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1.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298401, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512896

RESUMO

Researchers conducted an investigation by tornado simulator to study the impact of wind angle on the aerodynamic characteristics of a reduced (1:150) high-speed train model using six-dimensional force/torque sensor. The reduced scale model size can match the relative size relationship between high-speed train and tornado vortex core in real condition. Results show that the wind angle affects the mean value and standard deviation of the force and moment coefficient of the high-speed train at the same radial position. The variations of the mean value and standard deviation of the pitching moment coefficient of the high-speed train carriage model at 60°and 90°are different from that at other wind angles. The variations of the mean value of the pitching moment coefficient of the high-speed train head model at 0°, 15°and 30°are different from that at other wind angles. The variations of the standard deviation of the pitching moment coefficient of the high-speed train head model at 60°,75°and 90°are different from that at other wind angles. This research will help the further study of the operation safety of high-speed train in the event of a tornado impacting a high-speed train network.


Assuntos
Tornados , Vento , Torque
2.
J Exp Psychol Appl ; 30(1): 206-239, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37471034

RESUMO

Many warnings issued to members of the public are deterministic in that they do not include event likelihood information. This is true of the current polygon-based tornado warning used by the American National Weather Service, although the likelihood of a tornado varies within the boundaries of the polygon. To test whether adding likelihood information benefits end users, two experimental studies and one in-person interview study were conducted. The experimental studies compared five probabilistic formats, two with color and three with numeric probabilities alone, to the deterministic polygon. In both experiments, probabilistic formats led to better understanding of tornado likelihood and higher trust than the polygon alone, although color-coding led to several misunderstandings. When the polygon boundary was drawn at 10% chance, those using probabilistic formats made fewer correct shelter decisions at low probabilities and more correct shelter decisions at high probabilities compared to those using the deterministic warning, although overall decision quality, operationalized as expected value, did not differ. However, when the polygon boundary was drawn around 30%, participants with probabilistic forecasts had higher expected value. The interview study revealed that, although tornado-experienced individuals would not shelter at 10% chance, they would take intermediate actions, such as information-seeking and sharing. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Tornados , Humanos , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Probabilidade , Habitação , Confiança
3.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e474, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37655395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined various factors influencing protective actions among persons with disabilities exposed to the December 10-11, 2021, tornado outbreak in the US Midwest and Southeastern regions. METHODS: Survey administration occurred 5 months following the tornado outbreak and included a total of 209 persons with disabilities who lived in one of the counties impacted by tornado warnings. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of hypothesized predictors impacting protective behavioral actions. RESULTS: Results found that persons with disabilities who had access to more tornado warning sources increased their protective actions, and tornado risk perception further mediated the relationship between warning information sources and protective actions. In addition, results found that persons with disabilities who encountered more situational barriers in their physical and social environment were found to have a decrease in protective action, and having more situational resources was found to contribute to the ability to take protective action. CONCLUSIONS: The current study's results highlight the need for policies and practices that provide additional physical and social resources for persons with disabilities to seek protection during tornado threats.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Tornados , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fonte de Informação
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2650: 65-75, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37310624

RESUMO

Organoids are 3D ex vivo cell aggregates derived from primary tissue and shown to closely recapitulate tissue homeostasis. Organoids deliver certain advantages compared to 2D cell lines and mouse models, especially in drug-screening studies and translational research projects. The application of organoids in the research field is fast-emerging and new techniques for organoid manipulation are constantly developing. Despite recent advances, RNA-seq-based drug-screening platforms in organoids are not yet established. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for performing TORNADO-seq, a targeted RNA-seq-based drug-screening method in organoids. Analyzing complex phenotypes with a large number of carefully selected read-outs allows to directly classify and group drugs even without structural similarity or overlapping mode of actions from prior knowledge. Our assay principle combines cost-effectiveness and sensitive detection of multiple cell identities, signaling pathways, and key drivers of cellular phenotypes and can be applied to many systems where this new form of high-content screening can provide information not obtainable otherwise.


Assuntos
Tornados , Animais , Camundongos , RNA-Seq , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Bioensaio , Organoides
6.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e381, 2023 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37185263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that parental attachment was associated with higher levels of posttraumatic growth (PTG) in individuals who have experienced traumatic events. The aim of the current longitudinal study is to investigate resilience as one pathway through which parental attachment is related to PTG among Chinese adolescents following the Yancheng tornado. METHODS: A total of 351 adolescent survivors participated in this longitudinal study. Participants completed the revised version of Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R) at 12 months (T1), and the revised Chinese version of the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI-R) and the Connor and Davidson's Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) at 18 months (T2) after the tornado, respectively. RESULTS: It indicated that parental attachment at T1 has direct and positive effect on PTG at T2, and resilience at T2 fully mediated the relationship between parental attachment at T1 and PTG at T2. CONCLUSION: The findings revealed that parental attachment and resilience are two key resources that promote adolescent's PTG, and parental attachment acts through resilience to promote PTG in adolescents.


Assuntos
Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Tornados , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Longitudinais , Sobreviventes , Adaptação Psicológica
7.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 28(4): 1408-1419, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36866772

RESUMO

Resilience and secure parental attachment have been proven as important factors to alleviate the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effects of the two factors on PTSD and the mechanisms of its effect at different time points in the aftermath of trauma are still unclear. This study explores the relationship among parental attachment, resilience, and development of PTSD symptoms in adolescents from a longitudinal perspective following the Yancheng Tornado. Using cluster sampling method, a total of 351 Chinese adolescents, survivors of a severe tornado, were tested on their PTSD, parental attachment and resilience at 12-months and 18-months after experiencing the natural disaster. The results showed that our proposed model fit the data well: χ2/df = 3.197, CFI = 0.967, TLI = 0.950, RMSEA = 0.079. It revealed that the resilience at 18-months partially mediated the relationship between parental attachment at 12-months and PTSD at 18-months. Research results showed that parental attachment and resilience are key resources for coping with trauma.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Tornados , Humanos , Adolescente , Adaptação Psicológica
8.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281312, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36812264

RESUMO

We perform a statistical climatological study of the synoptic- to meso-scale weather conditions favoring significant tornado occurrence to empirically investigate the existence of long term temporal trends. To identify environments that favor tornadoes, we apply an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to temperature, relative humidity, and winds from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2) dataset. We consider MERRA-2 data and tornado data from 1980 to 2017 over four adjacent study regions that span the Central, Midwestern, and Southeastern United States. To identify which EOFs are related to significant tornado occurrence, we fit two separate groups of logistic regression models. The first group (LEOF models) estimates the probability of occurrence of a significant tornado day (EF2-EF5) within each region. The second group (IEOF models) classifies the intensity of tornadic days either as strong (EF3-EF5) or weak (EF1-EF2). When compared to approaches using proxies such as convective available potential energy, our EOF approach is advantageous for two main reasons: first, the EOF approach allows for the discovery of important synoptic- to mesoscale variables previously not considered in the tornado science literature; second, proxy-based analyses may not capture important aspects of three-dimensional atmospheric conditions represented by the EOFs. Indeed, one of our main novel findings is the importance of a stratospheric forcing mode on occurrence of significant tornadoes. Other important novel findings are the existence of long-term temporal trends in the stratospheric forcing mode, in a dry line mode, and in an ageostrophic circulation mode related to the jet stream configuration. A relative risk analysis also indicates that changes in stratospheric forcings are partially or completely offsetting increased tornado risk associated with the dry line mode, except in the eastern Midwest region where tornado risk is increasing.


Assuntos
Tornados , Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Modelos Logísticos
9.
Demography ; 60(1): 173-199, 2023 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692164

RESUMO

We introduce the consideration of human migration into research on economic losses from extreme weather disasters. Taking a comparative case study approach and using data from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York/Equifax Consumer Credit Panel, we document the size of economic losses attributable to migration from 23 disaster-affected areas in the United States before, during, and after some of the most costly hurricanes, tornadoes, and wildfires on record. We then employ demographic standardization and decomposition to determine if these losses primarily reflect changes in out-migration or the economic resources that migrants take with them. Finally, we consider the implications of these losses for changing spatial inequality in the United States. While disaster-affected areas and their populations differ in their experiences of and responses to extreme weather disasters, we generally find that, relative to the year before an extreme weather disaster, economic losses via migration from disaster-affected areas increase the year of and after the disaster, these changes primarily reflect changes in out-migration (vs. the economic resources that migrants take with them), and these losses briefly disrupt the status quo by temporarily reducing spatial inequality.


Assuntos
Desastres , Tornados , Migrantes , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Emigração e Imigração
10.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 54(3): 786-795, 2023 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843034

RESUMO

This study investigated the trajectories in posttraumatic growth (PTG) among adolescents who survived from the Yancheng tornado in China, and explored the effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) on these trajectories. Participants (n = 246) finished 4 assessments at 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after the tornado. Growth mixture model and logistic regression were used to examine the heterogeneous trajectories and the role of PTSS for differentiating trajectories respectively. Two latent PTG trajectories were observed: group with decreasing PTG and group with fluctuant PTG, which might stem from the illusory component and the factual component of PTG respectively based on the two-component model; and adolescents with more PTSS had higher probabilities generating decreasing PTG, that is, illusory PTG. This study suggested differentiating PTG trajectories and related influencing factors to improve the post-disaster psychological interventions in a longitudinal perspective.


Assuntos
Desastres , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Tornados , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Adaptação Psicológica
11.
J Emerg Manag ; 20(6): 487-498, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36523193

RESUMO

How do people think they should prepare for tornadoes? To answer this question, we surveyed 340 people in six states in tornado alley and presented eight severe weather preparation choice sets that varied short and long-term benefits and costs with benefits or to the individual or to the community. Fifty-six percent of respondents preferred tornado preparations for the long-term that benefit individuals rather than the community. Correlations between personal characteristics, future expectations, and an individual's preferred preparation strategy show that being married, expecting stronger tornados, and having an individualistic worldview significantly increased the choice of individual preparation options. Past tornado experience and one's current protection level were not significantly related to individual-minded preparation choices. Out of 18 independent variables analyzed, individual worldview was the best predictor of a person's preferences. Individual worldview by itself had better predictive power than a regression model that included an individual's socioeconomic status, past severe weather experience, expectations about future tornados, and current protective measures for severe weather by itself. These findings can inform elected officials considering public policies for natural disaster preparedness and deciding between tradeoffs for keeping government costs low or providing benefits for everyone in the community. Our results are useful for planners and emergency managers who develop strategies to encourage tornado preparation by citizens in the community. For example, emergency managers can replicate the study with options specific to their community to determine what government communications or actions could prompt individuals to put protective measures in place.


Assuntos
Tornados , Humanos , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Comunicação , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361114

RESUMO

Rural areas are vulnerable to natural disasters and tend to suffer severe losses. An EF4 tornado occurred in Funing on 23 June 2016, killing 99 people, injuring at least 846 people, and destroying more than 2000 houses. Using a multinomial logistic regression model, this study explored the influencing factors between housing damage and variables of building conditions, tornado intensity, and village environmental factors. The results show that 2-story houses and masonry houses were more likely to be slightly damaged or be in a dangerous state. Furthermore, the building area was positively related to houses in two categories: slight damage (SD) and dangerous and requiring immediate repair (DR), indicating that the larger or taller the house, the more severe the damage. In terms of tornado intensity, houses classified as SD were more likely to be hit by EF4 tornados than by EF3 tornados, and houses were damaged more by EF1 or EF2 tornados. This finding demonstrates that the level of housing damage was not strongly correlated with the tornado intensity. Slightly damaged houses exhibited the highest correlation with environmental factors. The proportion of slightly damaged houses was positively correlated with the water area in the village, unlike the proportion of houses in the DR and unable to be repaired (UR) categories. Moreover, the larger the water area of a village, the less housing damage it suffered. These findings provide new insights into minimizing housing damage in wind disasters to improve disaster prevention planning in rural areas.


Assuntos
Desastres , Tornados , Humanos , Habitação , China/epidemiologia , Água
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360627

RESUMO

Tornadoes are one of the most prevalent natural hazards in the United States, yet they have been underrepresented in the disaster mental health comprehensive literature. In the current study, we systematically reviewed available scientific evidence within published research journals on tornadoes and mental health from 1994 to 2021. The electronic search strategy identified 384 potentially relevant articles. Of the 384 articles, 29 articles met the inclusion criteria, representing 27,534 participants. Four broad areas were identified: (i) Mental health impacts of tornadoes; (ii) Risk factors; (iii) Protective factors; and (iv) Mental health interventions. Overall, results showed adverse mental health symptoms (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety) in both adult and pediatric populations. A number of risk factors were found to contribute to negative mental health, including demographics, tornado exposure, post-tornado stressors, and prior exposure to trauma. Protective factors found to contribute to positive outcomes included having access to physical, social, and psychological resources. Together, these findings can serve as an important resource for future mental health services in communities experiencing tornadoes.


Assuntos
Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Tornados , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Ansiedade
14.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e234, 2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35899741

RESUMO

Heavy rainfall, storm surges, and tornadoes are hazards associated with hurricanes that can cause property damages and loss of life. Disaster-related mortality surveillance encounters challenges, such as timely reporting of mortality data. This review demonstrates how tracking hurricane-related deaths using online media reports (eg, news media articles, press releases, social media posts) can enhance mortality surveillance during a response. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention used online media reports from 2012 to 2020 to characterize hurricane-related deaths from 10 hurricanes that were declared major disasters and the flooding related to Hurricane Joaquin in the contiguous United States. Media reports showed that drowning (n = 139), blunt force trauma (n = 89), and carbon monoxide poisoning (n = 58) were the primary causes of death. Online media and social media reports are not official records. However, media mortality surveillance is useful for hurricane responses to target messaging and current incident decision-making.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Desastres , Tornados , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inundações , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/epidemiologia
15.
J Pediatr Nurs ; 65: e20-e21, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980528

RESUMO

Storms unleashed devastating tornadoes southern United States. National Weather Service maps revealed one supercell, which may have been a single tornado or a cluster. One of the most devastated sites is the southwestern Kentucky city of Mayfield. In Warren County, where about 12 people were killed, including several children, the process of identifying victims has been slowed because the people who could make those identifications are themselves recovering from injuries sustained in the storm. There's a lot of people injured and in hospitals. The death toll from the devastating tornado outbreak that ripped across six states last weekend held steady at 88 on Tuesday, including at least 13 children. Two-month-old baby was confirmed dead.


Assuntos
Desastres , Tornados , Adolescente , Criança , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Kentucky , Missouri
16.
Psychol Trauma ; 14(7): 1142-1148, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigate if posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms mediate the effects of disaster severity or prior trauma on binge drinking following disaster exposure and test if support from caregiver moderates the relation between disaster severity and PTSD symptoms as well as prior trauma and PTSD symptoms. METHOD: A population-based clinical trial used address-based sampling to enroll 1,804 adolescents and parents from communities affected by tornadoes in Missouri and Alabama. Data collection via baseline (averaging 8 months postdisaster), 4-month postbaseline, and 12-month postbaseline semistructured telephone interviews was completed between September 2011 and August 2013. Longitudinal analyses, testing the indirect effects of disaster severity and prior traumatic events on alcohol use through PTSD symptoms, as potentially moderated by support from caregiver, were conducted. RESULTS: PTSD symptoms mediated the effect of prior trauma, but not disaster severity, on binge drinking. Specifically, those with more prior traumas reported more PTSD symptoms, which in turn increased risk for binge drinking. Support from caregiver moderated the effect of disaster severity, but not prior trauma, on PTSD symptoms. Specifically, the effect of disaster severity on PTSD symptoms was significant for adolescents with average or below-average caregiver support. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that PTSD symptomatology is one mechanism by which prior trauma can impact binge drinking among adolescents following exposure to a natural disaster. Caregiver support can serve as a buffer for reducing PTSD symptomatology related to the severity of a natural disaster, which can decrease the likelihood of adolescent binge drinking. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Tornados , Adolescente , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Cuidadores , Etanol , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia
17.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 16(1): 139-146, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how the effectiveness of household emergency plans during tornadoes was associated with family discussions, and the attributes of the plan for different age groups. METHODS: A telephone survey was conducted in 2014, one year after two 2013 Enhanced Fujita 4/5 tornadoes. The working sample included 223 respondents who reported having a household emergency plan before the tornadoes. The latent class analysis was used to identify the patterns of the plans and develop a typology based on their content. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors for plan effectiveness. RESULTS: Two classes of plans were identified: quality plans that were rich in content and limited plans that had lower levels of content richness. Older adults were less likely to have quality plans and less likely to have family discussions. Quality of the plan and discussions with family members increased plan effectiveness among older adults, but not younger adults. CONCLUSIONS: Better emergency planning could be more important for older than for younger adults. The findings were discussed from a gerontological perspective that focuses on older adults' unique needs, vulnerabilities, and resilience factors.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Geriatria , Tornados , Idoso , Características da Família , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores de Proteção
18.
Psychol Trauma ; 14(1): 132-140, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323571

RESUMO

Objective: Children and adolescents are found to be more vulnerable to developing PTSD than adults over time after major disasters. This study aims to investigate the network structures of PTSD and the directions of relationships between symptoms among adolescent survivors in the year after the Yancheng Tornado in China. Method: A total of 395 youth survivors completed the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (Foa et al., 2001) at 3 months and 12 months following the tornado. Network analysis was used to compare networks of PTSD symptoms and changes over time. Results: Different centrality symptoms existed at different time points. Anger, startle responses, and physiological reactivity were important to the maintenance of PTSD symptoms arising from the tornado at 3 months, while dreams/nightmares and distancing/avoidance were important to maintaining PTSD symptoms at 12 months. Analysis suggested that sleep difficulty and intrusive thoughts were the key PTSD symptoms to be treated at 3 months; sleep remained to be the key symptoms to be treated at 12 months. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that sleep difficulty could be a main cause of other symptoms and trigger the entire symptom system into undesirable psychopathological development among adolescent survivors in the year following major disasters. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Tornados , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China , Humanos , Psicopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444358

RESUMO

Prior research has found that Black and Latinx communities in the U.S. face significant disparities that impact both preparedness for severe weather events and the support received after a disaster has occurred. In the current study, we examined key risk and protective factors that impacted mental health among 221 Black and Latinx adult respondents exposed to the 2-3 March 2020 nocturnal tornado outbreak in the U.S. state of Tennessee. Key factors that adversely affected mental health among participants were encountering barriers for receiving tornado warning alerts and tornado-related exposure. Key factors that served a protective mechanism against adverse mental health included having access to physical resources, supportive relationships, and adaptive coping skills. These findings may assist National Weather Service (NWS) personnel, emergency managers, and mental health providers with the development of policies and practices to address barriers and promote protective strategies for future nocturnal tornado events.


Assuntos
Desastres , Tornados , Adulto , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Proteção , Tempo (Meteorologia)
20.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(3): 240-244, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: On May 22, 2011, an EF-5 tornado struck Joplin, Missouri, leaving behind 161 fatalities and $2.8 billion in economic impacts. This case study of the 2011 disaster was an attempt at determining if and how economic recovery occurred following the disaster through the lived experiences of government officials, local policymakers, and business officials. DESIGN: Case study using in-depth, semistructured, one-on-one interviews and a qualitative design and analysis. SETTING: Joplin, Missouri/2011 Joplin Tornado Participants: Seven local government officials, policymakers, and business officials from the city of Joplin that were directly involved in the response and recovery from the 2011 tornado. INTERVENTIONS: N/A Main outcome measure(s): N/A Results: Policies and actions that were the most effective focused on housing, personal financial resources of the survivors, and ensuring that the recovery processes were expedited as much as prudently possible. CONCLUSIONS: Specific policy measures are not recommended through the un-generalizable findings of this case study; however, this case study places a foundation for future research to develop specific policy measures related to disaster recovery.


Assuntos
Desastres , Tornados , Comércio , Humanos , Missouri , Políticas
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