assessed via MTT and LDH assays. PBMCs were pre-treated with the co-administered compounds and then exposed to HCMV for 48 h. Morphological alterations in PBMCs were observed using optical microscopy and total dendritic cells (tDCs), myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs), and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), along with CD4+/CD8+ T cells and regulatory T cells (Treg), and were characterized using multiparametric flow cytometry. The findings revealed that Tα1 + PCDs treatments increased DC activation and maturation. Furthermore, increased co-receptor expression, intracellular IFNγ production in T cells and elevated Treg functionality and reduced senescence were evident with Tα1 + G2-S24P treatment. Conversely, reduced co-receptor expression, intracellular cytokine production in T cells, lower functionality and higher senescence in Treg were observed with Tα1 + G2S16 treatment. In summary, Tα1 + PCDs treatments demonstrate synergistic effects during early HCMV infection, suggesting their use as an alternative therapeutic for preventing virus infection.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros , Polieletrólitos , Silanos , Timosina , Humanos , Timalfasina/farmacologia , Dendrímeros/farmacologia , Timosina/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo
5.
Mol Med Rep ; 29(4)2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391118

RESUMO

Prothymosin α (ProT), a highly acidic nuclear protein with multiple cellular functions, has shown potential neuroprotective properties attributed to its anti­necrotic and anti­apoptotic activities. The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effect of ProT on neuroplasticity after ischemia­reperfusion injury and elucidate its underlying mechanism of action. Primary cortical neurons were either treated with ProT or overexpressing ProT by gene transfection and exposed to oxygen­glucose deprivation for 2 h in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining for ProT and MAP­2 was performed to quantify ProT protein expression and assess neuronal arborization. Mice treated with vehicle or ProT (100 µg/kg) and ProT overexpression in transgenic mice received middle cerebral artery occlusion for 50 min to evaluate the effect of ProT on neuroplasticity­associated protein following ischemia­reperfusion injury. The results demonstrated that in cultured neurons ProT significantly increased neurite lengths and the number of branches, accompanied by an upregulation mRNA level of brain­derived neurotrophic factor. Furthermore, ProT administration improved the protein expressions of synaptosomal­associated protein, 25 kDa and postsynaptic density protein 95 after ischemic­reperfusion injury in vivo. These findings suggested that ProT can potentially induce neuroplasticity effects following ischemia­reperfusion injury.


Assuntos
Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Timosina , Timosina/análogos & derivados , Camundongos , Animais , Camundongos Transgênicos , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Timosina/genética , Timosina/farmacologia , Timosina/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 30(1): 6-12, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308608

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of Thymosin Alpha 1 (Tα1) through a comprehensive narrative review of clinical studies involving over 11 000 human subjects in more than 30 trials. The focus was on Tα1's application in COVID-19, autoimmune conditions, and cancer treatment, with implications for future considerations. Methods: We systematically searched articles relevant to critical studies on COVID-19, infectious diseases, cancer, and autoimmune diseases indexed on Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. Our focus was on evaluating the safety and efficacy of Tα1 in human subjects. Clinical trials conducted worldwide involving diverse populations were analyzed to assess the safety and effectiveness of Tα1. The review examines explicit outcomes in over 11 000 human subjects, emphasizing its role in addressing COVID-19, autoimmune conditions, and cancer treatment. Results: Contrary to the FDA's restriction on Tα1 and 21 additional peptides in 2023, our analysis reveals consistent evidence of Tα1's safety and efficacy. The peptide has demonstrated significant effectiveness in treating various conditions, including COVID-19, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. This review summarizes conclusions drawn from a comprehensive examination of clinical trials worldwide. Conclusions: Based on substantial evidence from clinical trials, Tα1 emerges as a well-tolerated and effective immune modulator. The FDA>s restriction appears unfounded, as Tα1 has shown safety and efficacy beyond the initially specified conditions. Urgent attention and intervention are warranted to ensure the continued availability of this life-saving peptide through prescription. Therefore, it is recommended that the FDA permits 503A compounding pharmacies to compound Tα1, considering its potential to treat a variety of conditions effectively.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Timosina , Humanos , Timalfasina/uso terapêutico , Timosina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(2)2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38256161

RESUMO

The thymus is one of the most crucial immunological organs, undergoing visible age-related shrinkage. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) play a vital role in maintaining the normal function of the thymus, and their degeneration is the primary cause of age-induced thymic devolution. Thymosin ß4 (Tß4) serves as a significant important G-actin sequestering peptide. The objective of this study was to explore whether Tß4 influences thymocyte differentiation by regulating the cytoskeletal rearrangement and mitochondrial transfer of TECs. A combination of H&E staining, immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, cytoskeletal immunolabeling, and mitochondrial immunolabeling were employed to observe the effects of Tß4 on TECs' skeleton rearrangement, mitochondrial transfer, and thymocyte differentiation. The study revealed that the Tß4 primarily regulates the formation of microfilaments and the mitochondrial transfer of TECs, along with the formation and maturation of double-negative cells (CD4-CD8-) and CD4 single-positive cells (CD3+TCRß+CD4+CD8-) thymocytes. This study suggests that Tß4 plays a crucial role in thymocyte differentiation by influencing the cytoskeletal rearrangement and mitochondrial transfer of TECs. These effects may be associated with Tß4's impact on the aggregation of F-actin. This finding opens up new avenues for research in the field of immune aging.


Assuntos
Timócitos , Timosina , Citoesqueleto , Células Epiteliais , Actinas
8.
Phytomedicine ; 123: 155216, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38061285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thymus is the most crucial organ connecting immunity and aging. The progressive senescence of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) leads to the involution of thymus under aging, chronic stress and other factors. Ligustilide (LIG) is a major active component of the anti-aging Chinese herbal medicine Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, but its role in preventing TEC-based thymic aging remains elusive. PURPOSE: This study explored the protective role of Ligustilide in alleviating ADM (adriamycin) -induced thymic immune senescence and its underlying molecular mechanisms. METHOD: The protective effect of Ligustilide on ADM-induced thymic atrophy was examined by mouse and organotypic models, and conformed by SA-ß-gal staining in TECs. The abnormal spatial distribution of TECs in the senescent thymus was analyzed using H&E, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. The possible mechanisms of Ligustilide in ADM-induced thymic aging were elucidated by qPCR, fluorescence labeling and Western blot. The mechanism of Ligustilide was subsequently validated through actin polymerization inhibitor, genetic engineering to regulate Thymosin ß15 (Tß15) and Tß4 expression, molecular docking and ß Thymosin-G-actin cross-linking assay. RESULTS: At a 5 mg/kg dose, Ligustilide markedly ameliorated ADM-induced weight loss and limb grip weakness in mice. It also reversed thymic damage and restored positive selection impaired by ADM. In vitro, ADM disrupted thymic structure, reduced TECs number and hindered double negative (DN) T cell differentiation. Ligustilide counteracted these effects, promoted TEC proliferation and reticular differentiation, leading to an increase in CD4+ single positive (CD4SP) T cell proportion. Mechanistically, ADM diminished the microfilament quantity in immortalized TECs (iTECs), and lowered the expression of cytoskeletal marker proteins. Molecular docking and cross-linking assay revealed that Ligustilide inhibited the protein binding between G-actin and Tß15 by inhibiting the formation of the Tß15-G-actin complex, thus enhancing the microfilament assembly capacity in TECs. CONCLUSION: This study, for the first time, reveals that Ligustilide can attenuate actin depolymerization, protects TECs from ADM-induced acute aging by inhibiting the binding of Tß15 to G-actin, thereby improving thymic immune function. Moreover, it underscores the interesting role of Ligustilide in maintaining cytoskeletal assembly and network structure of TECs, offering a novel perspective for deeper understanding of anti thymic aging.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Actinas , Timosina , Camundongos , Animais , Actinas/metabolismo , Timosina/farmacologia , Timosina/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Células Epiteliais
9.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 57(6): 1006-1016, 2023.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38062956

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the effects of thymosin-1 alpha (Tα1) on the anti-inflammatory response of RAW 264.7 macrophages cultured in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the walls of gram-negative bacteria. As well, we evaluated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the activity of the NF-κB and SAPK/JNK signaling pathways. In addition, the level of expression of a number of genes that regulate cell apoptosis, as well as the activity of receptors involved in the pro-inflammatory response, was determined. First, the addition of Tα1 normalized the level of cytokine production to varying degrees, with a particularly noticeable effect on IL-1ß and IL-6. Second, the addition of Tα1 normalized the activity of the NF-κB and SAPK/JNK signaling cascades and the expression of the Tlr4 gene. Third, Tα1 significantly reduced p53 and the activity of the P53 gene, which is a marker of cell apoptosis. Fourth, it was shown that the increase in Ar-1 gene expression under the influence of LPS was significantly reduced using Tα1. Thus, it was found that the presence of Tα1 in the RAW 264.7 cell culture medium significantly reduced the level of the pro-inflammatory response of cells.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Timosina , Animais , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Endotoxinas , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Timosina/genética , Timosina/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo
10.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 33(12): 865-873, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131310

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Thymosins are small proteins found mainly in the thymus. They are involved in several biological processes, including immunoregulation, angiogenesis, and anti-inflammatory activity. Due to these multiple activities, thymosins are widely used as therapeutics. In fact, these peptides have shown interesting results in the treatment of eye disorders, anticancer therapy, and dysregulated immune disorders. AREA COVERED: We analyzed the thymosins therapeutic patent landscape describing the most significant patents published after 2018 and originally written in English, classified according to the different type of functions and diseases. We searched 'Thymosin' on Patentscope and Espacenet. EXPERT OPINION: Thymalfasin (Zadaxin) is the only FDA-approved thymosine-based drug used to treat chronic hepatitis B and C and as a chemotherapy inducer. This outcome demonstrates how thymosins can be exploited as therapeutics, especially in immunological and anti-cancer therapies. However, the development of modified thymosins could expand their therapeutic interest and application in different diseases. In fact, by chemical modifications, it is possible to increase proteolytic stability in the biological environment, enhance cell permeability, and stabilize the secondary structure of the peptide. Finally, the development of shorter sequences could reduce the cost and production time of these thymosin-based drugs.


Assuntos
Timosina , Timo , Humanos , Patentes como Assunto , Timosina/farmacologia , Timosina/química , Timosina/metabolismo
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 125(Pt A): 111103, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38149577

RESUMO

Tα1 (Thymosin-alpha-1) is a thymus-derived hormone that has been demonstrated to be effective on diverse immune cell subsets. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of Tα1 in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Dendritic cells (DCs) were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by negative selection and cultured in the presence or absence of Tα1. The immunophenotyping of DCs was characterised by multiparametric flow cytometry assessing CD40, CD80, TIM-3 and PDL-1 markers, as well as intracellular TNFα production. Then, autologous CD4+ or CD8+ T-Lymphocytes (TLs) isolated by negative selection from PBMCs were co-cultured with DCs previously treated with Tα1 in the presence or absence of HCMV. Intracellular TNFα, IFNγ, IL-2 production, CD40-L and PD-1 expression were assessed through immunophenotyping, and polyfunctionality in total TLs and memory subsets were evaluated. The results showed that Tα1 increased CD40, CD80, TIM-3 and TNFα intracellular production while decreasing PDL-1 expression, particularly on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Therefore, Tα1 modulated the production of TNFα, IFNγ and IL-2 in both total and memory subsets of CD4+ and CD8+ TLs by upregulating CD40/CD40-L and downregulating PDL-1/PD-1 expression. Our study concludes that Tα1 enhances antigen-presenting capacity of DCs, improves TLs responses to HCMV infection, and enhances the polyfunctionality of CD8+ TLs. Consequently, Tα1 could be an alternative adjuvant for use in therapeutic cell therapy for immunocompromised patients.


Assuntos
Timosina , Humanos , Timalfasina/farmacologia , Timosina/metabolismo , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas , Sinapses
12.
Genet Res (Camb) ; 2023: 5517445, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38026448

RESUMO

Glioma is a highly aggressive form of brain cancer characterized by limited treatment options and poor patient prognosis. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the oncogenic role of thymosin beta-10 (TMSB10) in glioma through comprehensive analyses of patient data from the TCGA and GTEx databases. Our investigation encompassed several key aspects, including the analysis of patients' clinical characteristics, survival analysis, in vitro and in vivo functional experiments, and the exploration of correlations between TMSB10 expression and immune cell infiltration. Our findings revealed a significant upregulation of TMSB10 expression in glioma tissues compared to normal brain tissues, with higher expression levels observed in tumors of advanced histological grades. Moreover, we observed positive correlations between TMSB10 expression and patient age, while no significant association with gender was detected. Additionally, TMSB10 exhibited marked elevation in gliomas with wild-type IDH and noncodeletion of 1p/19q. Survival analysis indicated that high TMSB10 expression was significantly associated with worse overall survival, disease-specific survival, and progression-free survival in glioma patients. Functionally, knockdown of TMSB10 in glioma cells resulted in reduced cellular growth rates and impaired tumor growth in xenograft models. Furthermore, our study revealed intriguing correlations between TMSB10 expression and immune cell infiltration within the tumor microenvironment. Specifically, TMSB10 showed negative associations with plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and γδ T cells (Tgd), while displaying positive correlations with neutrophils and macrophages. These findings collectively provide valuable insights into the oncogenic properties of TMSB10 in glioma, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target and a biomarker for patient stratification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Timosina , Humanos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Relevância Clínica , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Timosina/genética , Timosina/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
13.
PLoS One ; 18(10): e0287817, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37788276

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common amnestic cognitive impairment characterised by ß-amyloid (Aß) plaques deposit in the brain of the elderly. AD is a yet incurable disease due to its unknown exact pathogenesis and unavailability of effective remedies in clinical application. Thymosin ß4 (Tß4) is a housekeeping protein that plays important role in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. It has the ability to protect and repair neurons however it is still unclear involvement in AD. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the role and mechanism of Tß4 in mediating the improvement of AD. AD-like cell model was constructed in neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y treated with Aß. Overexpression of Tß4 were done using lentivirus infection and downregulation through siRNA transfection. We performed western blot and flow cytometry to study the apoptosis and standard kits to measure the oxidative stress-associated biomarkers. There is significant increased in viability and decreased apoptosis in Tß4 overexpression group compared to control. Furthermore, overexpression of Tß4 suppressed the expression of pro-apoptotic markers such as Caspase-3, Caspase-8, and Bax meanwhile upregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. Tß4 alleviated oxidative damage by reducing MDA, LDH and ROS and increasing SOD and GSH-PX in Aß-treated SH-SY5Y cells. We found that Tß4 inhibit ERK/p38 MAPK pathway and intensify the expression of 5-HTR1A. Additionally, we showed that upregulation of 5-HTR1A dampened the Tß4 to activate ERK signalling. In conclusion, our study revealed the neuroprotective role of Tß4 in AD which may open up new therapeutic applications in AD treatment.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Neuroblastoma , Timosina , Idoso , Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Timosina/metabolismo , Neuroproteção
14.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1237978, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37701432

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The burden of cancer on public health is becoming more widely acknowledged. Lung cancer has one of the highest incidence and mortality rates of all cancers. The prevalence of early screening, the emergence of targeted therapy, and the development of immunotherapy have all significantly improved the overall prognosis of lung cancer patients. The current state of affairs, however, is not encouraging, and there are issues like poor treatment outcomes for some patients and extremely poor prognoses for those with advanced lung cancer. Because of their potent immunomodulatory capabilities, thymosin drugs are frequently used in the treatment of tumors. The effectiveness of thymosin drugs in the treatment of lung cancer has been demonstrated in numerous studies, which amply demonstrates the potential and future of thymosin drugs for the treatment of lung cancer. The clinical research on thymosin peptide drugs in lung cancer and the basic research on the mechanism of thymosin drugs in anti-lung cancer are both systematically summarized and analyzed in this paper, along with future research directions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Timosina , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia , Imunomodulação , Saúde Pública , Timosina/uso terapêutico
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 124(Pt B): 110983, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37769533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a serious threat to global health. Thymosin α1 (Tα1) was considered to be applied in COVID-19 therapy. However, the data remains limited. METHODS: Participants with or without Tα1 treatment were recruited. Single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) and T cell receptor-sequencing (TCR-seq) of the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were done to analyze immune features. The differential expression analysis and functional enrichment analysis were performed to explore the mechanism of Tα1 therapy. RESULTS: 33 symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals (COV) and 11 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in this study. The proportion of CD3+ KLRD1+ NKT, TBX21+ CD8+ NKT was observed to increase in COVID-19 patients with Tα1 treatment (COVT) than those without Tα1 (COV) (p = 0.024; p = 0.010). These two clusters were also significantly higher in Health controls with Tα1 treatment (HCT) than those without Tα1 (HC) (p = 0.016; p = 0.031). Besides, a series of genes and pathways related to immune responses were significantly higher enriched in Tα1 groups TBX21+ CD8+ NKT, such as KLRB1, PRF1, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity pathway, chemokine signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway. The increased TRBV9-TRBJ1-1 pair existed in both HCs and COVID-19 patients after Tα1 treatment. 1389 common complementarity determining region 3 nucleotides (CDR 3 nt) were found in COV and HC, while 0 CDR 3 nt was common in COVT and HCT. CONCLUSIONS: Tα1 increased CD3+ KLRD1+ NKT, TBX21+ CD8+ NKT cell proportion and stimulated the diversity of TCR clones in COVT and HCT. And Tα1 could regulate the expression of genes associated with NKT activation or cytotoxicity to promote NKT cells. These data support the use of Tα1 in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Timosina , Humanos , Timalfasina/uso terapêutico , Timosina/genética , Timosina/metabolismo , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética
16.
Drug Test Anal ; 15(11-12): 1454-1467, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37515313

RESUMO

Thymosin ß4 (Tß4) was reported to exert various beneficial bioactivities such as tissue repair, anti-inflammation, and reduced scar formation, and it is listed on the prohibited substances in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency. However, no metabolism studies of Tß4 were reported yet. Previously, our lab reported in in vitro experiment that a total of 13 metabolites were found by using multiple enzymes, and six metabolites (Ac-Tß31-43 , Ac-Tß17-43 , Ac-Tß1-11 , Ac-Tß1-14 , Ac-Tß1-15 , and Ac-Tß1-17 ) were confirmed by comparing with the synthetic standards. This study was aimed at identifying new metabolites of Tß4 leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), human kidney microsomes (HKM), cultured huvec cells, and rats after administration of Tß4 protein to develop biomarkers for detecting doping drugs in sports. A method for detecting and quantifying Ac-Tß1-14 was developed and validated using Q-Exactive orbitrap mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the Ac-Tß1-14 were 0.19 and 0.58 ng/mL, respectively, and showed a good linearity (r2 = 0.9998). As a result, among the six metabolites above, Ac-Tß1-14 , as a common metabolite, was found in LAP, HKM, huvec cells exposed to Tß4, and the urine of rats intraperitoneally treated with 20-mg/kg Tß4. And the metabolite Ac-Tß1-14 was quantitatively determined by 48 h in rats, with the highest concentration occurring between 0 and 6 h. Ac-Tß1-14 was not detected in non-treated control groups, including human blank urine. These results suggest that Ac-Tß1-14 in urine is a potential biomarker for screening the parent Tß4 in doping tests.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Doping nos Esportes , Timosina , Ratos , Humanos , Animais , Rim , Timosina/metabolismo , Timosina/uso terapêutico , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo
17.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1170539, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37275863

RESUMO

Introduction: The biological function and prognosis roles of thymosin ß(TMSB) 10 are still unclear in pan-cancer. Methods: We retrieved The Cancer Genome Atlas and Genotype-tissue expression datasets to obtain the difference of TMSB10 expression between pan-cancer and normal tissues, and analyzed the biological function and prognosis role of TMSB10 in pan-cancer by using cBioPortal Webtool. Results: The expression of TMSB10 in tumor tissues was significantly higher than normal tissues, and showed the potential ability to predict the prognosis of patients in Pan-cancer. It was found that TMSB10 was significantly correlated with tumor microenvironment, immune cell infiltration and immune regulatory factor expression. TMSB10 is involved in the regulation of cellular signal transduction pathways in a variety of tumors, thereby mediating the occurrence of tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Finally, TMSB10 can not only effectively predict the anti-PD-L1 treatment response of cancer patients, but also be used as an important indicator to evaluate the sensitivity of chemotherapy. In vitro, low expression of TMSB10 inhibited clonogenic formation ability, invasion, and migration in glioma cells. Furthermore, TMSB10 may involve glioma immune regulation progression by promoting PD-L1 expression levels via activating STAT3 signaling pathway. Conclusions: Our results show that TMSB10 is abnormally expressed in tumor tissues, which may be related to the infiltration of immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Clinically, TMSB10 is not only an effective prognostic factor for predicting the clinical treatment outcome of cancer patients, but also a promising biomarker for predicting the effect of tumor immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and chemotherapy in some cancers.


Assuntos
Glioma , Timosina , Humanos , Prognóstico , Imunoterapia , Timosina/genética , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
18.
Cells ; 12(12)2023 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37371128

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is the most common feature of liver disease, and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main contributors to liver fibrosis. Thus, finding key targets that modulate HSC activation is important to prevent liver fibrosis. Previously, we showed that thymosin ß4 (Tß4) influenced HSC activation by interacting with the Hedgehog pathway in vitro. Herein, we generated Tß4 conditional knockout (Tß4-flox) mice to investigate in vivo functions of Tß4 in liver fibrosis. To selectively delete Tß4 in activated HSCs, double-transgenic (DTG) mice were generated by mating Tß4-flox mice with α-smooth muscle actin (α-Sma)-Cre-ERT2 mice, and these mice were administered carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or underwent bile duct ligation to induce liver fibrosis. Tß4 was selectively suppressed in the activated HSCs of DTG mouse liver, and this reduction attenuated liver injury, including fibrosis, in both fibrotic models by repressing Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. In addition, the re-expression of Tß4 by an adeno-associated virus reversed the effect of HSC-specific Tß4 deletion and led to liver fibrosis with Hh activation in CCl4-exposed mice treated with tamoxifen. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Tß4 is a crucial regulator of HSC activation, suggesting it as a novel therapeutic target for curing liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Células Estreladas do Fígado , Cirrose Hepática , Timosina , Animais , Camundongos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Timosina/farmacologia , Timosina/metabolismo
19.
Clin Exp Med ; 23(7): 3719-3728, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37310657

RESUMO

To investigate the value of the peripheral blood lymphocyte count (LYM) combined with interleukin-6 (IL-6) in predicting disease severity and prognosis in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. This was a prospective observational cohort study. A total of 109 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who were admitted to Nanjing First Hospital from December 2022 to January 2023 were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups based on disease severity: severe (46 patients) and critically ill (63 patients). The clinical data of all patients were collected. The clinical characteristics, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, peripheral blood lymphocyte count, IL-6 level and other laboratory test results were compared between the two groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to evaluate the predictive value of each index for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia severity; patients were regrouped using the optimal cut-off value of the ROC curve, and the relationship between different LYM and IL-6 levels and the prognosis of patients was analysed. Kaplan‒Meier survival curve analysis was performed; in the different LYM and IL-6 groups, the patients were regrouped based on whether thymosin was used, and the effect of thymosin on patient prognosis was compared between the groups. Patients in the critically ill group were significantly older than patients in the severe group (age: 78 ± 8 vs. 71 ± 17, t = 2.982, P < 0.05), and the proportion of patients with hypertension, diabetes and cerebrovascular disease was significantly higher in the critically ill group than in the severe group (69.8% vs. 45.7%, 38.1% vs. 17.4%, 36.5% vs. 13.0%; χ2 values, 6.462, 5.495, 7.496, respectively, all P < 0.05). Compared with the severe group, the critically ill group had a higher SOFA score on admission (score: 5.4 ± 3.0 vs. 1.9 ± 1.5, t = 24.269, P < 0.05); IL-6 and procalcitonin (PCT) in the critically ill group were significantly higher than those in the severe group on the first day of admission [288.4 (191.4, 412.9) vs. 513.0 (288.2, 857.4), 0.4 (0.1, 3.2) vs. 0.1 (0.05, 0.2); Z values, 4.000, 4.456, both P < 0.05]. The lymphocyte count continued to decline, and the lymphocyte count on the 5th day (LYM-5d) was still low (0.6 ± 0.4 vs. 1.0 ± 0.4, t = 4.515, both P < 0.05), with statistically significant differences between the two groups. ROC curve analysis indicated that LYM-5d, IL-6 and LYM-5d + IL-6 all had value for predicting SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia severity; the areas under the curve (AUCs) were 0.766, 0.725, and 0.817, respectively, and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were 0.676-0.856, 0.631-0.819, and 0.737-0.897, respectively. The optimal cut-off values for LYM-5d and IL-6 were 0.7 × 109/L and 416.4 pg/ml, respectively. LYM-5d + IL-6 had the greatest value in predicting disease severity, and LYM-5d had higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia severity. Regrouping was performed based on the optimal cut-off values for LYM-5d and IL-6. Comparing the IL-6 ≥ 416.4 pg/ml and LYM-5d < 0.7 × 109/L group with the other group, i.e., patients in the non-low-LYM-5d and high-IL-6 group, patients in the low-LYM-5d and high-IL-6 group had a higher 28-day mortality rate (71.9% vs. 29.9%, χ2 value 16.352, P < 0.05) and a longer hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mechanical ventilation time (days: 13.7 ± 6.3 vs. 8.4 ± 4.3, 9.0 (7.0, 11.5) vs. 7.5 (4.0, 9.5), 8.0 (6.0, 10.0) vs. 6.0 (3.3, 8.5); t/Z values, 11.657, 2.113, 2.553, respectively, all P < 0.05), as well as a higher incidence of secondary bacterial infection during the disease course (75.0% vs. 41.6%, χ2 value 10.120, P < 0.05). Kaplan‒Meier survival analysis indicated that the median survival time of patients in the low LYM-5d and high-IL-6 group was significantly shorter than that of patients in the non-low LYM-5d and high-IL-6 group (14.5 ± 1.8 d vs. 22.2 ± 1.1 d, Z value 18.086, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the curative effect between the thymosin group and the nonthymosin group. LYM and IL-6 levels are closely related to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia severity. The prognosis for patients with IL-6 ≥ 416.4 pg/ml at admission and a lymphocyte count < 0.7 × 10 9/L on the 5th day is poor.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Sepse , Timosina , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Estado Terminal , Interleucina-6 , Linfócitos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Curva ROC , SARS-CoV-2 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Molecules ; 28(9)2023 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37175330

RESUMO

Prion protein peptide (PrP) has demonstrated neurotoxicity in brain cells, resulting in the progression of prion diseases with spongiform degenerative, amyloidogenic, and aggregative properties. Thymosin beta 4 (Tß4) plays a role in the nervous system and may be related to motility, axonal enlargement, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, and proliferation. However, no studies about the effects of Tß4 on prion disease have been performed yet. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of Tß4 against synthetic PrP (106-126) and considered possible mechanisms. Hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells were treated with Tß4 and PrP (106-126) for 24 h. Tß4 significantly reversed cell viability and reactive oxidative species (ROS) affected by PrP (106-126). Apoptotic proteins induced by PrP (106-126) were reduced by Tß4. Interestingly, a balance of neurotrophic factors (nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and receptors (nerve growth factor receptor p75, tropomyosin related kinase A and B) were competitively maintained by Tß4 through receptors reacting to PrP (106-126). Our results demonstrate that Tß4 protects neuronal cells against PrP (106-126) neurotoxicity via the interaction of neurotrophic factors/receptors.


Assuntos
Doenças Priônicas , Timosina , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Timosina/farmacologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo
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