Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 353
Filtrar
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430503

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) is known to stimulate plant resistance against different phytopathogens, i.e., bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. It is an efficient plant growth regulator under various biotic and abiotic stresses. Silicon-containing compounds, including silicon dioxide, SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), nano-chelated silicon fertilizer (NCSF), sodium siliconate, and sodium metasilicate, are effective in damaging various nematodes that reduce their reproduction, galling, and disease severity. The defence mechanisms in plant-nematodes interaction may involve a physical barrier, plant defence-associated enzyme activity, synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, and transcriptional regulation of defence-related genes. In the current review, we focused on silicon and its compounds in controlling plant nematodes and regulating different defence mechanisms involved in plant-nematodes interaction. Furthermore, the review aims to evaluate the potential role of Si application in improving plant resistance against nematodes and highlight its need for efficient plant-nematodes disease management.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Tylenchida , Animais , Dióxido de Silício , Imunidade Vegetal , Plantas
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361788

RESUMO

The α2δ subunit is a high-voltage activated (HVA) calcium channel (Cav1 and Cav2) auxiliary subunit that increases the density and function of HVA calcium channels in the plasma membrane of mammals. However, its function in plant parasitic nematodes remains unknown. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of the voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) α2δ subunit (named DdCavα2δ) in Ditylenchus destructor. We found that DdCavα2δ tends to be expressed in the egg stage, followed by the J3 stage. RNA-DIG in situ hybridization experiments showed that the DdCavα2δ subunit was expressed in the body wall, esophageal gland, uterus, post uterine, and spicules of D. destructor. The in vitro application of RNA interference (RNAi) affected the motility, reproduction, chemotaxis, stylet thrusting, and protein secretion of D. destructor to different degrees by targeting DdCα1D, DdCα1A, and DdCavα2δ in J3 stages, respectively. Based on the results of RNAi experiments, it was hypothesized that L-type VGCC may affect the motility, chemotaxis, and stylet thrusting of D. destructor. Non-L-type VGCC may affect the protein secretion and reproduction of D. destructor. The DdCavα2δ subunit gene also affected the motility, chemotaxis, and reproduction of D. destructor. These findings reveal the independent function of the VGCC α2δ subunit in D. destructor as well as give a theoretical foundation for future research on plant parasitic nematode VGCC.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Rabditídios , Tylenchida , Animais , Feminino , Rabditídios/genética , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L , Membrana Celular , Plantas/parasitologia , Cálcio , Mamíferos
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(11)2022 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360193

RESUMO

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (PWN) causes pine wilt disease (PWD), which is one of the most devastating pine diseases worldwide. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) catalyzes the biosynthetic metabolism of terpenoids and plays an important role in the modification of secondary metabolites in all living organisms. We investigated the molecular characteristics and biological functions of Bx-cyp29A3 in B. xylophilus. The bioinformatics analysis results indicated that Bx-cyp29A3 has a transmembrane domain and could dock with L(-)-carvone. The gene expression pattern indicated that Bx-cyp29A3 was expressed in 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mg/mL L(-)-carvone solutions. The Bx-cyp29A3 expression increased in a dose-dependent manner and peaked at 24 h of exposure when the L(-)-carvone solution concentration was 0.8 mg/mL. However, the gene expression peaked at 0.6 mg/mL after 36 h. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi) indicated that Bx-cyp29A3 played an essential role in the response to L(-)-carvone. The mortality rates of the Bx-cyp29A3 knockdown groups were higher than those of the control groups in the 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mg/mL carvone solutions after 24 h of exposure or 36 h of exposure. In summary, bioinformatics provided the structural characteristics and conserved sequence properties of Bx-cyp29A3 and its encoded protein, which provided a target gene for the study of the P450 family of B. xylophilus. Gene silencing experiments clarified the function of Bx-cyp29A3 in the immune defense of B. xylophilus. This study provides a basis for the screening of new molecular targets for the prevention and management of B. xylophilus.


Assuntos
Rabditídios , Tylenchida , Animais , Tylenchida/genética , Xylophilus , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232487

RESUMO

Early detection of pathogens before the planting season is valuable to forecast disease occurrence. Therefore, rapid and reliable diagnostic approaches are urgently needed, especially for one of the most aggressive root knot nematodes, Meloidogyne enterolobii. In this study, we developed a novel primer-TaqMan probe set aimed at M. enterolobii. The primer-probe set was successfully applied in the identification and quantification of M. enterolobii via qPCR technology. It was also suitable for improved PCR technology, known as ddPCR analyses, and this work presents the first application of this technology for plant parasitic nematodes. Compared with qPCR, ddPCR exhibited better performance with regard to analytical sensitivity, which can provide a more accurate detection of M. enterolobii concealed in field soil. In addition, we generated standard curves to calculate the number of eggs in soil using the qPCR and ddPCR platforms. Hopefully, the results herein will be helpful for forecasting disease severity of M. enterolobii infection and adopting effective management strategies.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Tylenchida , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Solo , Tylenchoidea/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293134

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) efficiency dramatically varies among different nematodes, which impacts research on their gene function and pest control. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a pine wood nematode in which RNAi-mediated gene silencing has unstable interference efficiency through soaking in dsRNA solutions, the factors of which remain unknown. Using agarose gel electrophoresis, we found that dsRNA can be degraded by nematode secretions in the soaking system which is responsible for the low RNAi efficiency. Based on the previously published genome and secretome data of B. xylophilus, 154 nucleases were screened including 11 extracellular nucleases which are potential factors reducing RNAi efficacy. To confirm the function of nucleases in RNAi efficiency, eight extracellular nuclease genes (BxyNuc1-8) were cloned in the genome. BxyNuc4, BxyNuc6 and BxyNuc7 can be upregulated in response to dsGFP, considered as the major nuclease performing dsRNA degradation. After soaking with the dsRNA of nucleases BxyNuc4/BxyNuc6/BxyNuc7 and Pat10 gene (ineffective in RNAi) simultaneously for 24 h, the expression of Pat10 gene decreased by 23.25%, 26.05% and 11.29%, respectively. With soaking for 36 h, the expression of Pat10 gene decreased by 43.25% and 33.25% in dsBxyNuc6+dsPat10 and dsBxyNuc7+dsPat10 groups, respectively. However, without dsPat10, dsBxyNuc7 alone could cause downregulation of Pat10 gene expression, while dsBxyNuc6 could not disturb this gene. In conclusion, the nuclease BxyNuc6 might be a major barrier to the RNAi efficiency in B. xylophilus.


Assuntos
Pinus , Rabditídios , Tylenchida , Animais , Tylenchida/fisiologia , Interferência de RNA , Xylophilus , Pinus/genética , Doenças das Plantas , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Rabditídios/metabolismo , Endonucleases/genética , Endonucleases/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293146

RESUMO

Fatty acid and retinol binding proteins (FAR) are unique proteins found in nematodes and are considered potential targets for controlling these parasites. However, their functions in nematode parasitism and pathogenicity and interaction with hosts are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the specific roles of rice white tip nematodes (RWTNs), Aphelenchoides besseyi, and a protein, Ab-FAR-1, to elucidate the parasitic and pathogenic processes of nematodes. The results showed that the expression level of Ab-far-1 was significantly up-regulated after A. besseyi infection of the plant. The immunofluorescence and subcellular localisation showed that Ab-FAR-1 was secreted into plant tissues mainly through the body wall of nematodes and might act in the nucleus and cytoplasm of plant cells. The pathogenicity of RWTNs was enhanced in Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing Ab-FAR-1 and inhibited in Ab-far-1 RNAi A. thaliana. Yeast two-hybrid, Co-IP, BiFC, and nematode inoculation experiments showed that Ab-FAR-1 could interact with the A. thaliana actin-depolymerizing factor protein AtADF3, and the A. thaliana adf3 mutant was more susceptible to nematodes. An in vitro actin filament depolymerisation assay demonstrated that Ab-FAR-1 could inhibit AtADF3-mediated depolymerisation of actin filaments, and the turnover process of cellular actin filaments was also affected in A. thaliana overexpressing Ab-FAR-1. In addition, flg22-mediated host defence responses were suppressed in A. thaliana overexpressing Ab-FAR-1 and adf3 mutants. Therefore, this study confirmed that RWTNs can affect the turnover of actin filament remodelling mediated by AtADF3 through Ab-FAR-1 secretion and thus inhibit plant PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI), promoting the parasitism and pathogenicity of nematodes.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Rabditídios , Tylenchida , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Virulência , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos , Actinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Tylenchida/fisiologia , Rabditídios/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Retinol/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/metabolismo
7.
Cells ; 11(20)2022 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36291077

RESUMO

Pine wilt disease (PWD) is a severe environmental problem in Eastern Asia and Western Europe, devastating large forest areas and causing significant economic losses. This disease is caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a parasitic migratory nematode that infects the stem of conifer trees. Here we review what is currently known about the molecular defense response in pine trees after infection with PWN, focusing on common responses in different species. By giving particular emphasis to resistance mechanisms reported for selected varieties and families, we identified shared genes and pathways associated with resistance, including the activation of oxidative stress response, cell wall lignification, and biosynthesis of terpenoids and phenylpropanoids. The role of post-transcriptional regulation by small RNAs in pine response to PWN infection is also discussed, as well as the possible implementation of innovative RNA-interference technologies, with a focus on trans-kingdom small RNAs. Finally, the defense response induced by elicitors applied to pine plants before PWN infection to prompt resistance is reviewed. Perspectives about the impact of these findings and future research approaches are discussed.


Assuntos
Pinus , Tylenchida , Humanos , Animais , Pinus/genética , Pinus/parasitologia , Tylenchida/genética , Xylophilus , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , RNA , Terpenos
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6190, 2022 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261416

RESUMO

Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major threat to crop production in all agricultural systems. The scarcity of classical resistance genes highlights a pressing need to find new ways to develop nematode-resistant germplasm. Here, we sequence and assemble a high-quality phased genome of the model cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii to provide a platform for the first system-wide dual analysis of host and parasite gene expression over time, covering all major parasitism stages. Analysis of the hologenome of the plant-nematode infection site identified metabolic pathways that were incomplete in the parasite but complemented by the host. Using a combination of bioinformatic, genetic, and biochemical approaches, we show that a highly atypical completion of vitamin B5 biosynthesis by the parasitic animal, putatively enabled by a horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium, is required for full pathogenicity. Knockout of either plant-encoded or now nematode-encoded steps in the pathway significantly reduces parasitic success. Our experiments establish a reference for cyst nematodes, further our understanding of the evolution of plant-parasitism by nematodes, and show that congruent differential expression of metabolic pathways in the infection hologenome represents a new way to find nematode susceptibility genes. The approach identifies genome-editing-amenable targets for future development of nematode-resistant crops.


Assuntos
Cistos , Parasitos , Tylenchida , Animais , Ácido Pantotênico , Transcriptoma
9.
Zootaxa ; 5125(5): 451-482, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101201

RESUMO

In a study, 13 known species of Ditylenchus Filipjev, 1936 were collected during 20132017 mainly in the southern provinces of Iran, and the variability of their morphological and morphometric characteristics was investigated. The results showed that the number of lateral lines, V and V indices, stylet and spicule length, whose coefficient of variation was less than 10%, were more stable than the other characters. The effects of different temperatures and food sources, including several plants, fungi and carrot disc on the taxonomic characters of three populations of Ditylenchus destructor, two populations of D. dipsaci, and one population of D. myceliophagus were studied. The results showed that indices V, V and MB were more stable than the others. The indices were more affected by food source than by temperature. In addition, the calculation of the correlation between some morphometric indices showed that the distances between the anterior end and vulva, and the anterior end and anus were significantly correlated with body length in all species and populations studied.


Assuntos
Rabditídios , Tylenchida , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Plantas , Temperatura
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142347

RESUMO

Peptidases are very important to parasites, which have central roles in parasite biology and pathogenesis. In this study, by comparative genome analysis, genome-wide peptidase diversities among plant-parasitic nematodes are estimated. We find that genes encoding cysteine peptidases in family C13 (legumain) are significantly abundant in pine wood nematodes Bursaphelenchus genomes, compared to those in other plant-parasitic nematodes. By phylogenetic analysis, a clade of B. xylophilus-specific legumain is identified. RT-qPCR detection shows that these genes are highly expressed at early stage during the nematode infection process. Utilizing transgene technology, cDNAs of three species-specific legumain were introduced into the Arabidopsis γvpe mutant. Functional complementation assay shows that these B. xylophilus legumains can fully complement the activity of Arabidopsis γVPE to mediate plant cell death triggered by the fungal toxin FB1. Secretory activities of these legumains are experimentally validated. By comparative transcriptome analysis, genes involved in plant cell death mediated by legumains are identified, which enrich in GO terms related to ubiquitin protein transferase activity in category molecular function, and response to stimuli in category biological process. Our results suggest that B. xylophilu-specific legumains have potential as effectors to be involved in nematode-plant interaction and can be related to host cell death.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Micotoxinas , Parasitos , Pinus , Rabditídios , Tylenchida , Animais , Arabidopsis/genética , Cisteína/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Filogenia , Pinus/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Plantas/parasitologia , Transferases/genética , Tylenchida/genética , Ubiquitinas/genética , Virulência , Xylophilus
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 222(Pt A): 325-336, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115455

RESUMO

Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) was reported as the vector beetle of the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) in Japan and Europe. It was first reported to transmitted the PWN to native Pinus species in 2018 in Liaoning Province, China. However, the lack of genomic resources has limited the in-depth understanding of its interspecific relationship with PWN. Here, we obtained a chromosome-level reference genome of M. saltuarius combining Illumina, Nanopore and Hi-C sequencing technologies. We assembled the scaffolds into ten chromosomes (including an X chromosome) and obtained a 682.23 Mb chromosome-level genome with a N50 of 73.69 Mb. In total, 427.67 Mb (62.69 %) repeat sequences were identified and 14, 492 protein-coding genes were predicted, of which 93.06 % were annotated. We described the mth/mthl, P450, OBP and OR gene families associated with the vector beetle's development and resistance, as well as the host selection and adaptation, which serve as a valuable resource for understanding the host adaptation in insects during evolution. This high quality reference genome of M. saltuarius also provide new avenues for researching the mechanism of this synergistic damage between vector beetles and PWN.


Assuntos
Besouros , Pinus , Tylenchida , Animais , Tylenchida/genética , Besouros/genética , Pinus/genética , Cromossomos , China
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273010, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35960732

RESUMO

Pine wilt disease is a dangerous pine disease globally. We used Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) clones, selected through traditional breeding and testing for 20 years, to study the molecular mechanism of their high resistance to pine wood nematodes (PWN,Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). Nine strains of seedlings of genetically stable Masson pine screened from different families with high resistance to PWN were used. The same number of sensitive clones were used as susceptible controls. Total proteins were extracted for tandem mass tag (TMT) quantitative proteomic analysis. The key proteins were verified by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). A threshold of upregulation greater than 1.3-fold or downregulation greater than 0.3-fold was considered significant in highly resistant strains versus sensitive strains. A total of 3491 proteins were identified from the seedling tissues, among which 2783 proteins contained quantitative information. A total of 42 proteins were upregulated and 96 proteins were downregulated in the resistant strains. Functional enrichment analysis found significant differences in the proteins with pectin esterase activity or peroxidase activity. The proteins participating in salicylic acid metabolism, antioxidant stress reaction, polysaccharide degradation, glucose acid ester sheath lipid biosynthesis, and the sugar glycosaminoglycan degradation pathway were also changed significantly. The PRM results showed that pectin acetyl esterase, carbonic anhydrase, peroxidase, and chitinase were significantly downregulated, while aspartic protease was significantly upregulated, which was consistent with the proteomic data. These results suggest that Masson pine can degrade nematode-related proteins by increasing protease to inhibit their infestation, and can enhance the resistance of Masson pine to PWN by downregulating carbon metabolism to limit the carbon available to PWN or for involvement in cell wall components or tissue softening. Most of the downregulated proteins are supposed to act as an alternative mechanism for latter enhancement after pathogen attacks. The highly resistant Masson pine, very likely, harbors multiple pathways, both passive and active, to defend against PWN infestation.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Pinus , Tylenchida , Animais , Carbono , Humanos , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Peroxidases , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas , Proteômica , Tylenchida/fisiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14796, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042283

RESUMO

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a notorious invasive species, causing extensive losses to pine ecosystems globally. Previous studies had shown that the development of B. xylophilus was seriously suppressed by light. However, the mechanism involved in the inhibition is unknown. Here, it is the first report that Bxy-madd-4 is a light-regulated gene, plays a potential role in B. xylophilus in responding to the blue light. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that the expression level of Bxy-madd-4 declined by 86.39% under blue light. The reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR results were in accord with the transcriptome sequencing, confirming the expression level of Bxy-madd-4 was suppressed by blue light. Bxy-madd-4 promoter::mCherry reporter constructed in Caenorhabditis elegans were utilized to mimic the spatiotemporal expression patterns of Bxy-madd-4. Bxy-madd-4A promoter activity had a strong continuity throughout all development stages in C. elegans. Further RNA interference indicated that only 36.8% of the Bxy-madd-4 dsRNA treated embryos were hatched. Moreover, 71.6% of the hatched nematodes were abnormal, such as particles on the body surface and concave tissues. Our findings contribute towards a better understanding of the mechanism of light against the destructive invasive nematode, providing a promising hint for control of the destructive invasive nematode.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Pinus , Rabditídios , Tylenchida , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Ecossistema , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Tylenchida/genética , Xylophilus
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897765

RESUMO

The plant parasitic nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, is a serious pest causing severe damage to various crop plants and vegetables. The Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains, GBAC46 and NMTD81, and the biological strain, FZB42, showed higher nematicidal activity against A. besseyi, by up to 88.80, 82.65, and 75.87%, respectively, in a 96-well plate experiment. We screened the whole genomes of the selected strains by protein-nucleic acid alignment. It was found that the Bt strain GBAC46 showed three novel crystal proteins, namely, Cry31Aa, Cry73Aa, and Cry40ORF, which likely provide for the safe control of nematodes. The Cry31Aa protein was composed of 802 amino acids with a molecular weight of 90.257 kDa and contained a conserved delta-endotoxin insecticidal domain. The Cry31Aa exhibited significant nematicidal activity against A. besseyi with a lethal concentration (LC50) value of 131.80 µg/mL. Furthermore, the results of in vitro experiments (i.e., rhodamine and propidium iodide (PI) experiments) revealed that the Cry31Aa protein was taken up by A. besseyi, which caused damage to the nematode's intestinal cell membrane, indicating that the Cry31Aa produced a pore-formation toxin. In pot experiments, the selected strains GBAC46, NMTD81, and FZB42 significantly reduced the lesions on leaves by up to 33.56%, 45.66, and 30.34% and also enhanced physiological growth parameters such as root length (65.10, 50.65, and 55.60%), shoot length (68.10, 55.60, and 59.45%), and plant fresh weight (60.71, 56.45, and 55.65%), respectively. The number of nematodes obtained from the plants treated with the selected strains (i.e., GBAC46, NMTD81, and FZB42) and A. besseyi was significantly reduced, with 0.56, 0.83., 1.11, and 5.04 seedling mL-1 nematodes were achieved, respectively. Moreover, the qRT-PCR analysis showed that the defense-related genes were upregulated, and the activity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increased while malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased in rice leaves compared to the control. Therefore, it was concluded that the Bt strains GBAC46 and NMTD81 can promote rice growth, induce high expression of rice defense-related genes, and activate systemic resistance in rice. More importantly, the application of the novel Cry31Aa protein has high potential for the efficient and safe prevention and green control of plant parasitic nematodes.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Oryza , Rabditídios , Tylenchida , Animais , Antinematódeos/metabolismo , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Rabditídios/metabolismo , Tylenchida/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(12)2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742858

RESUMO

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the most economically important species of migratory plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) and causes severe damage to forestry in China. The successful infection of B. xylophilus relies on the secretion of a repertoire of effector proteins. The effectors, which suppress the host pine immune response, are key to the facilitation of B. xylophilus parasitism. An exhaustive list of candidate effectors of B. xylophilus was predicted, but not all have been identified and characterized. Here, an effector, named BxSCD3, has been implicated in the suppression of host immunity. BxSCD3 could suppress pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) PsXEG1- and INF1-triggered cell death when it was secreted into the intracellular space in Nicotiana benthamiana. BxSCD3 was highly up-regulated in the early infection stages of B. xylophilus. BxSCD3 does not affect B. xylophilus reproduction, either at the mycophagous stage or the phytophagous stage, but it contributes to the virulence of B. xylophilus. Moreover, BxSCD3 significantly influenced the relative expression levels of defense-related (PR) genes PtPR-3 and PtPR-6 in Pinus thunbergii in the early infection stage. These results suggest that BxSCD3 is an important toxic factor and plays a key role in the interaction between B. xylophilus and host pine.


Assuntos
Pinus , Rabditídios , Tylenchida , Animais , Pinus/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Tylenchida/genética , Virulência/genética , Xylophilus
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(12)2022 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35743081

RESUMO

Pinus massoniana is a pioneer species for afforestation timber and oleoresin, while epidemics of pinewood nematode (PWN; Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) are causing a serious biotic disaster for P. massoniana in China. Importantly, resistant P. massoniana could leak copious oleoresin terpenoids to build particular defense fronts for survival when attacked by PWN. However, the defense mechanisms regulating this process remain unknown. Here, PmCYP720B11v2, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene, was first identified and functionally characterized from resistant P. massoniana following PWN inoculation. The tissue-specific expression pattern and localization of PmCYP720B11v2 at the transcript and protein levels in resistant P. massoniana indicated that its upregulation in the stem supported its involvement in the metabolic processes of diterpene biosynthesis as a positive part of the defense against PWN attack. Furthermore, overexpression of PmCYP720B11v2 may enhance the growth and development of plants. In addition, PmCYP720B11v2 activated the metabolic flux of antioxidases and stress-responsive proteins under drought conditions and improved drought stress tolerance. Our results provide new insights into the favorable role of PmCYP720B11v2 in diterpene defense mechanisms in response to PWN attack in resistant P. massoniana and provide a novel metabolic engineering scenario to reform the stress tolerance potential of tobacco.


Assuntos
Pinus , Tylenchida , Animais , China , Pinus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Terpenos , Tylenchida/fisiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9586, 2022 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688926

RESUMO

The resistance to cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae Woll.) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was studied using 114 doubled haploid lines from a novel ITMI mapping population. These lines were screened for nematode infestation in a controlled environment for two years. QTL-mapping analyses were performed across two years (Y1 and Y2) as well as combining two years (CY) data. On the 114 lines that were screened, a total of 2,736 data points (genotype, batch or years, and replication combinations) were acquired. For QTL analysis, 12,093 markers (11,678 SNPs and 415 SSRs markers) were used, after filtering the genotypic data, for the QTL mapping. Composite interval mapping, using Haley-Knott regression (hk) method in R/QTL, was used for QTL analysis. In total, 19 QTLs were detected out of which 13 were novel and six were found to be colocalized or nearby to previously reported Cre genes, QTLs or MTAs for H. avenae or H. filipjevi. Nine QTLs were detected across all three groups (Y1, Y2 and CY) including a significant QTL "QCcn.ha-2D" on chromosome 2D that explains 23% of the variance. This QTL colocalized with a previously identified Cre3 locus. Novel QTL, QCcn.ha-2A, detected in the present study could be the possible unreported homeoloci to QCcn.ha-2D, QCcn.ha-2B.1 and QCcn.ha-2B.2. Six significant digenic epistatic interactions were also observed. In addition, 26 candidate genes were also identified including genes known for their involvement in PPNs (plant parasitic nematodes) resistance in different plant species. In-silico expression of putative candidate genes showed differential expression in roots during specific developmental stages. Results obtained in the present study are useful for wheat breeding to generate resistant genetic resources against H. avenae.


Assuntos
Cistos , Tylenchida , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Grão Comestível , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/genética
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 216, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD) that has caused enormous ecological and economic losses in China. The mechanism in the interaction between nematodes and pine remains unclear. Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) secrete effectors into host plant tissues. However, it is poorly studied that role of effector in the infection of pine wood nematode (PWN). RESULTS: We cloned, characterized and functionally validated the B. xylophilus effector BxML1, containing an MD-2-related lipid-recognition (ML) domain. This protein inhibits immune responses triggered by the molecular pattern BxCDP1 of B. xylophilus. An insitu hybridization assay demonstrated that BxML1 was expressed mainly in the dorsal glands and intestine of B. xylophilus. Subcellular localization analysis showed the presence of BxML1 in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Furthermore, number of B. xylophilus and morbidity of pine were significantly reduced in Pinus thunbergii infected with B. xylophilus when BxML was silenced. Using yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays, we found that the BxML1 interacts with cyclophilin protein PtCyP1 in P. thunbergii. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrated that BxML1 plays a critical role in the B. xylophilus-plant interaction and virulence of B. xylophilus.


Assuntos
Pinus , Tylenchida , Animais , Ciclofilinas/genética , Pinus/parasitologia , Virulência , Xylophilus
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5160, 2022 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35338210

RESUMO

Pine wilt disease (PWD), caused by the parasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, or pinewood nematode (PWN), is a serious threat to pine forests in Europe. Pinus pinaster is highly susceptible to the disease and it is currently the most affected European pine species. In this work, we investigated the role of small RNAs (sRNAs) in regulating P. pinaster-PWN interaction in an early stage of infection. After performing an artificial PWN inoculation assay, we have identified 105 plant microRNAs (miRNAs) responsive to PWN. Based on their predicted targets, part of these miRNAs was associated with roles in jasmonate-response pathway, ROS detoxification, and terpenoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, by comparing resistant and susceptible plants, eight miRNAs with putative functions in plant defence and resistance to PWN have been identified. Finally, we explored the possibility of bidirectional trans-kingdom RNA silencing, identifying several P. pinaster genes putatively targeted by PWN miRNAs, which was supported by degradome analysis. Targets for P. pinaster miRNAs were also predicted in PWN, suggesting a role for trans-kingdom miRNA transfer and gene silencing both in PWN parasitism as in P. pinaster resistance to PWD. Our results provide new insights into previously unexplored roles of sRNA post-transcriptional regulation in P. pinaster response and resistance to PWN.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Pinus , Rabditídios , Tylenchida , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pinus/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Rabditídios/genética , Tylenchida/genética
20.
Phytopathology ; 112(4): 888-897, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311527

RESUMO

Pine wilt disease is a major forest disease worldwide, including in China, where it has severely damaged pine forest ecosystems, and the pathogen is pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). The thaumatin-like protein-1 gene (Bx-tlp-1) is a key gene associated with B. xylophilus pathogenicity, which is also responsive to α-pinene. In this study, an examination of Pinus massoniana seedlings infected by B. xylophilus revealed that monoterpene (sesquiterpene) levels peaked on days 15 and 27 (days 18 and 27). Meanwhile, P. massoniana Pm-tlp expression levels were high on days 3, 12, and 27, which were consistent with the expression of key enzymes genes in the terpene biosynthesis pathway. The functional similarity of B. xylophilus Bx-TLP-1 and P. massoniana Pm-TLP suggests Bx-TLP-1 and Pm-TLP may have similar roles in P. massoniana. There was also no secondary accumulation of terpenes in P. massoniana seedlings during B. xylophilus treated with dsRNA targeting Bx-tlp-1 (dsTLP1) infections, reflecting the decreased pathogenicity of B. xylophilus and the delayed disease progression in pine trees. And the results of micro-CT showed that the degree of cavitation for the trees inoculated with Bx-TLP-1 (0.3811 mm3) was greater than that for the trees inoculated with dsTLP1 PWNs (0.1204 mm3) on day 15 after inoculation. Results from this study indicated that B. xylophilus Bx-tlp-1 gene may induce the upregulated expression of related genes encoding enzymes in the terpene synthesis pathway of P. massoniana, resulting in the accumulation of terpenes, which also provided an insight to investigate the B. xylophilus pathogenicity in the future.


Assuntos
Pinus , Tylenchida , Animais , Ecossistema , Doenças das Plantas , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Plântula/genética , Tylenchida/genética , Xylophilus
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...