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1.
Pediatrics ; 153(6)2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695103

RESUMO

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetic disease characterized by dysfunctional motile cilia and abnormal mucociliary clearance, resulting in chronic sino-oto-pulmonary disease, neonatal respiratory distress, subfertility, and organ laterality defects. Over the past 2 decades, research and international collaborations have led to an improved understanding of disease prevalence, classic and variable phenotypes, novel diagnostics, genotype-phenotype correlations, long term morbidity, and innovative therapeutics. However, PCD is often underrecognized in clinical settings and the recent analyses of genetic databases suggest that only a fraction of these patients are being accurately diagnosed. Knowledge of significant advancements, from pathophysiology to the expanded range of clinical manifestations, will have important clinical impacts. These may include increasing disease recognition, improving diagnostic testing and management, and establishing an adequate pool of affected patients to enroll in upcoming clinical therapeutic trials. The objective of this state-of-the-art review is for readers to gain a greater understanding of the clinical spectrum of motile ciliopathies, cutting-edge diagnostic practices, emerging genotype-phenotype associations, and currently accepted management of people with PCD.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Kartagener , Humanos , Síndrome de Kartagener/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Kartagener/terapia , Síndrome de Kartagener/genética , Fenótipo , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/terapia
2.
Pulm Med ; 2024: 3446536, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650913

RESUMO

Background: The denomination of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) includes several causes, and differences may be expected between the patient subgroups regarding age, comorbidities, and clinical and functional evolution. This study sought to identify the main causes of NCFB in a cohort of stable adult patients and to investigate whether such conditions would be different in their clinical, functional, and quality of life aspects. Methods: Between 2017 and 2019, all active patients with NCFB were prospectively evaluated searching for clinical data, past medical history, dyspnea severity grading, quality of life data, microbiological profile, and lung function (spirometry and six-minute walk test). Results: There was a female predominance; mean age was 54.7 years. Causes were identified in 82% of the patients, the most frequent being postinfections (n = 39), ciliary dyskinesia (CD) (n = 32), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 29). COPD patients were older, more often smokers (or former smokers) and with more comorbidities; they also had worse lung function (spirometry and oxygenation) and showed worse performance in the six-minute walk test (6MWT) (walked distance and exercise-induced hypoxemia). Considering the degree of dyspnea, in the more symptomatic group, patients had higher scores in the three domains and total score in SGRQ, besides having more exacerbations and more patients in home oxygen therapy. Conclusions: Causes most identified were postinfections, CD, and COPD. Patients with COPD are older and have worse pulmonary function and more comorbidities. The most symptomatic patients are clinically and functionally more severe, besides having worse quality of life.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Teste de Caminhada , Humanos , Feminino , Bronquiectasia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Adulto , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Espirometria , Comorbidade
3.
Science ; 384(6694): eadf5489, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38662826

RESUMO

Tubulin, one of the most abundant cytoskeletal building blocks, has numerous isotypes in metazoans encoded by different conserved genes. Whether these distinct isotypes form cell type- and context-specific microtubule structures is poorly understood. Based on a cohort of 12 patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia as well as mouse mutants, we identified and characterized variants in the TUBB4B isotype that specifically perturbed centriole and cilium biogenesis. Distinct TUBB4B variants differentially affected microtubule dynamics and cilia formation in a dominant-negative manner. Structure-function studies revealed that different TUBB4B variants disrupted distinct tubulin interfaces, thereby enabling stratification of patients into three classes of ciliopathic diseases. These findings show that specific tubulin isotypes have distinct and nonredundant subcellular functions and establish a link between tubulinopathies and ciliopathies.


Assuntos
Axonema , Centríolos , Cílios , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Tubulina (Proteína) , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Axonema/metabolismo , Centríolos/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/metabolismo , Mutação , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos Knockout
4.
Ansiedad estrés ; 30(1): 8-16, Jan.-Apr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-CR-335

RESUMO

This work aimed to conduct a comparative study between cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia among adolescents and their caregivers to understand their emotional adaptation to the disease. Thirty-nine dyads of adolescents aged 9-18 years and their primary caregivers were assessed, 69.20 % of whom had a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. For the adolescents, anxious-depressive symptomatology was assessed using the HADS, perceived threat of disease (B-IPQ) and quality of life (CRQ-SAS). For the caregivers, emotional symptomatology (HADS) and perceived stress levels (PIP) were assessed. Mean comparisons were made according to diagnosis and severity of anxious-depressive symptomatology, relationships between variables were studied, and qualitative comparative analysis models, QCA, were performed. Higher levels of anxiety and depression were found in the caregiver than in the adolescent. Adolescents with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a more significant emotional impact than adolescents with cystic fibrosis. However, no differences were found in caregivers according to diagnosis. The adolescent's emotional state, quality of life and perceived threat of disease were related to and explained by the caregiver's emotional state, and vice versa. Therefore, there appears to be a certain degree of emotional contagion between the dyad members. This is a preliminary study that has not been carried out before and can help to understand the psychological aspects associated with these diseases to favour the patient's adjustment and thereby ensure more effective management of the disease and adherence to treatment. (AU)


El objetivo fue realizar un estudio comparativo entre la fibrosis quística y la discinesia ciliar primaria entre adolescentes y sus cuidadores para comprender su adaptación a la enfermedad. Evaluando 39 díadas de adolescentes de entre 9 y 18 años y sus cuidadores, el 69,20% de los cuales tenían un diagnóstico de fibrosis quística. Para los adolescentes, se evaluó la sintomatología ansioso-depresiva mediante el HADS, la amenaza percibida de la enfermedad (B-IPQ) y la calidad de vida (CRQ-SAS). Para los cuidadores, se evaluó la sintomatología emocional (HADS) y los niveles de estrés percibido (PIP). Se realizaron comparaciones de medias según el diagnóstico y la sintomatología ansioso-depresiva, se estudiaron las relaciones entre variables y se realizaron modelos de análisis cualitativo comparativo. Se encontraron mayores niveles ansioso-depresivos en el cuidador que en el adolescente. Los adolescentes con discinesia ciliar primaria presentan un impacto emocional mayor que los adolescentes con fibrosis quística. No se encontraron diferencias en los cuidadores según el diagnóstico. El estado emocional, la calidad de vida y la percepción de amenaza de la enfermedad del adolescente estaban relacionados con el estado emocional del cuidador y se explicaban por él, y viceversa. Por lo tanto, parece existir cierto grado de contagio emocional entre los miembros de la díada. Se trata de un estudio preliminar que no se ha realizado previamente y que ayuda a comprender los aspectos psicológicos asociados a estas enfermedades favoreciendo el ajuste del paciente y asegurar así un manejo más eficaz de la enfermedad y la adherencia al tratamiento. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Fibrose Cística/psicologia , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/psicologia , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/terapia , Cuidadores/psicologia
5.
Cells ; 13(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38534367

RESUMO

We report a novel RPGR missense variant co-segregated with a familial X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) case. The brothers were hemizygous for this variant, but only the proband presented with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Thus, we aimed to elucidate the role of the RPGR variant and other modifier genes in the phenotypic variability observed in the family and its impact on motile cilia. The pathogenicity of the variant on the RPGR protein was evaluated by in vitro studies transiently transfecting the mutated RPGR gene, and immunofluorescence analysis on nasal brushing samples. Whole-exome sequencing was conducted to identify potential modifier variants. In vitro studies showed that the mutated RPGR protein could not localise to the cilium and impaired cilium formation. Accordingly, RPGR was abnormally distributed in the siblings' nasal brushing samples. In addition, a missense variant in CEP290 was identified. The concurrent RPGR variant influenced ciliary mislocalisation of the protein. We provide a comprehensive characterisation of motile cilia in this XLRP family, with only the proband presenting PCD symptoms. The variant's pathogenicity was confirmed, although it alone does not explain the respiratory symptoms. Finally, the CEP290 gene may be a potential modifier for respiratory symptoms in patients with RPGR mutations.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Retinose Pigmentar , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Genes Modificadores , Mutação , Retinose Pigmentar/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300000, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disturbance of mucociliary clearance is an important factor in the pathogenesis of asthma. We hypothesized that common variants in genes responsible for ciliary function may contribute to the development of asthma with certain phenotypes. METHODS: Three independent adult Japanese populations (including a total of 1,158 patients with asthma and 2,203 non-asthmatic healthy participants) were studied. First, based on the ClinVar database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/), we selected 12 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with molecular consequences (missense, nonsense, and 3'-untranslated region mutation) in 5 primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD)-related genes and calculated a PCD-genetic risk score (GRS) as a cumulative effect of these PCD-related genes. Second, we performed a two-step cluster analysis using 3 variables, including PCD-GRS, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%predicted FEV1), and age of asthma onset. RESULTS: Compared to adult asthma clusters with an average PCD-GRS, clusters with high and low PCD-GRS had similar overall characteristics: adult-onset, female predominance, preserved lung function, and fewer features of type 2 immunity as determined by IgE reactivity and blood eosinophil counts. The allele frequency of rs1530496, a SNP representing an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) of DNAH5 in the lung, showed the largest statistically significant difference between the PCD-GRS-High and PCD-GRS-Low asthma clusters (p = 1.4 x 10-15). CONCLUSION: Genes associated with PCD, particularly the common SNPs associated with abnormal expression of DNAH5, may have a certain influence on the development of adult-onset asthma, perhaps through impaired mucociliary clearance.


Assuntos
Asma , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estratificação de Risco Genético , Pulmão/patologia , Asma/patologia , Depuração Mucociliar
7.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 326(4): L468-L476, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318660

RESUMO

Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is low in most patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Decreased ciliary motion could lead to antigen stasis, increasing oxidant production and NO oxidation in the airways. This could both decrease gas phase NO and increase nitrosative stress. We studied primary airway epithelial cells from healthy controls (HCs) and patients with PCD with several different genotypes. We measured antigen clearance in fenestrated membranes exposed apically to the fluorescently labeled antigen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Derp1-f). We immunoblotted for 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and for oxidative response enzymes. We measured headspace NO above primary airway cells without and with a PCD-causing genotype. We measured nNO and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) H2O2 in vivo. Apical Derp1-f was cleared from HC better than from PCD cells. DUOX1 expression was lower in HC than in PCD cells at baseline and after 24-h Derp1-f exposure. HC cells had less 3-NT and NO3- than PCD cells. However, NO consumption by HC cells was less than that by PCD cells; NO loss was prevented by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and by apocynin. nNO was higher in HCs than in patients with PCD. EBC H2O2 was lower in HC than in patients with PCD. The PCD airway epithelium does not optimally clear antigens and is subject to oxidative and nitrosative stress. Oxidation associated with antigen stasis could represent a therapeutic target in PCD, one with convenient monitoring biomarkers.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The PCD airway epithelium does not optimally clear antigens, and antigen exposure can lead to NO oxidation and nitrosative stress. Oxidation caused by antigen stasis could represent a therapeutic target in PCD, and there are convenient monitoring biomarkers.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Síndrome de Kartagener , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Estresse Nitrosativo , Testes Respiratórios , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Síndrome de Kartagener/metabolismo
8.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 41(2): 221-224, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To carry out prenatal diagnosis for a fetus with Meckel syndrome (MKS) and explore its genetic basis. METHODS: A pregnant woman presented at Suzhou Municipal Hospital in February 2018 was selected as the study subject. Clinical data was collected. Muscle tissue sample from the abortus and peripheral blood samples from the couple were collected. Genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and whole exome sequencing. Candidate variant was verified by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: The fetus was found to have microcephaly, oligohydramnios, polycystic kidneys and banana-shaped cerebellum at 18 weeks of gestation. After induction of labor, it was found to have encephalocele, renal cysts and polydactyly. CMA has found no abnormality. Whole exome sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous variants c.296delA (p.Lys99SerfsTer6) and c.1243G>A (p.Val415Met) in the TMEM67 gene. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG), the c.296delA variant was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PM2_Supporting+PP4), whilst the c.1243G>A variant was predicted to be likely pathogenic (PM2_Supporting+PM3+PP3_Moderate+PP4). CONCLUSION: The c.296delA and c.1243G>A compound heterozygous variants of the TMEM67 gene probably underlay the MKS in this fetus.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Doenças Renais Policísticas , Retinose Pigmentar , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Encefalocele/genética , Doenças Renais Policísticas/genética , Feto , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Membrana/genética
9.
J Med Genet ; 61(6): 595-604, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare airway disorder caused by defective motile cilia. Only male patients have been reported with pathogenic mutations in X-linked DNAAF6, which result in the absence of ciliary dynein arms, whereas their heterozygous mothers are supposedly healthy. Our objective was to assess the possible clinical and ciliary consequences of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in these mothers. METHODS: XCI patterns of six mothers of male patients with DNAAF6-related PCD were determined by DNA-methylation studies and compared with their clinical phenotype (6/6 mothers), as well as their ciliary phenotype (4/6 mothers), as assessed by immunofluorescence and high-speed videomicroscopy analyses. The mutated X chromosome was tracked to assess the percentage of cells with a normal inactivated DNAAF6 allele. RESULTS: The mothers' phenotypes ranged from absence of symptoms to mild/moderate or severe airway phenotypes, closely reflecting their XCI pattern. Analyses of the symptomatic mothers' airway ciliated cells revealed the coexistence of normal cells and cells with immotile cilia lacking dynein arms, whose ratio closely mirrored their XCI pattern. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the importance of searching for heterozygous pathogenic DNAAF6 mutations in all female relatives of male PCD patients with a DNAAF6 defect, as well as in females consulting for mild chronic respiratory symptoms. Our results also demonstrate that about one-third-ranging from 20% to 50%-normal ciliated airway cells sufficed to avoid severe PCD, a result paving the way for gene therapy.


Assuntos
Cílios , Inativação do Cromossomo X , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cílios/patologia , Cílios/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/patologia , Metilação de DNA/genética , Dineínas/genética , Síndrome de Kartagener/genética , Síndrome de Kartagener/patologia , Mutação , Fenótipo , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética
10.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 21(3): 438-448, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206973

RESUMO

Rationale: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) are characterized by inherited impaired mucociliary clearance leading to chronic progressive lung disease as well as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The diseases share morphological and functional commonalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs and paranasal sinuses, but comparative MRI studies are lacking. Objectives: To determine whether PCD shows different associations of pulmonary and paranasal sinus abnormalities on MRI and lung function test results in children (infants to adolescents) compared with children with CF. Methods: Eighteen children with PCD (median age, 9.5 [IQR, 3.4-12.7] yr; range, 0-18 yr) and 36 age-matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator modulator-naive children with CF (median age, 9.4 [3.4-13.2] yr; range, 0-18 yr) underwent same-session chest and paranasal sinus MRI as well as spirometry (to determine forced expiratory volume in 1 s percent predicted) and multiple-breath washout (to determine lung clearance index z-score). Pulmonary and paranasal sinus abnormalities were assessed using previously validated chest MRI and CRS-MRI scoring systems. Results: Mean chest MRI global score was similar in children with PCD and CF (15.0 [13.5-20.8] vs. 15.0 [9.0-15.0]; P = 0.601). Consolidations were more prevalent and severe in children with PCD (56% vs. 25% and 1.0 [0.0-2.8] vs. 0.0 [0.0-0.3], respectively; P < 0.05). The chest MRI global score correlated moderately with forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted in children with PCD and children with CF (r = -0.523 and -0.687; P < 0.01) and with lung clearance index in children with CF (r = 0.650; P < 0.001) but not in PCD (r = 0.353; P = 0.196). CRS-MRI sum score and mucopyocele subscore were lower in children with PCD than in children with CF (27.5 [26.3-32.0] vs. 37.0 [37.8-40.0] and 2.0 [0.0-2.0] vs. 7.5 [4.8-9.0], respectively; P < 0.01). CRS-MRI sum score did not correlate with chest MRI score in PCD (r = 0.075-0.157; P = 0.557-0.788) but correlated moderately with MRI morphology score in CF (r = 0.437; P < 0.01). Conclusions: MRI detects differences in lung and paranasal sinus abnormalities between children with PCD and those with CF. Lung disease does not correlate with CRS in PCD but correlates in CF.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Fibrose Cística , Seios Paranasais , Adolescente , Criança , Lactente , Humanos , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Seios Paranasais/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Arch Dis Child ; 109(5): 428-431, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38296613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Thoracic Society guidelines for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) consider the presence of a bi-allelic pathogenic variant confirmatory for the diagnosis of PCD, with genetic testing recommended when other confirmatory diagnostic tests are less accessible. We present our experience with genetic testing as first line with a proposed algorithm for high consanguinity populations. METHODS: Patients with a suspected diagnosis of PCD underwent genetic testing according to a diagnostic algorithm composed of three steps: (1) patients with a previously known causative familial/Bedouin tribal pathogenic variant completed direct testing for a single variant; (2) if the initial test was negative or there was no known pathogenic variant, a PCD genetic panel was completed; (3) if the panel was negative, whole exome sequencing (WES) was completed. RESULTS: Since the implementation of the protocol, diagnosis was confirmed by genetic testing in 21 patients. The majority of them were of Bedouin origin (81%) and had a positive history of consanguinity (65%). Nine patients (43%) had a sibling with a confirmed diagnosis. Most patients (15/21, 71%) were diagnosed by direct pathogenic variant testing and the remainder by genetic panel (19%) and WES (10%). Disease-causing variants were found in nine genes, with DNAL1 (24%) and DNAAF3, DNAAF5, ZMYND10 (14% each) as the most prevalent ones. CONCLUSIONS: In highly consanguineous regions, a stepwise genetic testing approach is recommended. This approach may be particularly useful in areas where the ability to obtain confirmatory diagnostic tests through other modalities is less accessible.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Consanguinidade , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Mutação
13.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 59(4): 891-898, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38169302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International guidelines disagree on how best to diagnose primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), not least because many tests rely on pattern recognition. We hypothesized that quantitative distribution of ciliary ultrastructural and motion abnormalities would detect most frequent PCD-causing groups of genes by soft computing analysis. METHODS: Archived data on transmission electron microscopy and high-speed video analysis from 212 PCD patients were re-examined to quantitate distribution of ultrastructural (10 parameters) and functional ciliary features (4 beat pattern and 2 frequency parameters). The correlation between ultrastructural and motion features was evaluated by blinded clustering analysis of the first two principal components, obtained from ultrastructural variables for each patient. Soft computing was applied to ultrastructure to predict ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and motion patterns by a regression model. Another model classified the patients into the five most frequent PCD-causing gene groups, from their ultrastructure, CBF and beat patterns. RESULTS: The patients were subdivided into six clusters with similar values to homologous ultrastructural phenotype, motion patterns, and CBF, except for clusters 1 and 4, attributable to normal ultrastructure. The regression model confirmed the ability to predict functional ciliary features from ultrastructural parameters. The genetic classification model identified most of the different groups of genes, starting from all quantitative parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Applying soft computing methodologies to PCD diagnostic tests optimizes their value by moving from pattern recognition to quantification. The approach may also be useful to evaluate atypical PCD, and novel genetic abnormalities of unclear disease-producing potential in the future.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Síndrome de Kartagener , Humanos , Síndrome de Kartagener/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Kartagener/genética , Computação Flexível , Cílios/genética , Cílios/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Vídeo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética
15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 12(1): 21-33, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37660715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucociliary clearance is dysfunctional in people with primary ciliary dyskinesia, resulting in the accumulation of dehydrated mucus in the airways that is difficult to clear. We undertook a study to assess the benefit on lung function of treatment with a nebulised epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker, idrevloride, with or without hypertonic saline, in people with primary ciliary dyskinesia. METHODS: The CLEAN-PCD trial was a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial conducted at 32 tertiary adult and paediatric care centres and university hospitals in Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, the UK, and the USA. People with a confirmed diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia, aged 12 years or older, with a percentage of predicted FEV1 (ppFEV1) in the range of 40% to <90%, were randomly assigned in a 2:2:1:1 ratio (block size=6), stratified by ppFEV1 at screening, to one of four sequences: (1) idrevloride in hypertonic saline in treatment period 1 then hypertonic saline in treatment period 2; (2) hypertonic saline in treatment period 1 then idrevloride in hypertonic saline in treatment period 2; (3) idrevloride in treatment period 1 then placebo in treatment period 2; and (4) placebo in treatment period 1 then idrevloride in treatment period 2. The idrevloride dose was 85 µg and hypertonic saline was 4·2% NaCl. 3 mL of each study treatment was nebulised twice daily for 28 days in treatment periods 1 and 2; the two 28-day treatment periods were separated by a 28-day washout period. The primary endpoint was absolute change from baseline in ppFEV1 after 28 days. Safety assessments and reports of adverse events were made at clinic visits during each treatment period and by a follow-up telephone call 28 days after the last dose of study drug. Additionally, adverse events could be reported at a follow-up telephone call 3 days after the start of dosing and as they arose. Participants who received at least one dose of study drug were included in the safety analyses (safety set), and those who also had spirometry data were included in the efficacy analyses (full analysis set). The completed study is registered (EudraCT 2015-004917-26; ClinicalTrials.govNCT02871778). FINDINGS: Between Sep 14, 2016, and May 31, 2018, 216 patients were screened and 123 were randomly assigned to one of four crossover sequences. Across the two treatment periods, treatment with idrevloride in hypertonic saline was initiated in 80 patients and completed in 78 patients (all 78 had data available and were included in the analysis); hypertonic saline initiated in 81 patients and completed in 76 patients (75 had data available and were included in the analysis); idrevloride initiated in 37 patients and completed in 35 patients (34 had data available and were included in the analysis); and placebo initiated in 36 patients and completed in 34 patients (all 34 had data available and were included in the analysis). Greater absolute increases in ppFEV1 from baseline to 28 days of treatment were seen with idrevloride in hypertonic saline (least-squares mean absolute change from baseline 1·0 percentage points, 95% CI -0·4 to 2·4) than with hypertonic saline alone (least-squares mean absolute change from baseline of -0·5 percentage points, -2·0 to 0·9; difference 1·5 percentage points, 95% CI <0·1 to 3·0; p=0·044). There was no significant difference in ppFEV1 for the parallel comparison of idrevloride in hypertonic saline compared with placebo or the crossover comparison of idrevloride with placebo. Adverse events were similar across treatments (57 to 65% of patients). Cough occurred in a greater proportion of participants during treatments that contained idrevloride or hypertonic saline compared with placebo, and oropharyngeal pain occurred in a greater proportion of participants during idrevloride treatments than during treatment with hypertonic saline alone or placebo, whereas chest discomfort was more common during treatments that included hypertonic saline. INTERPRETATION: In this phase 2 crossover study, idrevloride in hypertonic saline was safe and associated with improved lung function over a 28-day period in people with primary ciliary dyskinesia compared with hypertonic saline alone. Larger, longer clinical studies are warranted to explore the potential benefits of idrevloride in combination with hypertonic saline in people with primary ciliary dyskinesia. FUNDING: Parion Sciences, under agreement with Vertex Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Depuração Mucociliar , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Cross-Over , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Epitelial , Resultado do Tratamento , Método Duplo-Cego
16.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 14(4): 866-869, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37565263

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a complex diagnosis without a universal diagnostic test Clinicians must have some skepticism of historic diagnoses of PCD Clinicians should consider a diagnosis of PCD in patients with recalcitrant disease.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Síndrome de Kartagener , Humanos , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Kartagener/diagnóstico
18.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 12(1): e2340, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38073519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS) is a perinatally lethal, genetically heterogeneous, autosomal recessive condition caused by defective primary cilium formation. So far, the association of TXNDC15-related MKS has been reported in only five independent families from diverse ethnic origins, including Saudi, Pakistani, Estonian, and Indian. Here, we report a fetus diagnosed with MKS at 12 weeks, exhibiting typical ultrasound findings. METHODS: Low-coverage whole-genome sequencing was used to identify chromosomal abnormalities. Trio-base whole exome sequencing (trio-WES) was performed to investigate the potential pathogenic variants associated with MKS. Preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disorders (PGT-M) was applied to prevent the transmission of the pathogenic variant. RESULTS: A novel homozygous pathogenic variant in the TXNDC15 gene was identified through trio-WES. The application of PGT-M successfully prevented the transmission of the pathogenic variant and resulted in an ongoing pregnancy. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a TXNDC15 variant in the Chinese population and the first PGT case of TXNDC15-related MKS worldwide. The successful application of PGT-M in this family provides a potential approach for other monogenic diseases. Our case expands the variant spectrum of TXNDC15 and contributes to the molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling for MKS. This case underscores the importance of appropriate genetic testing methods and accurate genetic counseling in the diagnosis of rare monogenic diseases.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Encefalocele , Doenças Renais Policísticas , Retinose Pigmentar , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Genéticos , Doenças Renais Policísticas/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , China
19.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 59(3): 695-706, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38088243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES-AIM: We aimed to show the composition and structure of and explore affecting factors on airway microbiota in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) patients using culture-independent techniques. METHOD: A cross-sectional observational study was performed. We recruited 14 PCD patients (seven pairs of siblings) and nine parents. Bacterial rDNA was extracted from sputum and nasal samples. Sputum samples were also inoculated on suitable bacteriological media. RESULTS: Thirty-three separate genera were detected in sputum samples of PCD patients, and 41 were in nasal samples of parents. The detected genera were dominated by phyla Proteobacteria in PCD patients and their parents. Culture-dependent analyses could not detect many of the bacterial species detected with culture-independent analyses. There were no significant differences in alpha diversity between the siblings' pairs, and siblings' samples did not cluster together nearly as strongly as nonsiblings' samples. Patients who had no new complaints and no bacterial growth with the culture-dependent method at the time of study and patients who had no Haemophilus influenzae growth in the previous year had a significantly greater diversity (p < .05). Microbiota communities tended to cluster together by age, pulmonary exacerbation status, the existence of at least one H. influenzae growth with culture-dependent analyses in the previous year, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec z and FEF25-75 z-scores. CONCLUSION: The airway microbiota of patients with PCD have presented more diverse bacterial communities than had been indicated with culture-dependent methods. The study identifies relationships between bacterial airway microbiota composition and the clinical measures of patients. Sibling pairs have no more community similarities than nonsibling PCD patients. Our results may indicate that the patients' clinical characteristics, which determine the disease severity, might affect the PCD microbiome.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar , Microbiota , Humanos , Irmãos , Estudos Transversais , Pulmão , Microbiota/genética , Escarro/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética
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