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1.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 21(1): 100, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38867287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-home rehabilitation systems are a promising, potential alternative to conventional therapy for stroke survivors. Unfortunately, physiological differences between participants and sensor displacement in wearable sensors pose a significant challenge to classifier performance, particularly for people with stroke who may encounter difficulties repeatedly performing trials. This makes it challenging to create reliable in-home rehabilitation systems that can accurately classify gestures. METHODS: Twenty individuals who suffered a stroke performed seven different gestures (mass flexion, mass extension, wrist volar flexion, wrist dorsiflexion, forearm pronation, forearm supination, and rest) related to activities of daily living. They performed these gestures while wearing EMG sensors on the forearm, as well as FMG sensors and an IMU on the wrist. We developed a model based on prototypical networks for one-shot transfer learning, K-Best feature selection, and increased window size to improve model accuracy. Our model was evaluated against conventional transfer learning with neural networks, as well as subject-dependent and subject-independent classifiers: neural networks, LGBM, LDA, and SVM. RESULTS: Our proposed model achieved 82.2% hand-gesture classification accuracy, which was better (P<0.05) than one-shot transfer learning with neural networks (63.17%), neural networks (59.72%), LGBM (65.09%), LDA (63.35%), and SVM (54.5%). In addition, our model performed similarly to subject-dependent classifiers, slightly lower than SVM (83.84%) but higher than neural networks (81.62%), LGBM (80.79%), and LDA (74.89%). Using K-Best features improved the accuracy in 3 of the 6 classifiers used for evaluation, while not affecting the accuracy in the other classifiers. Increasing the window size improved the accuracy of all the classifiers by an average of 4.28%. CONCLUSION: Our proposed model showed significant improvements in hand-gesture recognition accuracy in individuals who have had a stroke as compared with conventional transfer learning, neural networks and traditional machine learning approaches. In addition, K-Best feature selection and increased window size can further improve the accuracy. This approach could help to alleviate the impact of physiological differences and create a subject-independent model for stroke survivors that improves the classification accuracy of wearable sensors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study was registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry with registration number CHiCTR1800017568 in 2018/08/04.


Assuntos
Gestos , Mãos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/instrumentação , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Aprendizado de Máquina , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 647, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858668

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Virtual Patients (VPs) have been shown to improve various aspects of medical learning, however, research has scarcely delved into the specific factors that facilitate the knowledge gain and transfer of knowledge from the classroom to real-world applications. This exploratory study aims to understand the impact of integrating VPs into classroom learning on students' perceptions of knowledge acquisition and transfer. METHODS: The study was integrated into an elective course on "Personalized Medicine in Cancer Treatment and Care," employing a qualitative and quantitative approach. Twenty-two second-year medical undergraduates engaged in a VP session, which included role modeling, practice with various authentic cases, group discussion on feedback, and a plenary session. Student perceptions of their learning were measured through surveys and focus group interviews and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. RESULTS: Quantitative data shows that students highly valued the role modeling introduction, scoring it 4.42 out of 5, and acknowledged the practice with VPs in enhancing their subject matter understanding, with an average score of 4.0 out of 5. However, students' reflections on peer dialogue on feedback received mixed reviews, averaging a score of 3.24 out of 5. Qualitative analysis (of focus-group interviews) unearthed the following four themes: 'Which steps to take in clinical reasoning', 'Challenging their reasoning to enhance deeper understanding', 'Transfer of knowledge ', and ' Enhance Reasoning through Reflections'. Quantitative and qualitative data are cohered. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates evidence for the improvement of learning by incorporating VPs with learning activities. This integration enhances students' perceptions of knowledge acquisition and transfer, thereby potentially elevating students' preparedness for real-world clinical settings. Key facets like expert role modeling and various authentic case exposures were valued for fostering a deeper understanding and active engagement, though with some mixed responses towards peer feedback discussions. While the preliminary findings are encouraging, the necessity for further research to refine feedback mechanisms and explore a broader spectrum of medical disciplines with larger sample sizes is underscored. This exploration lays a groundwork for future endeavors aimed at optimizing VP-based learning experiences in medical education.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Grupos Focais , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Currículo , Simulação de Paciente , Medicina de Precisão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Aprendizagem , Competência Clínica , Transferência de Experiência , Avaliação Educacional
3.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 244: 105961, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776633

RESUMO

Given the increasing prevalence of touchscreen devices that are intended for educational purposes, this study explored children's transfer of learning from touchscreen media compared with video and offline face-to-face learning. A total of 76 5- and 6-year-old Chinese kindergarten children (M = 68.21 months, SD = 3.57, range = 62-76; 30 boys and 46 girls) were randomly assigned to learn eight Chinese characters using a touchscreen-based app, using a video, or through face-to-face interaction. Learning was measured via the recall task scores, recognition task scores, recall efficiency, and recognition efficiency. The results revealed that children's recall and recognition task scores improved when learning took place using the touchscreen or face-to-face interaction. Children's recall efficiency and recognition efficiency were strongest in the face-to-face condition, followed by the touchscreen condition and then the video condition. The effects of instructional format on children's recall and recognition scores and recall efficiency were moderated by age; younger children's recall and recognition scores in the face-to-face condition and the touchscreen condition were significantly higher than in the video condition, yet older children's recall and recognition scores did not differ between conditions. However, for recall efficiency, younger children's recall efficiency in the face-to-face condition and the touchscreen condition was significantly higher than in the video condition; older children's recall efficiency in the face-to-face condition was higher than in both the touchscreen condition and the video condition. In conclusion, both face-to-face interaction and a touchscreen-based app were helpful ways for children to learn Chinese characters compared with video, but face-to-face learning showed advantages over touchscreen learning in recall efficiency for older children.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Aplicativos Móveis , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Aprendizagem , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Transferência de Experiência , Gravação em Vídeo
4.
J Vis ; 24(5): 2, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691087

RESUMO

Historically, in many perceptual learning experiments, only a single stimulus is practiced, and learning is often specific to the trained feature. Our prior work has demonstrated that multi-stimulus learning (e.g., training-plus-exposure procedure) has the potential to achieve generalization. Here, we investigated two important characteristics of multi-stimulus learning, namely, roving and feature variability, and their impacts on multi-stimulus learning and generalization. We adopted a feature detection task in which an oddly oriented target bar differed by 16° from the background bars. The stimulus onset asynchrony threshold between the target and the mask was measured with a staircase procedure. Observers were trained with four target orientation search stimuli, either with a 5° deviation (30°-35°-40°-45°) or with a 45° deviation (30°-75°-120°-165°), and the four reference stimuli were presented in a roving manner. The transfer of learning to the swapped target-background orientations was evaluated after training. We found that multi-stimulus training with a 5° deviation resulted in significant learning improvement, but learning failed to transfer to the swapped target-background orientations. In contrast, training with a 45° deviation slowed learning but produced a significant generalization to swapped orientations. Furthermore, a modified training-plus-exposure procedure, in which observers were trained with four orientation search stimuli with a 5° deviation and simultaneously passively exposed to orientations with high feature variability (45° deviation), led to significant orientation learning generalization. Learning transfer also occurred when the four orientation search stimuli with a 5° deviation were presented in separate blocks. These results help us to specify the condition under which multistimuli learning produces generalization, which holds potential for real-world applications of perceptual learning, such as vision rehabilitation and expert training.


Assuntos
Estimulação Luminosa , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia
5.
Conscious Cogn ; 121: 103696, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703539

RESUMO

A serial reaction time task was used to test whether the representations of a probabilistic second-order sequence structure are (i) stored in an effector-dependent, effector-independent intrinsic or effector-independent visuospatial code and (ii) are inter-manually accessible. Participants were trained either with the dominant or non-dominant hand. Tests were performed with both hands in the practice sequence, a random sequence, and a mirror sequence. Learning did not differ significantly between left and right-hand practice, suggesting symmetric intermanual transfer from the dominant to the non-dominant hand and vice versa. In the posttest, RTs were shorter for the practice sequence than for the random sequence, and longest for the mirror sequence. Participants were unable to freely generate or recognize the practice sequence, indicating implicit knowledge of the probabilistic sequence structure. Because sequence-specific learning did not differ significantly between hands, we conclude that representations of the probabilistic sequence structure are stored in an effector-independent visuospatial code.


Assuntos
Tempo de Reação , Percepção Espacial , Transferência de Experiência , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Mãos/fisiologia
6.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 50(7): 740-751, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722580

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that observers can learn to suppress locations in the visual field with a high distractor probability. Here, we investigated whether this learned suppression resulting from a spatial distractor imbalance transfers to a completely different search task that does not contain any distractors. Observers performed the additional singleton task and learned to suppress the location that was likely to contain a color singleton distractor. Within a block, the additional singleton task would randomly switch to a T-among-L task where observers searched in parallel (Experiment 1) or serially (Experiment 2) for a T among Ls. The upcoming search was either unpredictable (Experiment 1/2A) or cued (Experiment 1/2B). The results show that there was transfer of learning from one to the other task as the learned suppression stayed in place after the switch regardless of whether the T-among-L task was performed via parallel or serial search. Moreover, cueing that the task would switch had no effect on performance. The current findings indicate that implicit learned biases are rather inflexible and remain in place even when the task and the required search strategy are dramatically different and even when participants can anticipate that a change in the search required is imminent. This transfer of the suppression to a different task is consistent with the notion that suppression is proactively applied. Because the location is already suppressed proactively, that is, before display onset, regardless which display and task is presented, the suppressed location competes less for attention than all other locations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Transferência de Experiência , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade
7.
Neuropsychologia ; 200: 108910, 2024 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38777117

RESUMO

Attention control is the common element underlying different executive functions. The backward Masking Majority Function Task (MFT-M) requires intensive attention control, and represents a diverse situation where attentional resources need to be allocated dynamically and flexibly to reduce uncertainty. Aiming to train attention control using MFT-M and examine the training transfer effects in various executive functions, we recruited healthy young adults (n = 84) and then equally randomized them into two groups trained with either MFT-M or a sham program for seven consecutive days. Cognitive evaluations were conducted before and after the training, and the electroencephalograph (EEG) signals were recorded for the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R), N-back, and Task-switching (TS) tasks. Compared to the control group, the training group performed better on the congruent condition of Flanker and the double-congruency condition of Flanker and Location in the ANT-R task, and on the learning trials in the verbal memory test. The training group also showed a larger P2 amplitude decrease and P3 amplitude increase in the 2-back task and a larger P3 amplitude increase in the TS task's repeat condition than the control group, indicating improved neural efficiency in two tasks' attentional processes. Introversion moderated the transfer effects of training, as indicated by the significant group*introversion interactions on the post-training 1-back efficiency and TS switching cost. Our results suggested that attention control training with the MFT-M showed a broad transfer scope, and the transfer effect was influenced by the form of training task. Introversion facilitated the transfer to working memory and hindered the transfer to flexibility.


Assuntos
Atenção , Eletroencefalografia , Função Executiva , Transferência de Experiência , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atenção/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Adulto , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Cognição/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
8.
Cortex ; 176: 221-233, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38805784

RESUMO

This study investigates the relationship between inter-individual neurofunctional differences in older adults and cognitive training efficacy, with a specific focus on the association between youth-like task-related brain activation and improvements in working memory (WM) training. The data is part of the Attentional Control Training for Older People (ACTOP) study, 30 older adults completed 12 half-hour WM training sessions. The WM performance slope, assessed at the conclusion of sessions 1 through 6 and sessions 7 to 12, determined early- and late-stage training gains, respectively. Transfer measures were taken before (PRE), midway (MID), and after (POST) training, and the differences in MID-PRE and POST-MID on transfer tasks were used to determine early- and late-stage transfer effects, respectively. The Goodness of Fit (GOF) metric was used to quantify the similarity between each older adult's activation pattern, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to that of a group of younger adults. GOF scores were calculated for activation during low-load (1-0back) and high-load (2-0back) N-back tasks. The results indicated that larger GOF scores in the low-load condition were associated with greater training gains in both the early and late learning stages, and that larger GOF scores in the high-load condition were associated with greater training gains during the late-stage. These findings suggest that a youth-like brain activation pattern in older adults is associated with greater cognitive training benefits, underscoring the role of inter-individual neurofunctional differences to account for variations in training outcomes among older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03532113; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03532113.


Assuntos
Atenção , Encéfalo , Cognição , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Treino Cognitivo
9.
Hum Mov Sci ; 95: 103221, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696914

RESUMO

Robotic assistance can improve the learning of complex motor skills. However, the assistance designed and used up to now mainly guides motor commands for trajectory learning, not dynamics learning. The present study explored how a complex motor skill involving the right arm can be learned without suppressing task dynamics, by means of an innovative device with robotic guidance that allows a torque versus motion profile to be learned with admittance control. In addition, we assessed how concurrent visual feedback on this profile can enhance learning without creating dependency, by means of a fading procedure (i.e., feedback reduction across trials). On Day 1, a Control group performed an acquisition session (6 blocks) featuring concurrent visual feedback, while a Fading group performed the session with a gradual reduction in feedback (from 100% to 0% over the 6 blocks). On Day 2, both groups performed a block first without feedback (i.e., Transfer test), then with feedback (i.e., Retention test). Results revealed that on Day 1, movement rehearsal induced a significant improvement in spatiotemporal parameters for the Control group, compared with the Fading group. On Day 2, the opposite was found when this visual feedback was removed, as the Fading group performed significantly better than the Control group on the Transfer test. Vision allows a relationship to be established between the required torque and the motion profile. Its suppression then forces the processing of more intrinsic information, leading to the development of a stable internal representation of the task.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial , Aprendizagem , Destreza Motora , Robótica , Torque , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Transferência de Experiência
10.
Trials ; 25(1): 340, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injury (ABI) often leads to persisting somatic, cognitive, and social impairments. Cognitive impairments of processing speed, sustained attention, and working memory are frequently reported and may negatively affect activities of daily living and quality of life. Rehabilitation efforts aiming to retrain these cognitive functions have often consisted of computerized training programs. However, few studies have demonstrated effects that transfer beyond the trained tasks. There is a growing optimism regarding the potential usefulness of virtual reality (VR) in cognitive rehabilitation. The research literature is sparse, and existing studies are characterized by considerable methodological weaknesses. There is also a lack of knowledge about the acceptance and tolerability of VR as an intervention method for people with ABI. The present study aims to investigate whether playing a commercially available VR game is effective in training cognitive functions after ABI and to explore if the possible effects transfer into everyday functioning. METHODS: One hundred participants (18-65 years), with a verified ABI, impairments of processing speed/attention, and/or working memory, and a minimum of 12 months post injury will be recruited. Participants with severe aphasia, apraxia, visual neglect, epilepsy, and severe mental illness will be excluded. Participants will be randomized into two parallel groups: (1) an intervention group playing a commercial VR game taxing processing speed, working memory, and sustained attention; (2) an active control group receiving psychoeducation regarding compensatory strategies, and general cognitive training tasks such as crossword puzzles or sudoku. The intervention period is 5 weeks. The VR group will be asked to train at home for 30 min 5 days per week. Each participant will be assessed at baseline with neuropsychological tests and questionnaires, after the end of the intervention (5 weeks), and 16 weeks after baseline. After the end of the intervention period, focus group interviews will be conducted with 10 of the participants in the intervention group, in order to investigate acceptance and tolerability of VR as a training method. DISCUSSION: This study will contribute to improve understanding of how VR is tolerated and experienced by the ABI population. If proven effective, the study can contribute to new rehabilitation methods that persons with ABI can utilize in a home setting, after the post-acute rehabilitation has ended.


Assuntos
Atenção , Lesões Encefálicas , Cognição , Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos , Lesões Encefálicas/reabilitação , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Fatores de Tempo , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Resultado do Tratamento , Jogos de Vídeo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Atividades Cotidianas , Realidade Virtual , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Remediação Cognitiva/métodos , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Transferência de Experiência , Treino Cognitivo , Velocidade de Processamento
11.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(5)2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771242

RESUMO

A recent hypothesis characterizes difficulties in multitasking as being the price humans pay for our ability to generalize learning across tasks. The mitigation of these costs through training has been associated with reduced overlap of constituent task representations within frontal, parietal, and subcortical regions. Transcranial direct current stimulation, which can modulate functional brain activity, has shown promise in generalizing performance gains when combined with multitasking training. However, the relationship between combined transcranial direct current stimulation and training protocols with task-associated representational overlap in the brain remains unexplored. Here, we paired prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation with multitasking training in 178 individuals and collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data pre- and post-training. We found that 1 mA transcranial direct current stimulation applied to the prefrontal cortex paired with multitasking training enhanced training transfer to spatial attention, as assessed via a visual search task. Using machine learning to assess the overlap of neural activity related to the training task in task-relevant brain regions, we found that visual search gains were predicted by changes in classification accuracy in frontal, parietal, and cerebellar regions for participants that received left prefrontal cortex stimulation. These findings demonstrate that prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation may interact with training-related changes to task representations, facilitating the generalization of learning.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Adolescente
12.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 50(6): 535-553, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573694

RESUMO

Learning-guided control refers to adjustments of cognitive control settings based on learned associations between predictive cues and the likelihood of conflict. In three preregistered experiments, we examined transfer of item-specific control settings beyond conditions under which they were learned. In Experiment 1, an item-specific proportion congruence (ISPC) manipulation was applied in a training phase in which target color in a Flanker task was biased (mostly congruent or mostly incongruent). In a subsequent transfer phase, participants performed a color-word Stroop task in which the same target colors were unbiased (50% congruent). The same design was implemented in Experiment 2, but training and transfer tasks were intermixed within blocks. Between-task transfer was evidenced in both experiments, suggesting learned control settings associated with the predictive cues were retrieved when encountering unbiased transfer items. In Experiment 3, we investigated a farther version of between-task transfer by using training (color-word Stroop) and transfer (picture-word Stroop) tasks that did not share the relevant (to-be-named) dimension or response sets. Despite the stronger, between-task boundary, we observed an ISPC effect for the transfer items, but it did not emerge until the second half of the experiment. The results provided converging evidence for the flexibility and automaticity of item-specific control. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Desempenho Psicomotor , Teste de Stroop , Transferência de Experiência , Humanos , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia
13.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 243: 105918, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569300

RESUMO

Fractions are the gatekeepers to advanced mathematics but are difficult to learn. One powerful learning mechanism is analogy, which builds fraction understanding on a pre-existing foundation of integer knowledge. Indeed, a short intervention that aligned fractions and integers on number lines improved children's estimates of fractions (Yu et al., 2022). The breadth and durability of such gains, however, are unknown, and analogies to other sources (such as percentages) may be equally powerful. To investigate this issue, we randomly assigned 109 fourth and fifth graders to one of three experimental conditions with different analogical sources (integers, percentages, or fractions) or a control condition. During training, children in the experimental conditions solved pairs of aligned fraction number line problems and proportionally-equivalent problems expressed in integers, percentages, or fractions (e.g., 3/8 on a 0-1 number line aligned with 3 on a 0-8 number line). Children in the control group solved fraction number-line problems sequentially. At pretest and a two-week delayed posttest, children completed a broad fraction knowledge battery, including estimation, comparison, categorization, ordering, and arithmetic. Results showed that aligning integers and fractions on number lines facilitated better estimation of fractional magnitudes, and the training effect transferred to novel fraction problems after two weeks. Similar gains were not observed for analogies using percentages. These findings highlight the importance of building new mathematical knowledge through analogies to familiar, similar sources.


Assuntos
Transferência de Experiência , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Matemática/educação , Aprendizagem , Formação de Conceito , Conceitos Matemáticos , Resolução de Problemas
14.
Biol Psychol ; 188: 108789, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556043

RESUMO

The retrieval of information from long-term memory is a fundamental cognitive ability, crucial for most aspects of successful human functioning. Whether and how long-term memory retrieval (LTMR) can be improved with training has clear societal importance but also theoretical value for furthering our understanding of underlying mechanisms. Here, we provide electrophysiological evidence for the plasticity of semantic LTMR. Thirty-five university students were randomly assigned to adaptive semantic LTMR training (using a Posner task) or to a non-adaptive version of the training. Before and after training they were assessed on measures of semantic LTMR, working memory, central executive function (interference control, switching), reading fluency, and fluid intelligence. Adaptive LTMR training (relative to non-adaptive training) led to significant improvements in semantic LTMR. The intervention group (in contrast to the control group) also showed a significant reduction in the mean amplitude of the N400 ERP component and 700-1000 ms measured during a semantic LTMR task, suggesting that changes in retrieval occurred at an early/automatic point and retrieval processing in semantic processing. Moreover, transfer effects were observed for switching, working memory and reading fluency, but not for interference control or fluid intelligence. These results point to the plasticity of semantic LTMR, and suggest that improvement in this ability can transfer to other domains for which LTMR is key.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Função Executiva , Memória de Longo Prazo , Leitura , Semântica , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Inteligência/fisiologia , Adolescente
15.
J Mot Behav ; 56(4): 462-474, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484757

RESUMO

This study examined the attentional demands of movement sequence representations at different temporal points after single- or dual-task practice. The visual-spatial representation encodes the movement based on visual-spatial coordinates such as the target locations. The motor representation encodes the movement in motor coordinates including joint angles and muscle activation patterns. Participants were randomly assigned to a single-task or dual-task practice group. Following acquisition, participants performed two retention tests and inter-manual transfer tests, both under dual-task and single-task. The transfer tests consisted of a mirror and non-mirror test and examined motor and visual-spatial representation development. The main finding is that attentional demands of the sequence representations were not affected by the practice condition. However, movement initiation requires more attention than the end of the movement in both representations.


Assuntos
Atenção , Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Humanos , Atenção/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Prática Psicológica , Adulto , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia
16.
Nat Hum Behav ; 8(5): 988-1000, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438651

RESUMO

People who take on challenges and persevere longer are more likely to succeed in life. But individuals often avoid exerting effort, and there is limited experimental research investigating whether we can learn to value effort. We developed a paradigm to test the hypothesis that people can learn to value effort and will seek effortful challenges if directly incentivized to do so. We also dissociate the effects of rewarding people for choosing effortful challenges and performing well. The results provide limited evidence that rewarding effort increased people's willingness to choose harder tasks when rewards were no longer offered (near transfer). There was also mixed evidence that rewarding effort increased willingness to choose harder tasks in another unrelated and unrewarded task (far transfer). These heterogeneous results highlight the need for further research to understand when this paradigm may be the most effective for increasing and generalizing the value of effort.


Assuntos
Motivação , Recompensa , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento de Escolha , Transferência de Experiência
17.
Percept Mot Skills ; 131(3): 770-784, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499008

RESUMO

Most children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have some form of motor deficits. Additionally, based on executive dysfunction, working memory is often atypical in these children. Errorless learning reduces demands on working memory. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of errorless training on these children's ability to learn golf putting. Participants (N = 20), aged 9-13 years (M = 10.15, SD = 1.4), were randomly assigned to either: (a) an errorless (ER) training group (n = 10) or (b) an explicit instruction (EI) group (n = 10). The ER group practiced putting from different distances without any instruction, while the EI group practiced putting at a particular distance with instruction. We measured motor performance (e.g., putting accuracy) and kinematic variables (e.g., putter face angle). One-way analyses of variance showed that motor performance significantly improved in both groups, but that the ER group showed significantly better accuracy retention (p < .028) and transfer learning (p < .047) than the instructional group. Kinematic variables were also significantly different between the two groups on the transfer test. These findings supported the benefits of errorless training compared to explicit instruction to teach motor skills to children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Golfe , Destreza Motora , Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/reabilitação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Criança , Masculino , Adolescente , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Golfe/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
18.
Hum Mov Sci ; 94: 103195, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38359609

RESUMO

Across-task binding is defined as the stimulus/response of one task being linked to the response of another task. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine across-task binding in a continuous movement sequence task with an auditory task of high and low pitch tones and the development of a movement sequence representation. According to the two systems theory of sequence learning, we expected that the developed representation in the across-task binding context relies on the multi-dimensional system rather than on the unidimensional system which is restricted to a set of modules where each module processed information along one task/dimension. An inter-manual transfer design was used to disentangle the sequence representations. The mirror transfer test required the same pattern of muscle activation and joint angles (motor coordinates) in the contralateral limb as experienced during the acquisition phase, while in the non-mirror transfer test, the visual-spatial locations (spatial coordinates) of the target waveform were reinstated. The main finding was that consistently combining visual-spatial positions in a sequence and auditory dimensions such as the tone pitch does not rely on a multidimensional system as predicted by the two-systems theory.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Transferência de Experiência , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia
19.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 86(3): 768-775, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316722

RESUMO

A large number of recent studies have demonstrated that efficient attentional selection depends to a large extent on the ability to extract regularities present in the environment. Through statistical learning, attentional selection is facilitated by directing attention to locations in space that were relevant in the past while suppressing locations that previously were distracting. The current study shows that we are not only able to learn to prioritize locations in space but also locations within objects independent of space. Participants learned that within a specific object, particular locations within the object were more likely to contain relevant information than other locations. The current results show that this learned prioritization was bound to the object as the learned bias to prioritize a specific location within the object stayed in place even when the object moved to a completely different location in space. We conclude that in addition to spatial attention prioritization of locations in space, it is also possible to learn to prioritize relevant locations within specific objects. The current findings have implications for the inferred spatial priority map of attentional weights as this map cannot be strictly retinotopically organized.


Assuntos
Atenção , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Transferência de Experiência , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Aprendizagem por Probabilidade , Orientação , Orientação Espacial , Masculino , Feminino , Aprendizagem Espacial , Tempo de Reação , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Percepção Espacial
20.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 86(3): 1056-1064, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383915

RESUMO

The existence of transfer effects of video games on cognitive performance are controversially discussed in experimental psychology. Whereas recent meta-analyses suggest the absence of far transfer effects, empirical evidence regarding near transfer effects is more controversial. This conceptual replication investigated the short-term near transfer effect of playing Tetris on mental rotation abilities. The design of the conceptual replication was based on a comprehensive compilation of the methods used by previous literature on this topic and advanced in order to reach a high scientific state-of-the-art standard. We ran a high-powered conceptual replication study with 366 participants randomly assigned to either an experimental group playing Tetris or a control group playing Solitaire. Both groups completed three commonly used mental rotation tests in a pre- and a posttest session. Additionally, the experimental group played Tetris while the control group played Solitaire. Playing time was 10 hours in total within 4 weeks. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that this might generate a short-term transfer effect of Tetris on mental rotation. While participants showed a repeated testing effect for the mental rotation tests in both groups, we found evidence that Tetris does not produce a short-term transfer effect on mental rotation. Both gender and expected outcomes did not influence this effect. Our study suggests that playing Tetris does not improve mental rotation skills.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Transferência de Experiência , Jogos de Vídeo , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Rotação , Percepção Espacial , Imaginação , Publicação Pré-Registro
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