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1.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120850, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583384

RESUMO

Climate change and urbanization contribute to the increased frequency of short-duration intense rainstorms. Traditional solutions often involve multiple scenarios for cost-effectiveness comparison, neglecting the rationality of placement conditions. The effective coupling and coordination of the location, number, size, and cost of storage tanks are crucial to addressing this issue. A three-phase approach is proposed to enhance the dynamic link between drainage pipeline and storage tanks in urban high-density built-up areas, integrating Python language, SWMM, the Elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-III), and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methods. In the first stage, each node within the pipeline network is considered as a potential storage tank location. In the second stage, factors such as the length and diameter of the upstream connecting pipeline, as well as the suitability of the storage tank location, are assessed. In the third stage, the length and diameter of the downstream connecting pipeline node are evaluated. The results show that the 90 overflow nodes (overflow time >0.5h) have been cleared using the three-phase approach with a 50a (duration = 3h) return period as the rainfall scenario, which meets the flooding limitations. After the completion of the three-phase method configuration, the total overflow and SS loads were reduced by 96.45% and 49.30%, respectively, compared to the status quo conditions. These two indicators have decreased by 48.16 and 9.05%, respectively, compared to the first phase (the traditional method of only replacing all overflow nodes with storage tanks). The proposed framework enables decision-makers to evaluate the acceptability and reliability of the optimal management plan, taking into account their preferences and uncertainties.


Assuntos
Inundações , Chuva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Simulação por Computador , Urbanização
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301585, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625891

RESUMO

In order to solve the problem of coordinated development among mining economy, social governance and environmental conservation in global resource-based cities, we choose Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region as the research area. The advantage of resource endowment and resource industry was measured by location quotient and input-output method. The panel data related to mining governance from 2010 to 2021 were selected to build the evaluation and coupling analysis model between mining economic, social governance and environmental conservation, and the spatial-temporal heterogeneity and coupling effect of them were analyzed by comprehensive empowerment evaluation, spatial autocorrelation analysis and barrier degree methods. The results show that: (1) Except for the overall upward trend of social governance, the development level of mining economy and environmental conservation are basically stable; (2) The resource-rich areas have obvious mining economic advantages, and the central cities have good social governance capabilities, and the environmental conservation effectiveness is uncertain; (3) The coupling effect between mining economy and social governance is stronger than that between mining economy and environment conservation, and the synergistic coupling effect of the three is relatively random. Finally, we put forward some policy response strategies to Guangxi, and theoretical and practical reference would be provided for resource-based cities around the world.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Indústrias , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
3.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e275828, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597516

RESUMO

Urban environments present less environmental heterogeneity in relation to the natural ones, affecting the biodiversity of bats and the ecological processes in which they participate. In this way, we will identify how urbanization influences the structure of bat communities in the municipality of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. We compared species composition, guilds and bat richness in a gradient that crossed urban, semi-urban and natural areas in the municipality of Goiânia, contained in the Cerrado biome. We captured a total of 775 bats of 16 species distributed in three families. Urban areas had a higher species abundance, while semi-urban areas had a higher species richness. The three types of environments have different compositions, the urban one being more homogeneous, the fauna in these areas is composed of generalist species, which benefit from this process. The diversity present in semi-urban areas is a consequence of the intersection between urban and natural fauna, which is why urban expansion needs to occur in a planned manner to minimize the impacts of this process and ensure the maintenance of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Humanos , Animais , Urbanização , Brasil , Pradaria , Ecossistema , Biodiversidade
4.
J R Soc Interface ; 21(213): 20230657, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565159

RESUMO

Describing the space-time evolution of urban population is a fundamental challenge in the science of cities, yet a complete theoretical treatment of the underlying dynamics is still missing. Here, we first reconstruct the evolution of London (UK) over 180 years and show that urban growth consists of an initial phase of diffusion-limited growth, followed by the development of the railway transport network and a consequential shift from central to suburban living. Such dynamics-which are analogous to angiogenesis in biological systems-can be described by a minimalist reaction-diffusion model coupled with economic constraints and an adaptive transport network. We then test the generality of our approach by reproducing the evolution of Sydney, Australia, from 1851 to 2011. We show that the rail system coevolves with urban population, displaying hierarchical characteristics that remain constant over time unless large-scale interventions are put in place to alter the modes of transport. These results demonstrate that transport schemes are first-order controls of long-term urbanization patterns and efforts aimed at creating more sustainable and healthier cities require careful consideration of population-transport feedbacks.


Assuntos
Urbanização , Humanos , Cidades , População Urbana , Dinâmica Populacional , Densidade Demográfica
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301784, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578765

RESUMO

This swift progression of urbanization has led to increasingly prominent conflicts over the use of land, particularly around its supply and demand. Researchers, both in China and internationally, have underscored the inherent interconnection between urbanization and land utilization. This relationship has gradually become more complex with the development of urbanization. With the implementation of the Yellow River Basin's strategy to preserve the environment while ensuring high-quality development, the Yellow River Basin has become a focal point of attention for numerous scholars. This study centers on the 57 county-level administrative divisions within the Gansu segment of the Yellow River Basin. We employed an extensive array of methodologies, such as GIS technology, the entropy method, data envelopment analysis, the coupling coordination degree model, and the panel vector autoregressive model. We established an index system and a measurement model to evaluate the degree of urbanization and the efficiency of land use. We also investigated the coupling coordinated dynamics between these two variables, to further explore the dynamic interplay between urbanization and land use and reveal their underlying mechanisms. The conclusions are as follows. The urbanization level and efficiency of land use in the Gansu section of the Yellow River Basin have exhibited a consistent upward trajectory, albeit at levels that are not particularly high, indicating substantial room for improvement in the future. The level of coupling coordination between urbanization and land use efficiency in the Gansu section of the Yellow River Basin has shown a generally upward trend. However, the overall coordination level remains relatively low, characterized by an imbalance, with "high coupling but low coordination". Regarding spatial distribution patterns, considerable disparities exist in the level of coordination development, which generally decreases from the eastern toward the western regions. A strong reciprocal and interactive relationship exists between the urbanization level and land use efficiency. An elevated level of economic urbanization can initially stimulate land use efficiency. Similarly, the improvement in the level of population urbanization, social urbanization, and ecological urbanization tends to exert a restraining influence on the augmentation of land use efficiency. Conversely, the enhancement of land use efficiency makes a distinct contribution to promoting the elevation of the urbanization level.


Assuntos
Rios , Urbanização , China , Análise de Dados , Entropia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Cidades
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0285907, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and represents a serious public health issue. Accurate data are required to implement adapted prevention programs and healthcare strategies. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence rates of CMRFs according to the level of urbanization, age and gender in Gabon. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in northern (Bitam), western coast (Libreville, Melen) and southeast (Koulamoutou) areas of Gabon using the World Health Organization's (WHO) stepwise approach for the surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. Participants over 18 years of age, without known underlying disease, living in rural and urban areas of Gabon were included. Sociodemographic, biological, and behavioral data were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the CMRFs. RESULTS: Of the 978 participants, 499 lived in urban and 479 in rural areas. Their median age was 38[28-50] years. Tobacco (26.1% vs 6.2%; p < 0.01) and excessive alcohol consumption (19.4% vs 9.6%; p < 0.01) predominated in rural than in urban areas, respectively. Urban dwellers had more often insufficient physical activity than rural people (29.5% vs 16.3%; p < 0.01). In total, 79.9% of participants aged under 54 years had a high blood pressure;10.6% of the younger participants had pre-hypertension. Metabolic syndrome was more frequent in women (21.7%) than in men (10.0%) (p < 0.01); 6.4% of men and 2.5% of women had a high Framingham score (p = 0.03). Finally, 54.0% of the participants had three or four CMRFs. The multivariate analysis showed that men were more likely to be smokers and to be at risk of pre-hypertension or high blood pressure (p < 0.01). Women were more likely to be obese or to have a metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). Living in urban areas was also a risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and high LDL cholesterol level. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of CMRFs was high in the study population. Disparities were observed according to urban and rural areas, gender and age. National prevention and healthcare strategies for cardiometabolic diseases in Gabon should consider these observed differences.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Síndrome Metabólica , Pré-Hipertensão , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Urbanização , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Gabão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , População Urbana
7.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(4): e234-e241, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580425

RESUMO

Cities are the main hubs of human activity and the engines of economic growth. In pursuit of such growth, cities are transgressing their local environmental boundaries. Ongoing urbanisation increasingly contributes to the human pressure on planetary boundaries and negatively affects planetary health. In a telecoupled world, cities externalise impacts by shifting production and many other functions away from their boundaries. At the same time, urban inhabitants and people who follow urban lifestyles but live outside cities are increasingly disconnected from nature. This Viewpoint highlights the role of degrowth in keeping an urban planet within planetary boundaries and suggests areas for further research and policy. Degrowth calls for meaningfully connecting planetary boundaries with cities and ensuring everyone receives a fair share of their ecological capacity. Degrowth calls for lower use of existing resources, highlights political power asymmetries, and moves beyond pricing interventions. Degrowth addresses three key aspects that connect cities and urban lifestyles to planetary boundaries: reducing production and consumption, connecting people and nature, and including nature (to a more substantial extent) in the design of cities and in what is used and consumed in cities. A radical degrowth transformation of cities is necessary to stay within a safe operating space for humanity.


Assuntos
Planetas , Urbanização , Humanos , Cidades
8.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120705, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569264

RESUMO

Sustainable urban development is crucial for managing natural resources and mitigating environmental impacts induced by rapid urbanization. This study demonstrates an integrated framework using machine learning-based urban analytics techniques to evaluate spatiotemporal urban expansion in Saudi Arabia (1987-2022) and quantify impacts on leading land, water, and air-related environmental parameters (EPs). Remote sensing and statistical techniques were applied to estimate vegetation health, built-up area, impervious surface, water bodies, soil characteristics, thermal comfort, air pollutants (PM2.5, CH4, CO, NO2, SO2), and nighttime light EPs. Regression assessment and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied to assess the relationships between urban expansion and EPs. The findings highlight the substantial growth of urban areas (0.067%-0.14%), a decline in soil moisture (16%-14%), water bodies (60%-22%), a nationwide increase of PM2.5 (44 µg/m3 to 73 µg/m3) and night light intensity (0.166-9.670) concentrations resulting in significant impacts on land, water, and air quality parameters. PCA showed vegetation cover, soil moisture, thermal comfort, PM2.5, and NO2 are highly impacted by urban expansion compared to other EPs. The results highlight the need for effective and sustainable interventions to mitigate environmental impacts using green innovations and urban development by applying mixed-use development, green space preservation, green building technologies, and implementing renewable energy approaches. The framework recommended for environmental management in this study provides a robust foundation for evidence-based policies and adaptive management practices that balance economic progress and environmental sustainability. It will also help policymakers and urban planners in making informed decisions and promoting resilient urban growth.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Urbanização , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Arábia Saudita , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Solo , Material Particulado , Água , Cidades
9.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120762, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574708

RESUMO

Urban pluvial flooding is becoming a global concern, exacerbated by urbanization and climate change, especially in rapidly developing areas where existing sewer systems lag behind growth. In order to minimize a system's functional failures during extreme rainfalls, localized engineering solutions are required for urban areas chronically suffering from pluvial floods. This study critically evaluates the Deep Tunnel Sewer System (DTSS) as a robust grey infrastructure solution for enhancing urban flood resilience, with a case study in the Gangnam region of Seoul, South Korea. To do so, we integrated a one-dimensional sewer model with a rapid flood spreading model to identify optimal routes and conduit diameters for the DTSS, focusing on four flood-related metrics: the total flood volume, the flood duration, the peak flooding rate, and the number of flooded nodes. Results indicate that, had the DTSS been in place, it could have reduced historical flood volumes over the last decade by 50.1-99.3%, depending on the DTSS route. Regarding the conduit diameter, an 8 m diameter was found to be optimal for minimizing all flood-related metrics. Our research also developed the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) surfaces in three dimensions, providing a correlation between simulated flood-related metrics and design rainfall characteristics to distinguish the effect of DTSS on flood risk reduction. Our findings demonstrate how highly engineered solutions can enhance urban flood resilience, but they may still face challenges during extreme heavy rainfalls with a 80-year frequency or above. This study contributes to rational decision-making and emergency management in the face of increasing urban pluvial flood risks.


Assuntos
Inundações , Resiliência Psicológica , Modelos Teóricos , Urbanização , República da Coreia , Cidades
11.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298078, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574052

RESUMO

The construction of tourist towns is an important aspect of new-type urbanization construction. In this study, 155 tourist towns in Fujian Province were selected as samples to analyze spatiotemporal differentiation using the geographical concentration index, nearest neighbor index, and local correlation index. Then, a geographic detector model was used to detect the factors that influence the spatiotemporal differentiation of tourist towns and to analyze the explanatory power and interaction of these detection factors. Finally, the mechanisms underlying the detection factors were discussed. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal differentiation of tourist towns in Fujian Province were core factors of traffic network, level of urbanization and population distribution; important factors of industrial structure and socioeconomic basis; and a fundamental factor of policy guidance. These six factors interacted to jointly affect the spatiotemporal differentiation of tourist towns in Fujian Province. The results of this study can provide a basis for the development of tourist towns in other similar regions and have reference value for better optimizing the pattern of urban and town systems and coordinating the synergistic development of urban and rural areas.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Urbanização , Humanos , Cidades , População Urbana , Demografia , Dinâmica Populacional , China
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1343300, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496392

RESUMO

Introduction: With China embracing a new people-centered urbanization stage, the problem of migrants "flowing without moving" has become increasingly prominent, and settlement intention has gradually garnered attention. Methods: Our research, based on questionnaire data from the China Labor Force Dynamic Survey 2016, uses a multilevel linear regression model to explore the influence of mobility, social environment, built environment, and demographics characteristics on settlement intention in the migrants and discusses differences between settlement intention of new and old generations and their internal influence mechanism. Results: The findings are as follows: (1) Compared to the old generation, the new migrant generation generally has higher settlement intention. (2) The migrants' settlement intention is influenced mainly by mobility, social environment, built environment, and demographic characteristics. (3) For the new migrant generation, social and demographic characteristics significantly influence their settlement intention. (4) The floating and built environment of the old generation significantly influence their settlement intention. Discussion: Finally, this paper argues that there are differences in the influence mechanism of the same factors on the settlement intention of the new and old generations of migrants. It proposes differentiated policy suggestions for the migrants to promote city social integration. Finally, this paper argues that there are differences in the influence mechanism of the same factors on the settlement intention of the new and old generations of migrants. It proposes differentiated policy suggestions for the migrants to promote city social integration.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Humanos , Intenção , Urbanização , Cidades , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298683, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483882

RESUMO

Urbanization leads to dramatic changes in habitat quality, which significantly affects population health. Research on the coupling coordination relationship between new urbanization and health production efficiency is conducive to improving residents' well-being and urban sustainable development. In this article, we adopted the super-efficient SBM model and entropy value method separately to evaluate the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of health production efficiency and new urbanization in China. Then, we used the coupling coordination degree model to investigate the interactive coercing relationship between new urbanization and health production efficiency. Finally, the panel Tobit model is used to analyze the factors influencing the coupled coordination of the two systems. The results showed that the new urbanization levels of 31 provinces in China have all steadily increased from 2003 to 2018. Health production efficiency exhibited a fluctuating but increasing trend, and its regional differences are gradually narrowing. Health production efficiency and new urbanization have developed in a more coordinated direction, with a spatial pattern of "high in the southeast and low in the northwest." Meanwhile, the relative development characteristics between the two systems have constantly changed, from the new urbanization lagged type to the two systems synchronized type and the health production efficiency lagged type. Population density, economic development level, government financial investment, and government health investment positively impact the coupling coordination degree of the two systems. In comparison, individual health investment harms the harmonization of the two systems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urbanização , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Eficiência , China , Cidades
14.
Environ Int ; 185: 108545, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447454

RESUMO

Over the last few years, the cumulative use of antibiotics in healthcare institutions, as well as the rearing of livestock and poultry, has resulted in the accumulation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This presents a substantial danger to human health worldwide. The characteristics of airborne ARGs, especially those transferred from outdoors to indoors, remains largely unexplored in neighborhoods, even though a majority of human population spends most of their time there. We investigated airborne ARGs and mobile genetic element (MGE, IntI1), plant communities, and airborne microbiota transferred indoors, as well as respiratory disease (RD) prevalence using a combination of metabarcode sequencing, real-time quantitative PCR and questionnaires in 72 neighborhoods in Shanghai. We hypothesized that (i) urbanization regulates ARGs abundance, (ii) the urbanization effect on ARGs varies seasonally, and (iii) land use types are associated with ARGs abundance. Supporting these hypotheses, during the warm season, the abundance of ARGs in peri-urban areas was higher than in urban areas. The abundance of ARGs was also affected by the surrounding land use and plant communities: an increase in the proportion of gray infrastructure (e.g., residential area) around neighborhoods can lead to an increase in some ARGs (mecA, qnrA, ermB and mexD). Additionally, there were variations observed in the relationship between ARGs and bacterial genera in different seasons. Specifically, Stenotrophomonas and Campylobacter were positively correlated with vanA during warm seasons, whereas Pseudomonas, Bacteroides, Treponema and Stenotrophomonas positively correlated with tetX in the cold season. Interstingly, a noteworthy positive correlation was observed between the abundance of vanA and the occurrence of both rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis. Taken together, our study underlines the importance of urbanization and season in controlling the indoor transfer of airborne ARGs. Furthermore, we also highlight the augmentation of green-blue infrastructure in urban environments has the potential to mitigate an excess of ARGs.


Assuntos
Genes Bacterianos , Urbanização , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética
15.
Mol Ecol ; 33(7): e17311, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468155

RESUMO

Urbanisation is occurring globally, leading to dramatic environmental changes that are altering the ecology and evolution of species. In particular, the expansion of human infrastructure and the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats in cities is predicted to increase genetic drift and reduce gene flow by reducing the size and connectivity of populations. Alternatively, the 'urban facilitation model' suggests that some species will have greater gene flow into and within cities leading to higher diversity and lower differentiation in urban populations. These alternative hypotheses have not been contrasted across multiple cities. Here, we used the genomic data from the GLobal Urban Evolution project (GLUE), to study the effects of urbanisation on non-adaptive evolutionary processes of white clover (Trifolium repens) at a global scale. We found that white clover populations presented high genetic diversity and no evidence of reduced Ne linked to urbanisation. On the contrary, we found that urban populations were less likely to experience a recent decrease in effective population size than rural ones. In addition, we found little genetic structure among populations both globally and between urban and rural populations, which showed extensive gene flow between habitats. Interestingly, white clover displayed overall higher gene flow within urban areas than within rural habitats. Our study provides the largest comprehensive test of the demographic effects of urbanisation. Our results contrast with the common perception that heavily altered and fragmented urban environments will reduce the effective population size and genetic diversity of populations and contribute to their isolation.


Assuntos
Deriva Genética , Urbanização , Humanos , Cidades , Ecossistema , Demografia
16.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(3): e17241, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38525809

RESUMO

Recent work has shown the decline of insect abundance, diversity and biomass, with potential implications for ecosystem services. These declines are especially pronounced in regions with high human activity, and urbanization is emerging as a significant contributing factor. However, the scale of these declines and the traits that determine variation in species-specific responses remain less well understood, especially in subtropical and tropical regions, where insect diversity is high and urban footprints are rapidly expanding. Here, we surveyed moths across an entire year in protected forested sites across an urbanization gradient to test how caterpillar and adult life stages of subtropical moths (Lepidoptera) are impacted by urbanization. Specifically, we assess how urban development affects the total biomass of caterpillars, abundance of adult moths and quantify how richness and phylogenetic diversity of macro-moths are impacted by urban development. Additionally, we explore how life-history traits condition species' responses to urban development. At the community level, we find that urban development decreases caterpillar biomass and adult moth abundance. We also find sharp declines of adult macro-moths in response to urban development across the phylogeny, leading to a decrease in species richness and phylogenetic diversity in more urban sites. Finally, our study found that smaller macro-moths are less impacted by urban development than larger macro-moths in subtropical environments, perhaps highlighting the tradeoffs of metabolic costs of urban heat favoring smaller moths over the relative benefits of dispersal for larger moths. In summary, our research underscores the far-reaching consequences of urbanization on moths and provides compelling evidence that urban forests alone may not be sufficient to safeguard biodiversity in cities.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Mariposas , Animais , Humanos , Urbanização , Larva , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Insetos
17.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 37(3): 172-176, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38512853

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urbanization is a multifaceted process that can have both positive and negative effects on mental health, especially in adolescents. This paper attempts to summarize the impact of urbanization on youth mental health in Hong Kong. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have shown that urbanization is associated with an increased risk of youth mental health problems in Hong Kong. Psychosocial factors like perceived stress, social isolation, and exposure to environmental pollutants may contribute to a negative association between urbanization and mental health issues. Academic pressure, poor transparency and accessibility to mental health services in Hong Kong further exacerbate youth's mental health wellbeing. Environmental factors like housing conditions, green spaces, and visible urban greenery have been found to influence mental health outcomes. Existing empirical studies have found a positive association between urbanization and mental health problems, while others have found no association or even a negative association. SUMMARY: Further research is warranted to investigate the complex relationship between urbanization and youth mental health in Hong Kong. Exploration of effective interventions is necessary to mitigate the negative impacts of urbanization on youth mental health. Understanding this relationship can inform health policy-making and formulate interventions to promote youth's mental health well being in the short-and long run.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Adolescente , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Urbanização , Isolamento Social
18.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 37(3): 191-201, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441163

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urbanization, a complex global phenomenon, has a significant bearing on schizophrenia/psychosis burden through various socioeconomic and environmental factors. This review focuses on recent evidence (2019-2023) linking urbanization, schizophrenia, and the role of green space. RECENT FINDINGS: This review analyzed 43 articles that examined the correlation between urban birth or upbringing, urban living (urbanicity), and various schizophrenia/psychosis-related outcomes such as incidence, psychotic experiences, etc. The studies showed differing results across geographical locations. Socioeconomic factors like area deprivation, migrant status (ethnic density) and social fragmentation were independently associated with the risk of schizophrenia/psychosis irrespective of urbanicity. More recently, environmental factors such as green space reduction and air pollution have been explored in urban living conditions and were positively associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia/psychosis. SUMMARY: There is a need for further investigation in low and middle-income countries. The impact of urbanization-related factors and green space on the risk of schizophrenia/psychosis calls for appropriate governmental commitments toward structured and healthy urban planning.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Urbanização , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(4): 377, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499899

RESUMO

Istanbul is a megacity with a population of 15.5 million and is one of the fastest-growing cities in Europe. Due to the rapidly increasing population and urbanization, Istanbul's daily water needs are constantly increasing. In this study, eight drinking water basins that supply water to Istanbul were comprehensively examined using remote sensing observations and techniques. Water surface area changes were determined monthly, and their relationships with meteorological parameters and climate change were investigated. Monthly water surface areas of natural lakes and dams were determined with the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) applied to Sentinel-2 satellite images. Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images were used in months when optical images were unavailable. The study was carried out using 3705 optical and 1167 SAR images on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. Additionally, to determine which areas of water resources are shrinking, water frequency maps of the major drinking water resources were produced. Land use/land cover (LULC) changes that occurred over time were determined, and the effects of the increase in urbanization, especially on drinking water surface areas, were investigated. ESRI LULC data was used to determine LULC changes in watersheds, and the increase in urbanization areas from 2017 to 2022 ranged from 1 to 91.43%. While the basin with the least change was in Istranca, the highest increase in the artificial surface was determined to be in the Büyükçekmece basin with 1833.03 ha (2.89%). While there was a 1-12.35% decrease in the surface areas of seven water resources from 2016 to 2022, an increase of 2.65-93% was observed in three water resources (Büyükçekmece, Sazlidere, and Elmali), each in different categories depending on their size. In the overall analysis, total WSA decreased by 62.33 ha from 2016 to 2022, a percentage change of 0.70%. Besides the areal change analysis, the algae contents of the drinking water resources over the years were examined for the major water basins using the Normalized Difference Chlorophyll Index (NDCI) and revealed their relationship with meteorological factors and urbanization.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Recursos Hídricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Urbanização
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(4): 386, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506980

RESUMO

Heavy rains and floods cause human, material, and economic damage in cities worldwide. The severity of flooding has intensified due to accelerating urbanization. While much of the existing research on flood hazards emphasizes simulation and assessment, the correlation between indicators has yet to be explored. This study employs the Tree Gaussian Process sensitivity analysis method. Through rigorous sampling and correlation analysis, the model identifies critical determinants. Significantly, factors such as the water supply penetration rate (Var3), water pipeline density in built-up areas (Var4), centralized treatment rate of sewage treatment plants (Var6), agricultural land for forestry (Var13), and urban, village, and industrial and mining land (Var15) stand out as primary influencers on the flood-affected populace. These variables reflect a city's flood management capability and its dedication to resource stewardship and ecological equilibrium, underscoring its critical role in flood risk assessment and strategic mitigation. The study further illuminates that the interplay of these variables can exacerbate flood consequences, suggesting a compounded impact when variables operate in tandem. Recognizing these synergistic effects reveals a more pronounced flood threat than previously estimated, indicating that viewing these factors in silos might underrepresent the risk involved.


Assuntos
Desastres , Inundações , Humanos , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Urbanização
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