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1.
Am J Bot ; 108(9): 1595-1611, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478152

RESUMO

PREMISE: Celtis is the most species-rich genus of Cannabaceae, an economically important family. Celtis species have been described as wind-pollinated and andromonoecious. However, the andromonoecy of Celtis has been debated because there are reports of monoclinous flowers with non-opening anthers on short filaments. Our objective was to study the floral morphogenesis of Celtis to establish the breeding system and to better understand the developmental patterns that lead to the formation of reduced flowers in the genus. METHODS: Flowers and floral buds of Celtis species were studied using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution x-ray computed tomography, and light microscopy. RESULTS: All flowers initiate stamens and carpels during early floral development, but either stamens or carpels abort during later stages. Thus, at anthesis, flowers are either functionally pistillate or functionally staminate. In pistillate flowers, stamens abort late and become staminodes with normal-looking anthers. These anthers have no functional endothecium and, in most of the species studied, produce no viable pollen grains. The gynoecium is pseudomonomerous, and its vascularization is similar in the sampled species. In staminate flowers, the gynoecium aborts early resulting in small pistillodes. No vestiges of petals were found. CONCLUSIONS: The species studied are monoecious and not andromonoecious as described earlier. The absence of petals, the carpel and stamen abortion, and the pseudomonomerous gynoecium result in the reduced flowers of Celtis species. The use of high-resolution x-ray computed tomography was essential for a more accurate interpretation of ovary vascularization, confirming the pseudomonomerous structure of the gynoecium.


Assuntos
Cannabaceae , Ulmaceae , Flores , Morfogênese , Melhoramento Vegetal
2.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251828, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029330

RESUMO

We investigated the radiocaesium content of nine epiphytic foliose lichens species and the adjacent barks of Zelkova serrata (Ulmaceae, "Japanese elm") and Cerasus sp. (Rosaceae, "Cherry tree") at the boundary of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station six years after the accident in 2011. Caesium-137 activities per unit area (the 137Cs-inventory) were determined to compare radiocaesium retentions of lichens (65 specimens) and barks (44 specimens) under the same growth conditions. The 137Cs-inventory of lichens collected from Zelkova serrata and Cerasus sp. were respectively 7.9- and 3.8-times greater than the adjacent barks. Furthermore, we examined the radiocaesium distribution within these samples using autoradiography and on the surfaces with an electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Autoradiographic results showed strong local spotting and heterogeneous distributions of radioactivity in both the lichen and bark samples, although the intensities were lower in the barks. The electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that particulates with similar sizes and compositions were distributed on the surfaces of the samples. We therefore concluded that the lichens and barks could capture fine particles, including radiocaesium particles. In addition, radioactivity was distributed more towards the inwards of the lichen samples than the peripheries. This suggests that lichen can retain 137Cs that is chemically immobilised in particulates intracellularly, unlike bark.


Assuntos
Radioisótopos de Césio/isolamento & purificação , Centrais Nucleares , Monitoramento de Radiação , Radioisótopos de Césio/química , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Humanos , Líquens/química , Líquens/efeitos da radiação , Casca de Planta/química , Casca de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Ulmaceae/química , Ulmaceae/efeitos da radiação , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/isolamento & purificação
3.
J Food Biochem ; 45(1): e13580, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326628

RESUMO

Ginkgo acids (GAs) in ginkgo products usually lead to allergies or liver toxicity. In this study, the GA-induced toxicity was attenuated and Con A-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited by extracts of Celtis sinensis leaves (ECSL). So, the active ingredients in ECSL were studied to solve the problems caused by GAs. First, the eight components of MeOH extracts were determined by HPLC-DAD/LC-MS. Then, the 12 active ingredients were separated based on the anti-inflammatory activity. Lymphocyte conversion showed that the inhibition rates of apigenin, quercetin, and isovitexin at 100 µM on Con A-activated proliferation of T cells were up to 82.46%, 62.86% and 42.76%, respectively. The inhibition rate on the LPS-induced NO release in RAW 264.7 cells of quercetin, apigenin, isovitexin, and vitexin were exceeding 80% at 100 µM. Taken together, the material foundation for the screen of GAs toxicity-attenuated ingredients were provided here. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Ginkgo biloba extracts (EGBs) have been conducted to develop functional food which could increase blood circulation and enhance memory. Nevertheless, people in consumption of ginkgo products, often caused severe allergic reactions due to the potential allergens identified ginkgolic acids (GAs) of ginkgo products. We first find that the extracts of Celtis sinensis leaves can reduce GAs-induced damage on HepG2 liver cells. Then, the bioactive compounds in C. sinensis leaves were separated and purified based on anti-inflammatory activities against T cells. Quercetin, apigenin, and isovitexin showed well anti-inflammatory activities against Con A-activated T-lymphocytes and LPS activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, quercetin and apigenin are flavones O-glycosides which are rich in Ginkgo biloba. To solve the problems in Ginkgo biloba products caused by GAs, flavone C-glycoside (isovitexin) may be used for the further study in GAs toxicity-reduction.


Assuntos
Ginkgo biloba , Folhas de Planta , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Ulmaceae
4.
Am J Bot ; 107(12): 1831-1838, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341929

RESUMO

PREMISE: Seed dispersal is extremely important for the recovery and restoration of forest communities. Relict tree genus Zelkova possesses a unique dispersal mechanism: mature fruits fall with the entire twig, and the dried leaves that are still attached function as a drag-enhancing appendage, carrying the fruits away from the parent tree. This singular adaptation has never been investigated in Z. abelicea. METHODS: Drop tests with dispersal units and individual fruits of Z. abelicea were performed in controlled conditions to measure their dispersal velocity and to define their flight mode. RESULTS: Zelkova abelicea uses both slowly falling dispersal units with chaotic motion, as well as fast falling individual fruits using a straight path. The falling velocity of Z. abelicea dispersal units is 1.53 m s-1 , which is virtually identical to that of the East Asiatic Z. serrata (1.51 m s-1 ). In contrast, the falling velocity of individual fruits was 2.74 m s-1 (Z. serrata: 5.36 m s-1 ). CONCLUSIONS: Members of the genus Zelkova, growing today in distant regions, show remarkable evolutionary conservation of the velocity and flight mechanics of their dispersal units. This is surprising because the Mediterranean and East Asiatic Zelkova species have been separated at least 15-20 mya. Zelkova abelicea, although growing in the Mediterranean with completely different forest structure and composition, still uses the same dispersal mechanism. The dispersal capacity of the genus Zelkova is less efficient than that of other wind dispersed trees, and it presumably evolved for short-distance ecological spread and not for long-distance biogeographical dispersal.


Assuntos
Dispersão de Sementes , Árvores , Florestas , Sementes , Ulmaceae , Vento
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(11): 1359-1366, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055442

RESUMO

For the very first time, the nutritional and physicochemical properties of the oil extracted from hackberry Celtis australis fruit were investigated with the aim of possible applications of such wild fruit oil. The physicochemical properties such as peroxide value, acidity, saponification, iodine value and total fat content of the extracted oil were examined extensively. The obtained results showed that peroxide value, acidity, saponification, iodine value and total fat content of the extracted oil were found to be 4.9 meq O2/kg fat, 0.9 mg KOH/g fat, 193.6 mg KOH/g fat, 141.52 mg I2/g fat and ~5%, respectively. The predominant fatty acid found in this wild fruit is linoleic acid which was calculated to be 73.38%±1.24. In addition, gamma-tocopherol (87%) and ß-sitosterol (81.2%±1.08) were the major tocopherol and sterol compositions found in Celtis australis seed oil. Moreover, equivalent carbon number (ECN) analysis has indicated that the three linoleic acids are the main composition of the triacylglycerols extracted from Celtis australis. Also, the high value of omega 6 and ß-sitosterol make this oil applicable in cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Ésteres/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Fitosteróis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ulmaceae/química , Biofarmácia , Fenômenos Químicos , Cosméticos , Peróxidos/análise , Sitosteroides/análise , Triglicerídeos/química , gama-Tocoferol/análise
6.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 191: 113612, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980795

RESUMO

Celtis occidentalis L. (common Hackberry, Cannabaceae) has been applied in the traditional medicine for a long time as a remedy for sore throat, aid during menstruation and for treating jaundice. Nevertheless, the phytochemical exploration of the plant is still incomplete, literature data is limited to flavonoid derivatives isolated from the leaves. The present study reports screening approaches for bioactive compounds in C. occidentalis by fast and simple UHPLC-coupled assays. The UHPLC-DPPH method revealed six constituents in the methanolic extract of the twigs that had not been reported in C. occidentalis before. The antioxidant compounds were isolated by the means of flash chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC and identified by Orbitrap® MS and NMR spectroscopy as N-trans-p-coumaroyloctopamine (1), N-trans-feruloyloctopamine (2), N-trans-caffeoyltyramine (3), 2-trans-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-N-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxoethyl] prop-2-enamide (4), N-trans-p-coumaroyltryramine (5) and N-trans-feruloyltyramine (6). Despite the high antioxidant activity measured in the present study and literature data suggesting potential positive effects of the compounds in the central nervous system, the PAMPA-BBB assay performed with the Celtis extract revealed that none of the aforementioned compounds are able to penetrate across the blood-brain barrier via transcellular passive diffusion.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Extratos Vegetais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Humanos , Octopamina , Tiramina , Ulmaceae
7.
J Evol Biol ; 33(7): 874-886, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501605

RESUMO

Every organism on Earth must cope with a multitude of species interactions both directly and indirectly throughout its life cycle. However, how selection from multiple species occupying different trophic levels affects diffuse mutualisms has received little attention. As a result, how a given species amalgamates the combined effects of selection from multiple mutualists and antagonists to enhance its own fitness remains little understood. We investigated how multispecies interactions (frugivorous birds, ants, fruit flies and parasitoid wasps) generate selection on fruit traits in a seed dispersal mutualism. We used structural equation models to assess whether seed dispersers (frugivorous birds and ants) exerted phenotypic selection on fruit and seed traits in the spiny hackberry (Celtis ehrenbergiana), a fleshy-fruited tree, and how these selection regimes were influenced by fruit fly infestation and wasp parasitoidism levels. Birds exerted negative correlational selection on the combination of fruit crop size and mean seed weight, favouring either large crops with small seeds or small crops with large seeds. Parasitoids selected plants with higher fruit fly infestation levels, and fruit flies exerted positive directional selection on fruit size, which was positively correlated with seed weight. Therefore, higher parasitoidism indirectly correlated with higher plant fitness through increased bird fruit removal. In addition, ants exerted negative directional selection on mean seed weight. Our results show that strong selection on phenotypic traits may still arise in perceived diffuse species interactions. Overall, we emphasize the need to consider diverse direct and indirect partners to achieve a better understanding of the mechanisms driving phenotypic trait evolution in multispecies interactions.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Dispersão de Sementes , Sementes/genética , Seleção Genética , Ulmaceae/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Aves , Cannabaceae/genética , Cadeia Alimentar , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Insetos
8.
Mycorrhiza ; 30(2-3): 341-355, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388674

RESUMO

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi enhance plant salt tolerance. However, physiological mechanisms of enhanced salt tolerance in leaves and roots of trees rarely have been compared. To reveal the different mechanisms, our study utilized comprehensive analyses of leaves and roots to examine the effects of Funneliformis mosseae on the salinity tolerance of Zelkova serrata. Seedlings of Z. serrata were exposed to four salt levels in a greenhouse with and without F. mosseae inoculation. Treatment comparisons revealed that following F. mosseae inoculation, (1) nutrient deficiency caused by osmotic stress was mitigated by the fungus enhancing nutrient contents (K, Ca, and Mg) in roots and (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) in leaves, with Ca and K contents being higher in both leaves and roots; (2) mycorrhizas alleviated ion toxicity by maintaining a favorable ion balance (e.g., K+/Na+), and this regulatory effect was higher in leaves than that in roots; and (3) oxidative damage was reduced by an increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and accumulation of antioxidant compounds in mycorrhizal plants although the increase differed in leaves and roots. In particular, AM fungus-enhanced catalase activity and reduced glutathione content only occurred in leaves, whereas an enhanced content of reduced ascorbic acid was only noted in roots. Growth, root vitality, leaf photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate, and dry weight were higher in seedlings with AM fungus inoculation. These results suggest that AM fungus inoculation improved salinity tolerance of Z. serrata, but the physiological mechanisms differed between leaves and roots.


Assuntos
Glomeromycota , Micorrizas , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Ulmaceae
9.
Tree Physiol ; 40(3): 290-304, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860722

RESUMO

Xylem and phloem sap flows in an intact, young Japanese zelkova tree (Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Makino) growing outdoors were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two propagator-based sequences were developed for q-space imaging: pulse field gradient (PFG) with spin echo (PFG-SE) and stimulated echo (PFG-STE), which were used for xylem and phloem flow measurements, respectively. The data evaluation methods were improved to image fast xylem flow and slow phloem flow. Measurements were taken every 2-3 h for several consecutive days in August 2016, and diurnal changes in xylem and phloem sap flows in a cross-section of the trunk were quantified at a resolution of 1 mm2. During the day, apparent xylem flow volume exhibited a typical diurnal pattern following a vapor pressure deficit. The velocity mapping of xylem sap flow across the trunk cross section revealed that the greatest flow volume was found in current-year earlywood that had differentiated in April-May. The combined xylem flow in the 1- and 2-year-old annual rings also contributed to one-third of total sap flow. In the phloem, downward sap flow did not exhibit diurnal changes. This novel application of MRI in visualization of xylem and phloem sap flow by MRI is a promising tool for in vivo study of water transport in mature trees.


Assuntos
Floema , Árvores , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ulmaceae , Água , Xilema
10.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5): 2059-2064, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813871

RESUMO

Phytochemical study of the EtOAc fraction (active extract) of the fruits of Ulmus pumila L. resulted in the isolation of thirteen flavane derivatives, and they were identified by their precise spectral data and literature. All the compounds (1-13) were obtained from the fruits of U. pumila L. for the first time. Meanwhile, the compounds (1-13) were assayed for their hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activities, respectively. Compounds 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8 (10µM) exhibited remarkable hepatoprotective activities, and compounds 9, 10, and 13 showed significant neuroprotective activities with IC50 values of 4.08, 5.34, and 2.02µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ulmaceae/química , Ulmus/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/química
11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(2): 569-573, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081768

RESUMO

Histopathological studies are an essential element to ascertain comprehensive safety profile of a drug. Unfortunately limited data are available about the toxicity of herbal remedies. Since a popular medicinal plant Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb) Planch. contains various bioactive molecules, the present study is aimed to assess the histopathological alterations induced by aqueous extract of Holoptelea integrifolia on liver and kidney of wistar albino rat. In this study 60 rats divided in two groups; control and treated with aqueous extract of Holoptelea integrifolia (250mg/kg body weight) for 5 days. Histopathlogical studies by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were done on the liver and kidney tissues at the end of dosing by using standard procedure. Microscopic examination was then carried out to observe any pathological changes in the animals. The result showed that there is no significant variation in the basic architecture of liver and kidney as compared to control male wistar albino rats. In conclusion, aqueous extract of leaves of H. integrifolia may be safe and nontoxic. Further work on pharmacological aspects is required to evaluate the clinical potential of this plant for different ailments.


Assuntos
Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Ulmaceae/química , Animais , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Ratos Wistar , Água/química
12.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 134: 172-185, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769098

RESUMO

Zelkova species, trees of the elm family (Ulmaceae), are part of the Cenozoic relict flora. In western Eurasia, the genus comprises three species that are restricted to disjunct areas (Z. sicula on Sicily, Z. abelicea on Crete and Z. carpinifolia in Transcaucasia). The situation is different in East Asia, where three species (Z. serrata, Z. schneideriana and Z. sinica) have at least partly overlapping distributions. The phylogenetic and phylogeographic status of these East Asian species is still not well understood, mainly since all previous studies used almost exclusively plant material collected in botanical gardens and were based on very small numbers of individuals. Our study is the first based on 33 natural populations covering all important areas with Zelkova species in the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region. Chloroplast and microsatellite markers were used, and Bayesian analyses were run for both types of markers. East Asian Zelkova species cluster into two groups that partially overlap when comparing the two types of markers. For chloroplast markers, the two groups coincide with all Japanese, some Korean and northern Chinese Z. serrata in one group and all other individuals in the other group, regardless of whether they are attributed to Z. serrata, Z. sinica or Z. schneideriana from Korea, mainland China and Taiwan. At the nuclear level, however, the clustering clearly groups all the Z. serrata individuals together, regardless of whether they are from Japan, Korea or China, and the two other species in a second group. This complex genetic pattern in East Asian Zelkova species is most likely due to a combination of ancient diversification and speciation events and more recent hybridization during the last glacial/interglacial retractions and recolonizations. One of the surprising results of our study concerns the populations from Taiwan, which are genetically similar to Z. schneideriana. Thus, their assignation to a separate taxon (Z. tarokoensis) or to a variety of Z. serrata (Z. serrata var. tarokoensis), as currently reported in all local and national floras, might be in need of revision. Furthermore, our results indicate that the East Asian species are more closely related to Z. carpinifolia than to any other Western European species. Haplotypes of Z. sicula and Z. abelicea (Mediterranean region) as well as those of Z. sinica and Z. schneideriana (East Asia) seem to have diversified more recently. The most ancient haplotypes are found among the western Eurasian Z. carpinifolia and the East Asian Z. serrata. This result is in agreement with the carpinifolia and serrata-like morphotypes commonly found in the fossil record.


Assuntos
Pool Gênico , Variação Genética , Ulmaceae/classificação , Teorema de Bayes , Núcleo Celular/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Zootaxa ; 4706(2): zootaxa.4706.2.1, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230539

RESUMO

Diagnoses and notes on biology and distribution of Japanese species of the suberis and angulifasciella groups of the genus Ectoedemia Busck, 1907 are given. Two species, E. chasanella Puplesis, 1984 and E. ortiva Rociene Stonis, 2013, are reported for the first time from Japan and their morphology is redescribed. In addition, we provide molecular identification of the two species and their relatives based on COI barcode sequences and the nuclear gene (EF1-α) sequences. The female of E. chasanella is described for the first time. We confirm that E. chasanella utilizes Quercus species (Fagaceae) as its hostplant: Q. dentata, Q. serrata, Q. crispula, and Q. acutissima. Ectoedemia ortiva was formerly placed in the suberis group, and its host plant was unknown. We move this species to the angulifasciella group and provide evidence that it utilizes Ulmus sp. (Ulmaceae) as its host plant.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros , Mariposas , Quercus , Animais , Feminino , Japão , Plantas , Ulmaceae
14.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(13): 1862-1869, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848074

RESUMO

In this study the production of secondary metabolites by a virulent strain of Sardiniella urbana, a recently described pathogen originally found on declining European hackberry trees in Italy, was investigated for the first time. Chemical analysis of the culture filtrate extracts led to the isolation of three well known compounds as R-(-)-mellein and (3R,4R)-and (3R,4S)-4-hydroxy melleins which were identified by spectroscopic methods (essentially NMR and ESIMS). The isolated compounds were tested for their phytotoxic, antifungal and zootoxic activities. Among them, only R-(-)-mellein was found to be active.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Ocratoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Ulmaceae/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Itália , Ocratoxinas/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário
15.
Biol Lett ; 14(10)2018 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333261

RESUMO

Many animals and plants have evolved elaborate water-repellent microstructures on their surface, which often play important roles in their ecological adaptation. Here, we report a unique type of water-repellent structure on a plant surface, which develops as an insect-induced plant morphology in a social context. Some social aphids form galls on their host plant, in which they produce large amounts of hydrophobic wax. Excreted honeydew is coated by the powdery wax to form 'honeydew balls', which are actively disposed by soldier nymphs through an opening on their gall. These activities are enabled by a highly water-repellent inner gall surface, and we discovered that this surface is covered with dense trichomes that are not found on normal plant surfaces. The trichomes are coated by fine particles of the insect-produced wax, thereby realizing a high water repellency with a cooperative interaction between aphids and plants. The plant leaves on which the gall is formed often exhibit patchy areas with dense trichomes, representing an ectopic expression of the insect-induced plant morphology. In the pouch-shaped closed galls of a related social aphid species, by contrast, the inner surface was not covered with trichomes. Our findings provide a convincing example of how the extended phenotype of an animal, expressed in a plant, plays a pivotal role in maintaining sociality.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Tumores de Planta/parasitologia , Ulmaceae/parasitologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Água/química , Ceras/química
16.
Plant Sci ; 274: 181-192, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080602

RESUMO

By the end of the century, atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]a) could reach 800 ppm, having risen from ∼200 ppm ∼24 Myr ago. Carbon dioxide enters plant leaves through stomata that limit CO2 diffusion and assimilation, imposing stomatal limitation (LS). Other factors limiting assimilation are collectively called non-stomatal limitations (LNS). C4 photosynthesis concentrates CO2 around Rubisco, typically reducing LS. C4-dominated savanna grasslands expanded under low [CO2]a and are metastable ecosystems where the response of trees and C4 grasses to rising [CO2]a will determine shifting vegetation patterns. How LS and LNS differ between savanna trees and C4 grasses under different [CO2]a will govern the responses of CO2 fixation and plant cover to [CO2]a - but quantitative comparisons are lacking. We measured assimilation, within soil wetting-drying cycles, of three C3 trees and three C4 grasses grown at 200, 400 or 800 ppm [CO2]a. Using assimilation-response curves, we resolved LS and LNS and show that rising [CO2]a alleviated LS, particularly for the C3 trees, but LNS was unaffected and remained substantially higher for the grasses across all [CO2]a treatments. Because LNS incurs higher metabolic costs and recovery compared with LS, our findings indicate that C4 grasses will be comparatively disadvantaged as [CO2]a rises.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Pradaria , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Árvores/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Combretum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Combretum/metabolismo , Combretum/fisiologia , Eragrostis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eragrostis/metabolismo , Eragrostis/fisiologia , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fabaceae/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/fisiologia , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/fisiologia , Ulmaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ulmaceae/metabolismo , Ulmaceae/fisiologia
17.
Molecules ; 23(7)2018 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041442

RESUMO

Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based untargeted metabolomics implies that annotated metabolites can serve as potential markers of the associated bioactivities of plant extracts. Firstly, we selected Aphananthe aspera and Zelkova serrata (Family: Ulmaceae) from 16 Korean plant species based on their distinct principal component analysis (PCA) patterns in LC-MS datasets and antioxidant activity assays. Further, we chose 40% solid-phase extraction (SPE) extracts of the two species displaying the highest antioxidant activities coupled with distinct PCA patterns. Examining the metabolite compositions of the 40% SPE extracts, we observed relatively higher abundances of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin O-glucosides for A. aspera, whereas quercetin, isorhamnetin O-glucuronides, and procyanidin dimer were relatively higher in Z. serrata. These metabolites were clearly distinguished in pathway map and displayed strong positive correlations with antioxidant activity. Further, we performed preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) analysis coupled with the 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay to validate their functional correlations. As a result, quercetin O-sophoroside was determined as the main antioxidant in A. aspera, while isorhamnetin O-glucuronide and procyanidin dimer were the primary antioxidants in Z. serrata. The current study suggests that the LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics strategy can be used to illuminate subtle metabolic disparities as well as compounds associated with bioactivities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ulmaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Descoberta de Drogas , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ulmaceae/metabolismo
18.
Zootaxa ; 4399(3): 361-370, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690319

RESUMO

We provide the first report of Tischeriidae on Ulmaceae, a novel host-plant family, and describe Tischeria ulmella Xu Dai, sp. nov., a new species discovered in the Yellow River Scenic Area of Zhengzhou (Henan Province, China), feeding on Ulmus pumila L. We also provide a redescription of the Quercus-feeding Tischeria naraensis Sato discovered in China for the first time. Both species are illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and the leaf mines.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Quercus , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Feminino , Masculino , Folhas de Planta , Ulmaceae
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 219: 126-132, 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545209

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Celtis pallida Torr (Cannabaceae) is employed as a folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, skin infections, and diarrhea, among other diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this work was to assess the chemical composition, the in vitro and in vivo toxicity, the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, locomotor, and sedative effects of an ethanolic extract obtained from Celtis pallida aerial parts (CPE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The composition of CPE was carried out by GC-MS. The in vitro and in vivo toxic activity of CPE was estimated with the comet assay (10-1000 µg/ml) for 5 h in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the acute toxicity test (500-5000 mg/kg p.o.), for 14 days, respectively. The antimicrobial effect of CPE was evaluated using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay, whereas the antidiarrheal activity (10-200 mg/kg p.o.) was calculated using the castor oil test. The antinociceptive effects of CPE (50-200 mg/kg p.o.) were estimated with the acetic acid and formalin tests, as well as the hot plate test. The sedative and locomotor activities of CPE (50-200 mg/kg p.o.) were assessed with the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time test and the rotarod test, respectively. RESULTS: The main compound found in CPE was the triterpene ursolic acid (22% of the extract). CPE at concentrations of 100 µg/ml or higher induced genotoxicity in vitro and showed low in vivo toxicity (LD50 > 5000 mg/kg p.o.). Additionally, CPE lacked (MIC > 400 µg/ml) antimicrobial activity but exerts antinociceptive (ED50 = 12.5 ±â€¯1.5 mg/kg) and antidiarrheal effects (ED50 = 2.8 mg/kg), without inducing sedative effects or altering the locomotor activity. The antinociceptive activity of CPE suggests the participation of adrenoceptors, as well as the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. CONCLUSION: C. pallida exerts its antinociceptive effects probably mediated by the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Cannabaceae , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Analgésicos/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antidiarreicos/isolamento & purificação , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Antidiarreicos/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanol/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ulmaceae
20.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 410(2): 417-428, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214539

RESUMO

In this work, an analytical method, based on sonication-assisted extraction, clean-up by dispersive solid-phase extraction and determination by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 15 emerging pollutants in leaves from four ornamental tree species. Target compounds include perfluorinated organic compounds, plasticizers, surfactants, brominated flame retardant, and preservatives. The method was optimized using Box-Behnken statistical experimental design with response surface methodology and validated in terms of recovery, accuracy, precision, and method detection and quantification limits. Quantification of target compounds was carried out using matrix-matched calibration curves. The highest recoveries were achieved for the perfluorinated organic compounds (mean values up to 87%) and preservatives (up to 88%). The lowest recoveries were achieved for plasticizers (51%) and brominated flame retardant (63%). Method detection and quantification limits were in the ranges 0.01-0.09 ng/g dry matter (dm) and 0.02-0.30 ng/g dm, respectively, for most of the target compounds. The method was successfully applied to the determination of the target compounds on leaves from four tree species used as urban ornamental trees (Citrus aurantium, Celtis australis, Platanus hispanica, and Jacaranda mimosifolia). Graphical abstract Analytical method for the biomonitorization of emerging pollutants in outdoor air.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Árvores/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Citrus/química , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Limite de Detecção , Plastificantes/análise , Sonicação/métodos , Tensoativos/análise , Ulmaceae/química
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