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1.
Nature ; 627(8002): 182-188, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38267579

RESUMO

The origins of treponemal diseases have long remained unknown, especially considering the sudden onset of the first syphilis epidemic in the late 15th century in Europe and its hypothesized arrival from the Americas with Columbus' expeditions1,2. Recently, ancient DNA evidence has revealed various treponemal infections circulating in early modern Europe and colonial-era Mexico3-6. However, there has been to our knowledge no genomic evidence of treponematosis recovered from either the Americas or the Old World that can be reliably dated to the time before the first trans-Atlantic contacts. Here, we present treponemal genomes from nearly 2,000-year-old human remains from Brazil. We reconstruct four ancient genomes of a prehistoric treponemal pathogen, most closely related to the bejel-causing agent Treponema pallidum endemicum. Contradicting the modern day geographical niche of bejel in the arid regions of the world, the results call into question the previous palaeopathological characterization of treponeme subspecies and showcase their adaptive potential. A high-coverage genome is used to improve molecular clock date estimations, placing the divergence of modern T. pallidum subspecies firmly in pre-Columbian times. Overall, our study demonstrates the opportunities within archaeogenetics to uncover key events in pathogen evolution and emergence, paving the way to new hypotheses on the origin and spread of treponematoses.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano , Treponema pallidum , Infecções por Treponema , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Brasil/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , História do Século XV , História Antiga , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/história , Sífilis/microbiologia , Sífilis/transmissão , Treponema pallidum/classificação , Treponema pallidum/genética , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Treponema/epidemiologia , Infecções por Treponema/história , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia , Infecções por Treponema/transmissão
2.
PLoS One ; 18(8): e0289764, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37561744

RESUMO

Treponeme-associated hoof disease (TAHD) is a debilitating disease of free-ranging elk (Cervus canadensis) in the northwestern U.S. While treponemes are associated with lesions, the etiology and transmissibility between elk are unknown. Our objective was to determine whether the disease can be environmentally transmitted to captive elk. Four individually housed treatment elk and 2 control elk were challenged with soil mixed with inoculum prepared from free-ranging elk hooves from TAHD-positive elk or autoclaved hooves from normal elk, respectively. The inoculum for each group was applied to the interdigital space and added to pre-existing soil in each pen. Eight challenges were conducted at 1-4-week intervals and lesion development was assessed during a 138-day challenge period that was followed by a 170-day monitoring period to document lesion progression. All treatment elk, but no control elk, developed gross and histologic lesions consistent with TAHD. Treponema phylotypes similar to those in bovine digital dermatitis in cattle were detected using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing from lesions in all treatment elk, but no control elk, during the challenge period. Lesions progressed from ulcerations in the interdigital space to extensive ulceration and underrunning of the hoof capsule by 35 and 173 days following the initial inoculation, respectively. Lameness in treatment elk was correlated with lesion development (R = 0.702, p≤0.001), and activity of infected elk was reduced during the challenge (p≤0.001) and monitoring periods (p = 0.004). Body condition was significantly lower in treatment than control elk 168 days following the initial inoculation (p = 0.05) and at each individual elk's study endpoint (p = 0.006). Three of 4 treatment elk were euthanized when they reached humane endpoints, and one elk recovered. These results provide direct evidence that TAHD is a transmissible infectious disease in elk. As such, actions that reduce transmission risk can support disease management and prevention.


Assuntos
Cervos , Dermatite Digital , Casco e Garras , Infecções por Treponema , Animais , Bovinos , Casco e Garras/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Treponema/genética , Dermatite Digital/patologia , Cervos/genética , Infecções por Treponema/veterinária
3.
Anaerobe ; 82: 102766, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37479021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD), a painful infectious foot disease in dairy cattle, endemic in many countries worldwide, causes substantial economic and welfare impacts. Treponema spp. are considered key to BDD pathogenesis. To aid infection reservoir identification and control measure development, survival of BDD treponemes was investigated in different temperatures (4, 12, 20, 37, 45 and 60 °C), pH values (5-9.0), dairy cattle faeces and bedding types: straw shavings, sand, sand containing 5% lime (w/w) and recycled manure solids (RMS). METHODS: A turbidity microplate methodology was adapted to measure pH impact on growth. Survival of BDD treponemes for the different conditions were assessed by sub-cultures of microcosms over different time points. RESULTS: BDD treponemes remained viable between 4 and 37 °C and pH 5.5 and 9.0 under anaerobic conditions. In sterile faecal microcosms, incubated aerobically at 12 °C, BDD treponemes remained viable for a median of 1 day (15 min - 6 day range). Variation in duration of survival and ability to grow was observed between phylogroups and strains. In aerobic microcosms, T. phagedenis T320A remained viable for the full 7 days in sand, 6 days in sawdust, 5 days in RMS, but was not viable after 15 min in straw or sand containing 5% (w/w) lime. CONCLUSIONS: Treponeme survival conditions identified here should enhance future BDD infection reservoir surveys and enable control measures. Of note, straw or sand containing 5% (w/w) lime should be assessed in BDD field trials. Finally, these data indicate BDD treponemes exhibit characteristics of facultative anaerobes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Dermatite Digital , Infecções por Treponema , Bovinos , Animais , Fazendas , Areia , Infecções por Treponema/veterinária , Treponema/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia
4.
Vet Pathol ; 60(2): 190-198, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565270

RESUMO

Keratoma is an aberrant keratin mass thought to originate from epidermal horn-producing cells interposed between the stratum medium of the hoof wall and the underlying third phalanx. The cause is unknown, although the presence of keratomas is frequently associated with chronic irritation, focal infection, or trauma. A total of 167 donkeys with keratomas were presented in this study. The diagnosis of a keratoma was based on clinical signs, radiography, and histopathologic examination. Surgical excision was attempted on all donkeys with lameness unless euthanasia was advised. Histopathologic examination, including Giemsa, periodic acid Schiff, and Young's silver special histochemical stains, was performed and showed the presence of fungal hyphae and spirochete bacteria within the degenerate keratin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for treponeme bacteria was performed on 10 keratoma lesions and 9 healthy pieces of hoof (controls). All healthy donkey tissues were negative for the 3 recognized digital dermatitis (DD) treponeme phylogroups, whereas 3 of 10 (30%) donkey keratoma samples were positive for one of the DD treponeme phylogroups. Routine fungal culture and PCR for fungi were performed on 8 keratoma lesions and 8 healthy pieces of hoof (controls). Keratinopathogenic fungi were detected in 1 of 8 (12.5%) keratomas, while only non-keratinopathogenic, environmental fungi were detected in 8 control healthy hoof samples. This is the first time the DD treponemes phylogroup and keratinopathogenic fungi have been detected in keratomas. Further studies are required to assess the significance of this finding.


Assuntos
Dermatite Digital , Ceratose , Infecções por Treponema , Animais , Treponema , Spirochaetales , Equidae , Ceratose/cirurgia , Ceratose/veterinária , Fungos , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia , Infecções por Treponema/veterinária
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16339, 2022 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36175452

RESUMO

Globally, 94% of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) clinical strains belong to the SS14-like group and 6% to the Nichols-like group, with a prevalence of macrolide resistance of 90%. Our goal was to determine whether local TPA strain distribution and macrolide resistance frequency have changed significantly since our last report, which revealed that Buenos Aires had a high frequency of Nichols-like strains (27%) and low levels of macrolide resistance (14%). Swab samples from patients with suspected syphilis were collected during 2015-2019 and loci TP0136, TP0548, TP0705 were sequenced in order to perform multilocus sequence typing. Strains were classified as Nichols-like or SS14-like. The presence of macrolide resistance-associated mutations was determined by examination of the 23S rDNA gene sequence. Of 46 typeable samples, 37% were classified as Nichols-like and 63% as SS14-like. Macrolide resistance prevalence was 45.7%. Seven allelic profiles were found, five were SS14-like and two were Nichols-like. The frequency of Nichols-like strains increased between studies (26.8% vs. 37%, p = 0.36). A dramatic increase was found in the frequency of macrolide resistant strains between studies (14.3% vs. 45.7%, p = 0.005). Our results are in agreement with international trends and underscore the need to pursue further TPA molecular typing studies in South America.


Assuntos
Treponema pallidum , Infecções por Treponema , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , DNA Ribossômico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Treponema , Treponema pallidum/genética
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 844: 157114, 2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787909

RESUMO

Although the link between microbial infections and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been demonstrated in multiple studies, the involvement of pathogens in the development of AD remains unclear. Here, we investigated the frequency of the 10 most commonly cited viral (HSV-1, EBV, HHV-6, HHV-7, and CMV) and bacterial (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema spp.) pathogens in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues of AD patients. We have used an in-house multiplex PCR kit for simultaneous detection of five bacterial and five viral pathogens in serum and CSF samples from 50 AD patients and 53 healthy controls (CTRL). We observed a significantly higher frequency rate of AD patients who tested positive for Treponema spp. compared to controls (AD: 62.2 %; CTRL: 30.3 %; p-value = 0.007). Furthermore, we confirmed a significantly higher occurrence of cases with two or more simultaneous infections in AD patients compared to controls (AD: 24 %; CTRL 7.5 %; p-value = 0.029). The studied pathogens were detected with comparable frequency in serum and CSF. In contrast, Borrelia burgdorferi, human herpesvirus 7, and human cytomegalovirus were not detected in any of the studied samples. This study provides further evidence of the association between microbial infections and AD and shows that paralleled analysis of multiple sample specimens provides complementary information and is advisable for future studies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Treponema , Infecções por Treponema , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Herpesvirus Humano 6 , Humanos , Infecções por Treponema/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269521, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679311

RESUMO

The efficacy of salicylic acid paste (SA) in the treatment of ulcerative bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) was assessed by combining clinical and histopathological analyses with molecular biological techniques. The latter were conducted in a blinded manner to reach maximum objectivity. Prior to treatment, M2-stage BDD lesions (n = 26, diagnosed in 21 dairy cows) exhibited ulceration, with severe perivascular, chronic, lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis and extensive keratinolysis being noted in most cases. Pretreatment biopsy samples (n = 12) followed by povidone-iodine ointment under bandage for one week before administration of SA paste were tested positive for Treponema spp. by blinded PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Subsequent treatment consisted of application of SA and bandaging at weekly intervals until lesions had completely resolved. The treatment duration ranged between 2 and 4 weeks. Complete healing was achieved in 100% of cases, with 2/21 animals requiring a second round of treatment upon disease reoccurrence. Importantly, only 3/26 biopsies taken from previously affected sites still tested positive by Treponema PCR, and in another biopsy, the outermost layers of the stratum corneum scored weakly positive by Treponema-specific FISH. None of these Treponema DNA-positive biopsies showed signs of ulceration. One case exhibited focal keratinolysis. Positive PCR or FISH in these cases may have arisen from DNA traces of dead bacteria or environmental contamination during biopsy harvesting. To our knowledge, this is the first study on blinded molecular biological monitoring of the therapeutic efficacy of SA with respect to treponemal infection, and on complete BDD M2-stage remission in all animals achieved by SA treatment according to an optimized protocol. Although the etiology of BDD is considered as multifactorial, our data further support the concept that treponemes have a decisive role in BDD pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Dermatite , Dermatite Digital , Infecções por Treponema , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Dermatite Digital/microbiologia , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Ácido Salicílico/uso terapêutico , Treponema/genética , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(6): e0009900, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687593

RESUMO

Bejel (endemic syphilis) is a neglected non-venereal disease caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN). Although it is mostly present in hot, dry climates, a few cases have been found outside of these areas. The aim of this work was the sequencing and analysis of TEN isolates obtained from "syphilis patients" in Cuba, which is not considered an endemic area for bejel. Genomes were obtained by pool segment genome sequencing or direct sequencing methods, and the bioinformatics analysis was performed according to an established pipeline. We obtained four genomes with 100%, 81.7%, 52.6%, and 21.1% breadth of coverage, respectively. The sequenced genomes revealed a non-clonal character, with nucleotide variability ranging between 0.2-10.3 nucleotide substitutions per 100 kbp among the TEN isolates. Nucleotide changes affected 27 genes, and the analysis of the completely sequenced genome also showed a recombination event between tprC and tprI, in TP0488 as well as in the intergenic region between TP0127-TP0129. Despite limitations in the quality of samples affecting breadth of sequencing coverage, the determined non-clonal character of the isolates suggests a persistent infection in the Cuban population rather than a single outbreak caused by imported case.


Assuntos
Sífilis , Infecções por Treponema , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Nucleotídeos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Treponema , Treponema pallidum/genética , Infecções por Treponema/epidemiologia
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 862491, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422800

RESUMO

Several recent studies have focused on the identification, functional analysis, and structural characterization of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Treponema pallidum (Tp). The Tp species encompasses the highly related pallidum, pertenue, and endemicum subspecies of this pathogen, known to be the causative agents of syphilis, yaws, and bejel, respectively. These studies highlighted the importance of identifying surface-exposed OMP regions and the identification of B-cell epitopes that could be protective and used in vaccine development efforts. We previously reported that the TprC and TprD OMPs of Tp are predicted to contain external loops scattered throughout the entire length of the proteins, several of which show a low degree of sequence variability among strains and subspecies. In this study, these models were corroborated using AlphaFold2, a state-of-the-art protein structure modeling software. Here, we identified B-cell epitopes across the full-length TprC and TprD variants using the Geysan pepscan mapping approach with antisera from rabbits infected with syphilis, yaws, and bejel strains and from animals immunized with refolded recombinant TprC proteins from three syphilis strains. Our results show that the humoral response is primarily directed to sequences predicted to be on surface-exposed loops of TprC and TprD proteins, and that the magnitude of the humoral response to individual epitopes differs among animals infected with various syphilis strains and Tp subspecies. Rather than exhibiting strain-specificity, antisera showed various degrees of cross-reactivity with variant sequences from other strains. The data support the further exploration of TprC and TprD as vaccine candidates.


Assuntos
Sífilis , Infecções por Treponema , Bouba , Animais , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/genética , Humanos , Soros Imunes , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Treponema pallidum/genética , Desenvolvimento de Vacinas
10.
J Dent Res ; 101(8): 992-1001, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193423

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid ß (Aß) deposition are the key pathological hallmarks of AD. Recent studies have shown that periodontitis is a significant risk factor for AD. The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and its virulence factors have been shown to initiate and promote the hallmark pathologies and behavioral symptoms of AD. A possible link between Treponema denticola, another main periodontal pathogen, and AD has been reported. However, the role of T. denticola in AD pathogenesis is still unclear, and whether T. denticola and P. gingivalis exert a synergistic effect to promote AD development needs to be further studied. In this study, we investigated whether oral infection with T. denticola caused tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampi of mice and explored the underlying mechanisms. Orally administered T. denticola induced alveolar bone resorption, colonized brain tissues, and increased the activity of the phosphokinase GSK3ß by activating neuroinflammation in the hippocampus, thus promoting the hyperphosphorylation of the tau protein at Ser396, Thr181, and Thr231 in mice. An in vitro study with BV2 and N2a cell models of T. denticola invasion also verified the role of this pathogen in tau phosphorylation. T. denticola and P. gingivalis were not found to exert a synergistic effect on tau phosphorylation. In summary, these findings provide new insight into the important role of T. denticola in AD pathogenesis, providing biological connections between periodontal diseases and AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Infecções por Treponema , Perda do Osso Alveolar/microbiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/microbiologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Treponema denticola , Infecções por Treponema/patologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
11.
J Dent Res ; 101(6): 704-713, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045750

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between periodontitis and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and periodontal pathogens such as Treponema denticola are implicated in the pathogenesis of OSCC. Previous studies have mainly focused on T. denticola surface proteins-for example, chymotrypsin-like proteinase, which was detected in the majority of orodigestive tumor tissues.T. denticola may influence the development of OSCC. Nevertheless, the potential direct regulatory mechanism of T. denticola in OSCC is still unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the direct effect of T. denticola on OSCC cell proliferation and elucidate potential mechanisms of T. denticola in contributing to cell proliferation. A series of in vitro experiments (e.g., CCK-8, EdU, flow cytometry) were performed to explore the effect of T. denticola on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Mice experiments were performed to explore the effect of T. denticola on tumor growth. Whole mRNA transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to explore the intracellular signaling pathway. Our study found that T. denticola could invade Cal-27 cells and directly promote cell proliferation, regulate the cell cycle, and inhibit apoptosis. T. denticola could also promote the growth of OSCC tumors in mice, and it upregulated Ki67 expression. Regarding the mechanism, T. denticola could promote the development of OSCC by activating the TGF-ß pathway. In conclusion, T. denticola could promote OSCC cell proliferation directly, and the mechanism was associated with intracellular TGF-ß pathway activation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Treponema denticola , Infecções por Treponema , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Camundongos , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/microbiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta , Treponema denticola/patogenicidade , Infecções por Treponema/complicações
12.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(1)2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791386

RESUMO

The incidence of syphilis has risen worldwide in the last decade in spite of being an easily treated infection. The causative agent of this sexually transmitted disease is the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (TPA), very closely related to subsp. pertenue (TPE) and endemicum (TEN), responsible for the human treponematoses yaws and bejel, respectively. Although much focus has been placed on the question of the spatial and temporary origins of TPA, the processes driving the evolution and epidemiological spread of TPA since its divergence from TPE and TEN are not well understood. Here, we investigate the effects of recombination and selection as forces of genetic diversity and differentiation acting during the evolution of T. pallidum subspecies. Using a custom-tailored procedure, named phylogenetic incongruence method, with 75 complete genome sequences, we found strong evidence for recombination among the T. pallidum subspecies, involving 12 genes and 21 events. In most cases, only one recombination event per gene was detected and all but one event corresponded to intersubspecies transfers, from TPE/TEN to TPA. We found a clear signal of natural selection acting on the recombinant genes, which is more intense in their recombinant regions. The phylogenetic location of the recombination events detected and the functional role of the genes with signals of positive selection suggest that these evolutionary processes had a key role in the evolution and recent expansion of the syphilis bacteria and significant implications for the selection of vaccine candidates and the design of a broadly protective syphilis vaccine.


Assuntos
Sífilis , Infecções por Treponema , Bouba , Humanos , Filogenia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/microbiologia , Treponema pallidum/genética , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia , Bouba/microbiologia
13.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(3): 444-450, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836779

RESUMO

Bejel, caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. Endemicum (TEN), is a locally transmitted disease among children and juveniles in hot and dry regions. The number of adult cases of TEN infection outside of endemic areas has recently increased. We clinically examined five cases of TEN infection among adult cases previously reported in Japan. TEN infection mainly developed among young to middle-aged men who have sex with men (MSM). The clinical features of cases of TEN infection were similar to those of primary- and secondary-stage T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) infection. Genital lesions were common as the primary lesion. The clinical features and laboratory parameters of cases of TEN infection were similar to those of TPA infection. Most of the isolated strains had the A2058G mutation in 23S rDNA, which is responsible for resistance to macrolides. We also performed the systemic literature review of the TEN cases outside the endemic countries. The recent reported cases diagnosed with molecular methods shared the clinical features, occurred in young-to middle-aged sexually active persons in urban areas of developed countries and often accompanied with genital lesions, which were distinct from the classic description of bejel. This case series and the literature review provides important clinical insights and will contribute to the clinical detection of this rarely identified disease in developed countries. The surveillance of treponematoses, including TEN infection, using molecular diagnostic techniques is also warranted in developed countries, for the purpose of grasping the epidemic situation and control the local transmission.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Sífilis , Infecções por Treponema , Adulto , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Treponema , Treponema pallidum/genética
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 4462389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796232

RESUMO

Treponemal infections can be blood-borne with great public health consequences. This study is aimed at comparatively describing the five-year (2013-2017) regional epidemiology of treponemal infection using pregnant women in the sentinel survey and apparently healthy blood donors as a proxy for the general population at four sentinel sites in the Volta and Oti Regions of Ghana. We analyzed retrospective data from 17,744 prospective blood donors aged 18 to 58 years and 7,817 pregnant women in a sentinel survey with ages from 15 to 49 years at Hohoe, Ho, Tongu, and Krachi West sentinel sites in the Volta and Oti Regions. Laboratory data extracted include variables such as age, gender, date of blood donation, and Treponema pallidum chromatographic immunoassay results from the blood banks of the four study sites. The five-year treponemal infection rate among the pregnant women in the sentinel survey and prospective blood donors was 0.79% and 2.38%, respectively. Site-specific infection rate for population-based/sentinel survey was 4.6%/1.1%, 2.0%/0.5%, 1.3%/1.1, and 1.2%/0.3% for Hohoe, Ho, Krachi West, and Tongu, respectively. Significant gender disparity in Treponemal infection rate exists with a male preponderance. The regional infection rate in the sentinel survey is lower compared to the general population. Therefore, the use of pregnant women as a proxy for population estimates could underestimate the burden in the study jurisdiction.


Assuntos
Infecções por Treponema/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis , Treponema pallidum , Infecções por Treponema/complicações , Adulto Jovem
15.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0070121, 2021 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585987

RESUMO

More than 75 species/species-level phylotypes belonging to the genus Treponema inhabit the human oral cavity. Treponema denticola is commonly associated with periodontal disease, but the etiological roles and ecological distributions of other oral treponemes remain more obscure. Here, we compared the clinical distributions of phylogroup 1 and 2 oral treponemes in subgingival plaque sampled from Chinese subjects with periodontitis (n = 10) and gingivitis (n = 8) via sequence analysis of the highly conserved pyrH housekeeping gene. Two PCR primer sets that targeted oral phylogroup 1 and 2 treponeme pyrH genes were used to construct plasmid clone amplicon libraries for each subject, and the libraries were sequenced for bioinformatic analysis. A total of 1,204 quality-filtered, full-length pyrH gene sequences were obtained from the cohort (median number, 61.5 cloned pyrH sequences per subject; range, 59 to 83), which were assigned to 34 pyrH genotypes (designated pyrH001 to pyrH034; 97% sequence identity cutoff). Eighteen pyrH genotypes (536 pyrH sequences) corresponded to phylogroup 1 treponeme taxa (including Treponema vincentii and Treponema medium). Sixteen pyrH genotypes (668 pyrH sequences) corresponded to T. denticola and other phylogroup 2 treponemes. Samples from periodontitis subjects contained a greater diversity of phylogroup 2 pyrH genotypes than did samples from gingivitis subjects (Mann-Whitney U test). One T. denticola pyrH genotype (pyrH001) was highly prevalent, detected in 10/10 periodontitis and 6/8 gingivitis subjects. Several subjects harbored multiple T. denticola pyrH genotypes. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) revealed no significant differences in overall pyrH genotype compositions between periodontitis and gingivitis subjects. Taken together, our results show that subjects with periodontitis and gingivitis commonly harbor highly taxonomically diverse communities of oral treponemes. IMPORTANCE Periodontal diseases, such as periodontitis, are highly complex, multifactorial inflammatory infectious diseases affecting the gums and tooth-supporting structures. They are caused by chronic accumulations of dental plaque below the gum line that typically comprise hundreds of different bacterial species. Certain species of spiral-shaped bacteria known as treponemes, most notably Treponema denticola, are proposed to play key roles in the development and progression of periodontal disease. In our study, we characterized the genetic lineages of T. denticola, Treponema vincentii, Treponema medium, and related species of treponeme bacteria that were present in dental plaque samples from Chinese subjects with periodontal disease. Our results revealed that individual subjects commonly harbored multiple genetic lineages (strains) of T. denticola and other species of treponeme bacteria. Taken together, our results indicate that highly diverse and complex populations of oral treponemes may be present in dental plaque, which may potentially play important roles affecting periodontal health status.


Assuntos
Gengivite/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Filogenia , Treponema denticola/classificação , Treponema/classificação , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Treponema/genética , Treponema denticola/genética
16.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370035

RESUMO

RESUMO Introdução: Quando a sífilis é diagnosticada ainda no pré-natal, torna-se possível estabelecer uma estratégia de prevenção para a sífilis congênita. Em situações especiais, esta detecção é feita através do teste não treponêmico (VDRL), ou ainda por teste rápido imunocromatográfico. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de sorologia positiva do teste VDRL em gestantes, bem como a realização do teste rápido imunocromatográfico, por meio da análise de registros da carteira de pré-natal e registros de testes rápidos imunocromatográficos em um hospital de referência do Sul do Brasil, o Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição (HNSC), no ano de 2015. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico de delineamento transversal. A coleta de dados foi realizada no período compreendido entre agosto a setembro de 2017. Nos procedimentos do estudo foram coletados os dados de VDRL nas carteiras de pré-natal pelo sistema TASY® e registros de execução do teste rápido imunocromatográfico pelo livro disponibilizado no setor de obstetrícia referente ao ano de 2015. Resultados: Das 2.367 gestantes analisadas no HNSC, 29 (1,2%) apresentaram resultado positivo para o teste de triagem para a sífilis, o VDRL, durante a gestação. No ano de 2015 foram realizados 61 testes rápidos imunocromatográficos, com quatro resultados positivos (6,5%) de gestantes encaminhadas ao hospital para parto sem dados e exames feitos no pré-natal. Conclusões: A partir dos resultados deste estudo, sugere-se que sejam realizadas análises epidemiológicas constantes referentes à sífilis congênita, principalmente a partir da introdução dos testes rápidos imunocromatográficos em hospitais. PALAVRA-CHAVE: Sífilis, Sífilis congênita, Sorodiagnóstico da sífilis, Imunocromatografia, Infecções por treponema


ABSTRACT Introduction: When syphilis is diagnosed prenatally, it becomes possible to establish a prevention strategy for congenital syphilis. In special situations, this detection is done through the non-treponemal test (VDRL), or even through the rapid immunochromatographic test. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of positive serology of the VDRL test in pregnant women, as well as rapid immunochromatographic testing, through the analysis of prenatal care records and rapid immunochromatographic test records in Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição (HNSC), a reference hospital in Southern Brazil, in 2015. Methods: Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Data collection was carried out in the period from August to September 2017. In the study procedures, VDRL data were collected from prenatal care cards through the TASY® system and rapid immunochromatographic testing records from the book available in the obstetrics sector for the year 2015. Results: Of the 2,367 pregnant women analyzed at HNSC, 29 (1.2%) had a positive result for VDRL, the screening test for syphilis, during pregnancy. In 2015, 61 rapid immunochromatographic tests were carried out, with four positive results (6.5%) of pregnant women referred to the hospital for delivery without data and tests performed in the prenatal period. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that constant epidemiological analyses be carried out regarding congenital syphilis, especially after the introduction of rapid immunochromatographic tests in hospitals. KEYWORDS: Syphilis, Congenital Syphilis, Syphilis serodiagnosis, Immunochromatography, Treponemal infection


Assuntos
Humanos , Sífilis Congênita , Infecções por Treponema , Testes Sorológicos , Sífilis
17.
Acta Histochem ; 123(6): 151767, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chymotrypsin-like-proteinase of Treponema denticola (Td-CTLP) can stimulate the protein expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 (or collagenase-2), a potent tissue destructive enzyme from gingival cells in vitro. The aims of this study were 1) to demonstrate the proMMP-8 (or latent MMP-8) activation by Td-CTLP in vitro and 2) to detect Td-CTLP and MMP-8 protein levels in the tissue samples of peri-implantitis and periodontitis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: proMMP-8 activation by Td-CTLP was analyzed by immunoblots. Tissue specimens were collected from 38 systemically healthy and non-smoking patients; 14 of whom had moderate to severe periodontitis, 10 of whom were suffering from peri-implantitis, and finally 14 of whom showed no sign of periodontal inflammation nor radiological bone decay (control group). The immune-expression levels of MMP-8 and Td-CTLP in the epithelium and the connective tissue were analyzed immunohistochemically. A pixel color-intensity analyze was performed with ImageJ software (version 1.46c; Rasband WS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) to obtain a comparable numeral score for each patient's epithelium and connective tissue MMP-8 and Td-CTLP enzyme level. RESULTS: Td-CTLP activated proMMP-8 in vitro by converting the 70-75 kDa proMMP-8 to 65 kDa active MMP-8. Also, lower molecular size 25-50 kDa parts of MMP-8 were formed. There was no statistically significant difference between the study groups in terms of their MMP-8 and Td-CTLP levels in the epithelium or in the connective tissue. CONCLUSION: Regarding the limits of this study, it can thus be said that the Td-CTLP enzyme can activate the host proMMP-8 enzyme. Tissue protein levels of MMP-8 and Td-CTLP do not seem to be changed in peri-implantitis and in periodontitis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Quimases/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 8 da Matriz/metabolismo , Peri-Implantite , Periodontite , Treponema denticola/enzimologia , Infecções por Treponema , Adulto , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peri-Implantite/enzimologia , Peri-Implantite/microbiologia , Periodontite/enzimologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Infecções por Treponema/enzimologia , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009311, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255809

RESUMO

Periodontal disease is driven by dysbiosis in the oral microbiome, resulting in over-representation of species that induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and tissue-remodeling matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the periodontium. These chronic tissue-destructive inflammatory responses result in gradual loss of tooth-supporting alveolar bone. The oral spirochete Treponema denticola, is consistently found at significantly elevated levels in periodontal lesions. Host-expressed Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) senses a variety of bacterial ligands, including acylated lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins. T. denticola dentilisin, a surface-expressed protease complex comprised of three lipoproteins has been implicated as a virulence factor in periodontal disease, primarily due to its proteolytic activity. While the role of acylated bacterial components in induction of inflammation is well-studied, little attention has been given to the potential role of the acylated nature of dentilisin. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that T. denticola dentilisin activates a TLR2-dependent mechanism, leading to upregulation of tissue-destructive genes in periodontal tissue. RNA-sequencing of periodontal ligament cells challenged with T. denticola bacteria revealed significant upregulation of genes associated with extracellular matrix organization and degradation including potentially tissue-specific inducible MMPs that may play novel roles in modulating host immune responses that have yet to be characterized within the context of oral disease. The Gram-negative oral commensal, Veillonella parvula, failed to upregulate these same MMPs. Dentilisin-induced upregulation of MMPs was mediated via TLR2 and MyD88 activation, since knockdown of expression of either abrogated these effects. Challenge with purified dentilisin upregulated the same MMPs while a dentilisin-deficient T. denticola mutant had no effect. Finally, T. denticola-mediated activation of TLR2/MyD88 lead to the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor Sp1, which was shown to be a critical regulator of all T. denticola-dependent MMP expression. Taken together, these data suggest that T. denticola dentilisin stimulates tissue-destructive cellular processes in a TLR2/MyD88/Sp1-dependent fashion.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais , Infecções por Treponema/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/patologia , Ligamento Periodontal , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Treponema denticola , Infecções por Treponema/patologia , Regulação para Cima
19.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 801-805, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834899

RESUMO

Digital dermatitis (DD) is a major infectious foot disease of cattle worldwide. Some DD stages are associated with lameness, and the disease has significant economic and animal welfare consequences. The pathogenesis of the disease is not yet fully understood, but Treponema spp. have been associated consistently with clinical cases. Isolation of these fastidious bacteria is difficult and cumbersome. We describe an improved method enabling the culturing of the 3 Treponema spp. (T. pedis, T. phagedenis, and T. medium) from bovine foot specimens derived from DD lesions, using a combination of membrane filtering and subsequent growth on selective agar media. The entire procedure from sampling to verification of individual Treponema spp. takes up to 24 d. In addition, we established a MALDI-TOF MS-based identification method to be applied for confirmation of the different Treponema spp. This scheme provides an unambiguous, simple, and straightforward identification procedure for DD-associated Treponema spp.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Dermatite Digital/diagnóstico , Treponema/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Treponema/diagnóstico , Animais , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Dermatite Digital/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Infecções por Treponema/microbiologia , Infecções por Treponema/veterinária
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009464, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780514

RESUMO

Here, we report the first complete genomes of three cultivable treponeme species from bovine digital dermatitis (DD) skin lesions, two comparative human treponemes, considered indistinguishable from bovine DD species, and a bovine gastrointestinal (GI) treponeme isolate. Key genomic differences between bovine and human treponemes implicate microbial mechanisms that enhance knowledge of how DD, a severe disease of ruminants, has emerged into a prolific, worldwide disease. Bovine DD treponemes have additional oxidative stress genes compared to nearest human-isolated relatives, suggesting better oxidative stress tolerance, and potentially explaining how bovine strains can colonize skin surfaces. Comparison of both bovine DD and GI treponemes as well as bovine pathogenic and human non-pathogenic saprophyte Treponema phagedenis strains indicates genes encoding a five-enzyme biosynthetic pathway for production of 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic acid, a rare di-N-acetylated mannuronic acid sugar, as important for pathogenesis. Bovine T. phagedenis strains further differed from human strains by having unique genetic clusters including components of a type IV secretion system and a phosphate utilisation system including phoU, a gene associated with osmotic stress survival. Proteomic analyses confirmed bovine derived T. phagedenis exhibits expression of PhoU but not the putative secretion system, whilst the novel mannuronic acid pathway was expressed in near entirety across the DD treponemes. Analysis of osmotic stress response in water identified a difference between bovine and human T. phagedenis with bovine strains exhibiting enhanced survival. This novel mechanism could enable a selective advantage, allowing environmental persistence and transmission of bovine T. phagedenis. Finally, we investigated putative outer membrane protein (OMP) ortholog families across the DD treponemes and identified several families as multi-specific adhesins capable of binding extra cellular matrix (ECM) components. One bovine pathogen specific adhesin ortholog family showed considerable serodiagnostic potential with the Treponema medium representative demonstrating considerable disease specificity (91.6%). This work has shed light on treponeme host adaptation and has identified candidate molecules for future diagnostics, vaccination and therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Treponema/genética , Infecções por Treponema/genética , Animais , Bovinos , DNA Bacteriano , Dermatite Digital/microbiologia , Humanos , Filogenia
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