Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 43.552
Filtrar
1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(6): 1153-1155, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948988

RESUMO

To assess the effect of haemodialysis practice guidelines on dialysis indicators and haemodynamic complications, the comparative study was conducted at the dialysis unit of Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised patients undergoing haemodialysis who were divided into intervention group A in which updated haemodialysis practice guidelines were used, and control group B in which routine base dialysis was given. Data was collected using a self-structured tool. Data was analysed using McNemar test and Mann-Whitney U-test with p<0.05. Compared to baseline, there was a significant improvement in post-intervention ratio of effective removal of clearance (K) resulting from the treatment characterised by time (t) in the patient with a specific volume of distribution (V), or Kt/V, median & IQR 0.83(0.355) vs 1.21(0.11) and percentage of urea reduction ratio with median & IQR 49(12) vs. 66.5(18.65) (p<0.05). Intradialytic hypotension was found in 17(56.6%) subjects in group B and in 4(13.4%) in group A (p=0.002). Intradialytic hypertension was found in 8(25.6%) patients in group B and 1(3.4%) in group A (p=0.039). It is recommended that dialysis be performed in accordance with the most recent clinical guidelines in order to improve practices and to increase haemodialysis effectiveness.


Assuntos
Hipotensão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Diálise Renal , Humanos , Diálise Renal/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipotensão/etiologia , Paquistão , Adulto , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Idoso , Ureia
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15032, 2024 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951590

RESUMO

In agriculture, hydrogels can be addressed for effective operation of water and controlled-release fertilizers. Hydrogels have a significant ability for retaining water and improving nutrient availability in soil, enhancing plant growth while reducing water and fertilizer usage. This work aimed to prepare a hydrogel composite based on microalgae and biopolymers including chitosan and starch for use as a soil conditioner. The hydrogel composite was characterized by FTIR, XRD, and SEM. All hydrogel properties were studied including swelling degree, biodegradability, water-holding capacity, water retention, and re-swelling capacity in soil and water. The urea fertilizer loading and releasing behavior of the prepared hydrogels were investigated. The results revealed that the range of the maximal urea loading was between 99 and 440%, and the kinetics of loading was fitted with Freundlich model. The urea release % exhibited 78-95%, after 30 days, and the kinetics of release was fitted with zero-order, Higuchi, and Korsmeyer-Peppas models. Furthermore, the prepared hydrogels obtained a significant water-holding capacity, after blending soil (50 g) with small amount of hydrogels (1 g), the capacity increased in the range of 99.4-101.5%. In sum, the prepared hydrogels have the potential to be applied as a soil conditioner.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Hidrogéis , Microalgas , Ureia , Fertilizantes/análise , Hidrogéis/química , Ureia/química , Microalgas/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Cinética , Água/química , Solo/química , Quitosana/química , Amido/química
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15525, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969741

RESUMO

For patients presenting with prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) 3/4 findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations, the standard recommendation typically involves undergoing a biopsy for pathological assessment to ascertain the nature of the lesion. This course of action, though essential for accurate diagnosis, invariably amplifies the psychological distress experienced by patients and introduces a host of potential complications associated with the biopsy procedure. However, [18F]DCFPyL PET/CT imaging emerges as a promising alternative, demonstrating considerable diagnostic efficacy in discerning benign prostate lesions from malignant ones. This study aims to explore the diagnostic value of [18F]DCFPyL PET/CT imaging for prostate cancer in patients with PI-RADS 3/4 lesions, assisting in clinical decision-making to avoid unnecessary biopsies. 30 patients diagnosed with PI-RADS 3/4 lesions through mpMRI underwent [18F]DCFPyL PET/CT imaging, with final biopsy pathology results as the "reference standard". Diagnostic performance was assessed through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, evaluating the diagnostic efficacy of molecular imaging PSMA (miPSMA) visual analysis and semi-quantitative analysis in [18F]DCFPyL PET/CT imaging. Lesions were assigned miPSMA scores according to the prostate cancer molecular imaging standardized evaluation criteria. Among the 30 patients, 13 were pathologically confirmed to have prostate cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of visual analysis in [18F]DCFPyL PET/CT imaging for diagnosing PI-RADS 3/4 lesions were 61.5%, 88.2%, 80.0%, 75.0%, and 76.5%, respectively. Using SUVmax 4.17 as the optimal threshold, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy for diagnosis were 92.3%, 88.2%, 85.7%, 93.8%, and 90.0%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for semi-quantitative analysis was 0.94, significantly higher than visual analysis at 0.80. [18F]DCFPyL PET/CT imaging accurately diagnosed benign lesions in 15 (50%) of the PI-RADS 3/4 patients. For patients with PI-RADS 4 lesions, the positive predictive value of [18F]DCFPyL PET/CT imaging reached 100%. [18F]DCFPyL PET/CT imaging provides potential preoperative prediction of lesion nature in mpMRI PI-RADS 3/4 patients, which may aid in treatment decision-making and reducing unnecessary biopsies.


Assuntos
Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Neoplasias da Próstata , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biópsia , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos de Flúor , Curva ROC
4.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 10(4): e916, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effects of 15% and 20% carbamide peroxide (CP) on color, surface roughness, and hardness of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) dental ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This in vitro study was conducted on 120 Vita Mark II, Celtra Duo, and Suprinity CAD/CAM ceramic specimens. The ceramic specimens in each group (n = 40) were randomly assigned to two subgroups (n = 20) for polishing and glazing, and their baseline color, surface roughness (Ra), and hardness were assessed. In each subgroup, half of the specimens were exposed to 15% CP, while the other half were exposed to 20% CP. Their color change (ΔE), surface roughness, and hardness were then measured again. Surface roughness, hardness, and color were analyzed sequentially by profilometer, Vickers hardness tester, and spectrophotometer, respectively. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc Bonferroni test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: The surface roughness of all groups significantly increased after bleaching treatment (p < 0.05). Surface hardness of all groups decreased after bleaching treatment, but this reduction was only significant in Vita Mark II subgroups (glazed, polished, 15%, and 20% CP). The ΔE was not clinically and visually perceivable in any group. CONCLUSION: The present results revealed that concentration of CP and type of surface treatment affected the surface properties of CAD/CAM ceramics. Type of surface treatment only affected the surface hardness of Vita Mark II ceramics (p < 0.05). Concentration of CP had a significant effect only on polished Vita Mark II.


Assuntos
Peróxido de Carbamida , Cerâmica , Cor , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Dureza , Teste de Materiais , Peróxidos , Propriedades de Superfície , Peróxido de Carbamida/química , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Dureza/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerâmica/química , Peróxidos/química , Porcelana Dentária/química , Ureia/química , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/farmacologia , Clareadores Dentários/química , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Materiais Dentários/química , Espectrofotometria
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1414188, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38979511

RESUMO

In Escherichia coli, the disaccharide trehalose can be metabolized as a carbon source or be accumulated as an osmoprotectant under osmotic stress. In hypertonic environments, E. coli accumulates trehalose in the cell by synthesis from glucose mediated by the cytosolic enzymes OtsA and OtsB. Trehalose in the periplasm can be hydrolyzed into glucose by the periplasmic trehalase TreA. We have previously shown that a treA mutant of extraintestinal E. coli strain BEN2908 displayed increased resistance to osmotic stress by 0.6 M urea, and reduced production of type 1 fimbriae, reduced invasion of avian fibroblasts, and decreased bladder colonization in a murine model of urinary tract infection. Since loss of TreA likely results in higher periplasmic trehalose concentrations, we wondered if deletion of otsA and otsB genes, which would lead to decreased internal trehalose concentrations, would reduce resistance to stress by 0.6 M urea and promote type 1 fimbriae production. The BEN2908ΔotsBA mutant was sensitive to osmotic stress by urea, but displayed an even more pronounced reduction in production of type 1 fimbriae, with the consequent reduction in adhesion/invasion of avian fibroblasts and reduced bladder colonization in the murine urinary tract. The BEN2908ΔtreAotsBA mutant also showed a reduction in production of type 1 fimbriae, but in contrast to the ΔotsBA mutant, resisted better than the wild type in the presence of urea. We hypothesize that, in BEN2908, resistance to stress by urea would depend on the levels of periplasmic trehalose, but type 1 fimbriae production would be influenced by the levels of cytosolic trehalose.


Assuntos
Fímbrias Bacterianas , Osmorregulação , Trealose , Bexiga Urinária , Infecções Urinárias , Animais , Trealose/metabolismo , Camundongos , Bexiga Urinária/microbiologia , Fímbrias Bacterianas/metabolismo , Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Pressão Osmótica , Escherichia coli Extraintestinal Patogênica/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Extraintestinal Patogênica/genética , Ureia/metabolismo , Trealase/metabolismo , Trealase/genética , Deleção de Genes , Glucose/metabolismo
6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(7): 229, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825655

RESUMO

Biocementation, driven by ureolytic bacteria and their biochemical activities, has evolved as a powerful technology for soil stabilization, crack repair, and bioremediation. Ureolytic bacteria play a crucial role in calcium carbonate precipitation through their enzymatic activity, hydrolyzing urea to produce carbonate ions and elevate pH, thus creating favorable conditions for the precipitation of calcium carbonate. While extensive research has explored the ability of ureolytic bacteria isolated from natural environments or culture conditions, bacterial synergy is often unexplored or under-reported. In this study, we isolated bacterial strains from the local eutrophic river canal and evaluated their suitability for precipitating calcium carbonate polymorphs. We identified two distinct bacterial isolates with superior urea degradation ability (conductivity method) using partial 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. Molecular identification revealed that they belong to the Comamonas and Bacillus genera. Urea degradation analysis was performed under diverse pH (6,7 and 8) and temperature (15 °C,20 °C,25 °C and 30 °C) ranges, indicating that their ideal pH is 7 and temperature is 30 °C since 95% of the urea was degraded within 96 h. In addition, we investigated these strains individually and in combination, assessing their microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) in silicate fine sand under low (14 ± 0.6 °C) and ideal temperature 30 °C conditions, aiming to optimize bio-mediated soil enhancement. Results indicated that 30 °C was the ideal temperature, and combining bacteria resulted in significant (p ≤ 0.001) superior carbonate precipitation (14-16%) and permeability (> 10- 6 m/s) in comparison to the average range of individual strains. These findings provide valuable insights into the potential of combining ureolytic bacteria for future MICP research on field applications including soil erosion mitigation, soil stabilization, ground improvement, and heavy metal remediation.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbonato de Cálcio , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Areia , Microbiologia do Solo , Ureia , Ureia/metabolismo , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus/enzimologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Areia/microbiologia , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Temperatura , Filogenia , Precipitação Química
7.
J Comp Eff Res ; 13(7): e240038, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850129

RESUMO

Aim: Real-world healthcare resource use (HCRU) burden among patients with Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) treated with pimavanserin (PIM) versus other atypical antipsychotics (other-AAPs) including quetiapine (QUE) in long term care (LTC) and nursing home (NH) settings are lacking. This analysis examines HCRU differences among residents in LTC/NH settings who initiate PIM versus QUE or other-AAPs. Methods: A retrospective analysis of LTC/NH residents with PDP from the 100% Medicare claims between 1 April 2015 and 31 December 2021 was conducted. Treatment-naive residents who initiated ≥6 months continuous monotherapy with PIM or QUE or other-AAPs between 04/01/16 and 06/30/2021 were propensity score matched (PSM) 1:1 using 31 variables (age, sex, race, region and 27 Elixhauser comorbidity characteristics). Post-index (i.e., 6 months) HCRU outcomes included: proportion of residents with ≥1 all-cause inpatient (IP) hospitalizations and emergency room (ER) visits. HCRU differences were assessed via log binomial regression and reported as relative risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals after controlling for dementia, insomnia and index year. Results: From a total of PIM (n = 1827), QUE (n = 7770) or other-AAPs (n = 9557), 1:1 matched sample (n = 1827) in each cohort were selected. All-cause IP hospitalizations (PIM [29.8%]) versus QUE [36.7%]) and ER visits (PIM [47.3%] versus QUE [55.8%]), respectively, were significantly lower for PIM. PIM versus QUE cohort also had significantly lower RR for all-cause IP hospitalizations and ER visits, respectively, (IP hospitalizations RR: 0.82 [0.75. 0.9]; ER visits RR: 0.85 [0.8. 0.9]). PIM versus other-AAPs also had lower likelihood of HCRU outcomes. Conclusion: In this analysis, LTC/NH residents on PIM monotherapy (versus QUE) had a lower likelihood of all-cause hospitalizations (18%) and ER (15%) visits. In this setting, PIM also had lower likelihood of all-cause HCRU versus other-AAPs.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Medicare , Casas de Saúde , Doença de Parkinson , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Piperidinas , Transtornos Psicóticos , Ureia , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ureia/uso terapêutico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão
8.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 25(6): 2203-2210, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38918684

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Capecitabine has been widely prescribed to treat various cancers. The hand foot syndrome (HFS) is the most troublesome adverse effect. Urea cream has been pre-emptively co-prescribed, even though its efficacy is doubtful. Aloe vera gel with urea cream might potentiate each other. This trial was intended to prove the efficacy of this combination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigators conducted a randomized single-blinded phase II study. The participants were randomized 1:1 to receive the combination of aloe vera gel and 10% urea cream (n = 30), the experimental A+U arm and 10% urea cream alone (n = 31), the U arm. The sample size was calculated to have 90% power to show the significant 20% reduction in the incidence of HFS grade 2-3 of the combination therapy with alpha level = 0.05. Both the CTCAE criteria version 5 and the dermatology life quality index (DLQI) were assessed to determine the severity of HFS and quality of life, respectively. RESULTS: Most of the participants had rectal cancer (A+U: 43.3%; U: 41.9%). In the A+U group, 86.7% had grade 0-1 HFS and 13.3% had grade 2-3 HFS. In the U group, 64.5% had grade 0-1 HFS and 35.5% had grade 2-3 HFS (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.045). Grade 2-3 HFS was significantly lower in the combination group. CONCLUSION: Combination of aloe vera gel and 10% urea cream ameliorated the severity of HFS in participants taking capecitabine; however, no significant difference in DLQI between the groups was demonstrated.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos , Capecitabina , Síndrome Mão-Pé , Qualidade de Vida , Ureia , Humanos , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Mão-Pé/etiologia , Síndrome Mão-Pé/prevenção & controle , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/uso terapêutico , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Método Simples-Cego , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Prognóstico , Seguimentos , Adulto , Administração Tópica , Idoso , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Creme para a Pele , Aloe
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14658, 2024 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38918518

RESUMO

Previous published data have confirmed that the addition of a citric acid meal improves the accuracy of the 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT). However, some studies have suggested that a citric acid test meal may not be necessary. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of a 13C-UBT with a citric acid meal for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in a Chinese population, particularly for patients with results in the gray zone. In this paired self-controlled study, all subjects had previously undergone 13C-UBTs without citric acid meals and were randomly divided into two groups based on different doses of citric acid (a low-dose citric acid group and a high-dose citric acid group, comprising meals with 0.68 g and 3.84 g citric acid powder, respectively). Positive rapid urease test (CLO) test and histology results were considered the 'gold standard'. The mean delta over baseline (DOB) value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were compared between the two groups, particularly for patients with results in the gray zone. In total, 285 patients were tested. Of these patients, 189 were included in the low-dose citric acid group, and 96 were included in the high-dose citric acid group. Among patients with a positive 13C-UBT result without citric acid [delta over baseline (DOB) value ≥ 4‰, n = 174] and a negative 13C-UBT result without citric acid (DOB value < 4‰, n = 111), 8.0% (14/174) were false positive, and 0.9% (1/111) was false negative as determined by gold standard. Of 14 patients with false positive, 78.6% (11/14) false positive were in the gray zone of 4-10‰. However, there were no false positive 13C-UBT results with citric acid in the the gray zone of 4-10‰. In the comparison of the commercial 13C-UBT with the 13C-UBT in the low-dose citric acid group, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy at 15 min were as follows: 99.1% vs. 99.1%, 97.5% vs. 88.9%, 98.2% vs. 92.2%, 98.8% vs. 98.6% and 98.4% vs. 94.7%, respectively. In the the gray zone of 4.0-10.0‰, the comparison of the commercial 13C-UBT with the 13C-UBT in the low-dose citric acid group, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and accuracy at 15 min were as follows: 94.4% vs. 100.0%, 100.0% vs. 0%, 100.0% vs. 75.0% and 95.8% vs. 75.0%, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the 15-min and 30-min measurement intervals in the low- and high-dose citric acid groups, including patients with results in the gray zone. The low-dose citric acid test, with an optimal measurement interval of 15 min, was highly accurate in the diagnosis of Hp infection in the Chinese population, especially for individuals with results in the gray zone.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Isótopos de Carbono , Ácido Cítrico , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Ureia , Humanos , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Ureia/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , China , Idoso , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , População do Leste Asiático
10.
Cells ; 13(12)2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38920664

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an oncogenic virus that causes chronic liver disease in more than 80% of patients. During the last decade, efficient direct-acting antivirals were introduced into clinical practice. However, clearance of the virus does not reduce the risk of end-stage liver diseases to the level observed in patients who have never been infected. So, investigation of HCV pathogenesis is still warranted. Virus-induced changes in cell metabolism contribute to the development of HCV-associated liver pathologies. Here, we studied the impact of the virus on the metabolism of polyamines and proline as well as on the urea cycle, which plays a crucial role in liver function. It was found that HCV strongly suppresses the expression of arginase, a key enzyme of the urea cycle, leading to the accumulation of arginine, and up-regulates proline oxidase with a concomitant decrease in proline concentrations. The addition of exogenous proline moderately suppressed viral replication. HCV up-regulated transcription but suppressed protein levels of polyamine-metabolizing enzymes. This resulted in a decrease in polyamine content in infected cells. Finally, compounds targeting polyamine metabolism demonstrated pronounced antiviral activity, pointing to spermine and spermidine as compounds affecting HCV replication. These data expand our understanding of HCV's imprint on cell metabolism.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus , Poliaminas , Prolina , Ureia , Replicação Viral , Prolina/metabolismo , Humanos , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo , Ureia/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Arginase/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/metabolismo , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Hepatite C/virologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Prolina Oxidase/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 455: 139914, 2024 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823124

RESUMO

Urea is also known as carbamide, an inexpensive and eco-friendly additive for starch functionalization. This article reviews the potential role of urea in starch modification, with the prominence of the mechanism of urea action, alterations in the starch structure and functional properties. In addition, current literature conveys the prospective effect of urea in fabricating starch films for food packaging, and the relevant areas that need to be covered in the forthcoming research are specified at the end of the article section. Urea can modify the diverse physico-chemical and functional properties of starch. Starch-based films exhibit pronounced effects on their mechanical and barrier properties upon the incorporation of urea, although this effect strongly depends on the urea content and degree of substitution (DS). Overall, urea holds great potential for use in the starch and bioplastic film industries, as it produces biocompatible derivatives with desirable performance.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Amido , Ureia , Amido/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Ureia/química
12.
Anal Methods ; 16(26): 4381-4386, 2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896043

RESUMO

The abundant bio-markers in saliva provide a new option for non-invasive testing. However, due to the presence of impurities in the saliva background, most of the existing saliva testing methods rely on pre-processing, which limits the application of saliva testing as a convenient means of testing in daily life. Herein, a disposable-gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) biosensor integrated with a micro-sieve was introduced to solve the problem of signal interference caused by charged impurities in saliva for HEMT based biosensors, where the micro-sieve was utilized as a pre-treatment unit to remove large particles of impurities from saliva through the size effect and thus greatly improving the accuracy of detection. The experimental results showed that the HEMT based biosensor has excellent linearity (R2 = 0.9977) and a high sensitivity of 6.552 µA dec-1 for urea sensing from 1 fM to 100 mM in 0.1× PBS solution. When it comes to artificial saliva detection, compared to the HEMT sensor without the micro-sieve (sensitivity = 3.07432 µA dec-1), the sensitivity of the HEMT sensor integrated with the micro-sieve showed almost no change. Moreover, to verify that urea can be detected in actual saliva, urea is sensed directly in human saliva. The addition of the microsieve module provides a new way for biosensors to detect specific markers in saliva in real time, and the designed HEMT biosensor with the microsieve function has a wide range of application potential in rapid saliva detection.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Gálio , Saliva , Transistores Eletrônicos , Ureia , Gálio/química , Gálio/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Ureia/análise , Ureia/química , Saliva/química , Humanos , Compostos de Alumínio/química , Compostos de Alumínio/análise , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento
13.
Anim Genet ; 55(4): 540-558, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38885945

RESUMO

Unfavorable genetic correlations between milk production, fertility, and urea traits have been reported. However, knowledge of the genomic regions associated with these unfavorable correlations is limited. Here, we used the correlation scan method to identify and investigate the regions driving or antagonizing the genetic correlations between production vs. fertility, urea vs. fertility, and urea vs. production traits. Driving regions produce an estimate of correlation that is in the same direction as the global correlation. Antagonizing regions produce an estimate in the opposite direction of the global estimates. Our dataset comprised 6567, 4700, and 12,658 Holstein cattle with records of production traits (milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield), fertility (calving interval) and urea traits (milk urea nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen predicted using milk-mid-infrared spectroscopy), respectively. Several regions across the genome drive the correlations between production, fertility, and urea traits. Antagonizing regions were confined to certain parts of the genome and the genes within these regions were mostly involved in preventing metabolic dysregulation, liver reprogramming, metabolism remodeling, and lipid homeostasis. The driving regions were enriched for QTL related to puberty, milk, and health-related traits. Antagonizing regions were mostly related to muscle development, metabolic body weight, and milk traits. In conclusion, we have identified genomic regions of potential importance for dairy cattle breeding. Future studies could investigate the antagonizing regions as potential genomic regions to break the unfavorable correlations and improve milk production as well as fertility and urea traits.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Leite , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Ureia , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Ureia/metabolismo , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Austrália , Fenótipo , Cruzamento
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14296, 2024 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38906980

RESUMO

As the most abundant animal in the soil, nematodes are directly or indirectly involved in almost all soil ecological processes. Studying soil nematode population regulation is essential to understanding soil ecological processes. This study found urea combines nematode-trapping fungi to regulate the population of soil nematodes. In soil, compared with no urea, adding 0.2 mg/mL urea after applying Arthrobotrys oligospora and Dactylellina ellipsospora reduced the number of nematodes by 34.7% and 31.7%. Further, the mechanism of urea couple nematode-trapping fungi to regulate the nematode population was explored in the medium environment. The results showed that the addition of 0.2 mg/ml urea accelerated the trap formation of A. oligospora and D. ellipsosporas by 50% and 46.5%, and increased the yield of traps of A. oligospora and D. ellipsosporas by 39.5% and 40.6%, thus, the predatory efficiency of A. oligospora and D. ellipsospora on nematodes was increased by 34.2% and 32.7%. In conclusion, urea regulates the predation ability of A. oligospora and D. ellipsosporas to regulate the soil nematode population. This study deepens the understanding of the regulatory pathways of the soil nematodes but also provides a potential new strategy for harmful nematode bio-control.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Ureia , Animais , Ureia/farmacologia , Ureia/metabolismo , Nematoides/fisiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Solo/química , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 45(6): 3584-3594, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38897778

RESUMO

In order to investigate the effects of ammonium sulfate, an industrial by-product, on soil nutrients and microbial community when applied in different proportions instead of using urea as nitrogen fertilizer, a pot corn experiment was conducted. A completely randomized block experimental design was used, with a total of five treatments:CK (no fertilization), U10S0 (100 % urea), U8S2 (80 % urea + 20 % ammonium sulfate), U6S4(60 % urea + 40 % ammonium sulfate), and U0S10 (100 % ammonium sulfate). The basic physical and chemical properties of soil and the dry weight of maize plants were determined by conventional methods, and microbial sequencing was performed using the Illumina NovaSeq platform. The experiment results showed that:① In each growth stage of maize, the pH of soil treated with fertilization (7.85-8.15) was decreased compared with that of CK (8.1-8.21), and the pH showed a decreasing trend with the increase in ammonium sulfate content. ② The soil available nitrogen content increased gradually with the increase in the ammonium sulfate ratio at each growth stage of maize. Compared with that in the CK and U10S0 treatments, the ratio in the U0S10 treatment increased 30.56 % to 63.68 % and 13.22 % to 38.43 %, respectively. The variation trend of organic carbon content was opposite to that of available nitrogen (U8S2 > U6S4 > U0S10), and the addition of ammonium sulfate was still higher than that of U10S0 at other growth stages except for the seedling stage. ③ The protease activity of all fertilization treatments was higher than that of the control, and the protease activity was gradually enhanced with the continuous growth of corn and the increase in the ammonium sulfate ratio. The protease activity of the U0S10 treatment was higher than that of the U10S0 treatment at each growth stage of corn, which increased by 10.54 %-100 %. Soil sucrase activity ranged from 0.04 to 0.24 mg·(g·24 h)-1, and those in the U0S10 treatments were significantly higher than those in the U10S0 and CK treatments at all growth stages, increasing by 20.32 % to 99.16 % and 24.31 % to 79.33 %, respectively. ④ The species abundance of bacteria and fungi in maize rhizosphere under all fertilization treatments were lower than those under the CK treatment, followed by those under the U10S0 treatment. The species diversity trend of the bacterial community in the three treatments with ammonium sulfate replacing urea were U8S2 > U0S10 > U6S4, and that of fungi were U6S4 > U8S2 > U0S10. ⑤ The maize dry weight of the U10S0 treatment and U0S10 treatment was the highest, which was 39.47 % and 36.16 % higher than that of the CK treatment, respectively, but the difference was not significant. The Pearson model showed that the species abundance and diversity of soil rhizosphere fungi and bacteria were affected by relevant environmental variables, among which pH value and soil available nitrogen content were the most important factors affecting microbial diversity. In conclusion, when corn planting in calcareous brown soil, replacing urea with a certain proportion of ammonium sulfate can improve soil nutrients more than urea alone, which affects the growth and rhizosphere microbial community of corn to a certain extent and has a greater yield.


Assuntos
Sulfato de Amônio , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Ureia , Zea mays , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Ureia/metabolismo , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 103(6): e14569, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877369

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus has the ability to invade cortical bone osteocyte lacuno-canalicular networks (OLCNs) and cause osteomyelitis. It was recently established that the cell wall transpeptidase, penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP4), is crucial for this function, with pbp4 deletion strains unable to invade OLCNs and cause bone pathogenesis in a murine model of S. aureus osteomyelitis. Moreover, PBP4 has recently been found to modulate S. aureus resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics. As such, small molecule inhibitors of S. aureus PBP4 may represent dual functional antimicrobial agents that limit osteomyelitis and/or reverse antibiotic resistance. A high throughput screen recently revealed that the phenyl-urea 1 targets PBP4. Herein, we describe a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study on 1. Leveraging in silico docking and modeling, a set of analogs was synthesized and assessed for PBP4 inhibitory activities. Results revealed a preliminary SAR and identified lead compounds with enhanced binding to PBP4, more potent antibiotic resistance reversal, and diminished PBP4 cell wall transpeptidase activity in comparison to 1.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas , Staphylococcus aureus , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Ureia/química , Ureia/farmacologia , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/antagonistas & inibidores
17.
Molecules ; 29(11)2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38893305

RESUMO

There has been an increase in interest in the application of ω-3 PUFAs, especially EPA and DHA, in the development of various food products owing to their myriad health benefits. However, most fish oils do not contain more than 30% combined levels of EPA and DHA. In this study, through the urea complexation procedure, the production of EPA and DHA concentrate in their free fatty acids (FFAs) form was achieved from an enzymatic oil extracted from common kilka (Clupeonella cultriventris caspia). To gain the maximum value of EPA and DHA, the response surface methodology (RSM), which is an effective tool to categorize the level of independent variables onto the responses of an experimental process, was also used. Different variables including the urea-fatty acids (FAs) ratio (in the range of 2-6, w/w), the temperature of crystallization (in the range of -24-8 °C), and the time of crystallization (in the range of 8-40 h) were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM) for maximizing the EPA and DHA contents. Following the model validation, the levels of the variables at which the maximum desirability function (0.907 score) was obtained for response variables were 5:1 (urea-FAs ratio), -9 °C (the temperature of crystallization), and 24 h (the time of crystallization). Under these optimal conditions, increases of 2.2 and 4.4 times in the EPA and DHA concentrations were observed, respectively, and an increase in the concentrations of EPA and DHA from 5.39 and 13.32% in the crude oil to 12.07 and 58.36% in the ω-3 PUFA concentrates were observed, respectively. These findings indicate that the urea complexation process is efficient at optimizated conditions.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Óleos de Peixe , Ureia , Ureia/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/química , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Animais , Cristalização
18.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 23(6): 466-471, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834224

RESUMO

Xerosis is experienced by almost everyone at some time in their lives and the foundation of management of dry skin (both consumer- and healthcare professional--directed) rests on the use of moisturizers. Given the wide range of available moisturizers, counseling patients about selecting the optimum moisturizer for their individual situation relies on knowledge of ingredients and formulations. Traditionally, the main focus for many moisturizers centered on the core functional and structural role of ceramides within the epidermal barrier.  However, while a key aspect of transepidermal water loss and other skin barrier functions, components other than ceramides are equally essential in increasing moisturization. The skin's natural moisturizing factors (NMFs) are a complex mixture of water-attracting compounds such as amino acids, urea, lactate, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA), and electrolytes which play a fundamental role in preserving physiologic function by regulating the water content of the stratum corneum. By facilitating water retention, NMFs contribute significantly to the suppleness, elasticity, normal desquamation, and overall integrity of the skin barrier. Incorporation of NMFs into moisturizers addresses critical deficiencies in the skin's moisture balance that exist in xerotic and atopic skin, and in many skin disorders, mitigating signs and symptoms associated with xerosis and promoting optimal skin health. The biochemical composition of NMFs and the intricate interplay with epidermal homeostasis translate to a central role in moisturizers used for prophylactic and therapeutic management of various dry skin conditions, beyond ceramides alone. J Drugs Dermatol. 2024;23(6):466-471.     doi:10.36849/JDD.8358.


Assuntos
Ceramidas , Emolientes , Perda Insensível de Água , Humanos , Ceramidas/administração & dosagem , Perda Insensível de Água/efeitos dos fármacos , Emolientes/administração & dosagem , Creme para a Pele/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/metabolismo , Epiderme/fisiologia , Ureia/administração & dosagem
19.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 34(2): 020707, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38882581

RESUMO

Introduction: We compared the quality control efficiency of artificial intelligence-patient-based real-time quality control (AI-PBRTQC) and traditional PBRTQC in laboratories to create favorable conditions for the broader application of PBRTQC in clinical laboratories. Materials and methods: In the present study, the data of patients with total thyroxine (TT4), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol (TC), urea, and albumin (ALB) over five months were categorized into two groups: AI-PBRTQC group and traditional PBRTQC group. The Box-Cox transformation method estimated truncation ranges in the conventional PBRTQC group. In contrast, in the AI-PBRTQC group, the PBRTQC software platform intelligently selected the truncation ranges. We developed various validation models by incorporating different weighting factors, denoted as λ. Error detection, false positive rate, false negative rate, average number of the patient sample until error detection, and area under the curve were employed to evaluate the optimal PBRTQC model in this study. This study provides evidence of the effectiveness of AI-PBRTQC in identifying quality risks by analyzing quality risk cases. Results: The optimal parameter setting scheme for PBRTQC is TT4 (78-186), λ = 0.03; AMH (0.02-2.96), λ = 0.02; ALT (10-25), λ = 0.02; TC (2.84-5.87), λ = 0.02; urea (3.5-6.6), λ = 0.02; ALB (43-52), λ = 0.05. Conclusions: The AI-PBRTQC group was more efficient in identifying quality risks than the conventional PBRTQC. AI-PBRTQC can also effectively identify quality risks in a small number of samples. AI-PBRTQC can be used to determine quality risks in both biochemistry and immunology analytes. AI-PBRTQC identifies quality risks such as reagent calibration, onboard time, and brand changes.


Assuntos
Controle de Qualidade , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Tiroxina/sangue , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Ureia/sangue , Laboratórios Clínicos
20.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 22(4): 102108, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of elective pelvic nodal irradiation in salvage radiotherapy (sRT) remains controversial. Utilizing 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT, this study aimed to investigate differences in disease distribution after whole pelvic (WPRT) or prostate bed (PBRT) radiotherapy and to identify risk factors for pelvic lymph node (LN) relapse. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with PSA > 0.1 ng/mL post-radical prostatectomy (RP) or post-RP and sRT who underwent 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT. Disease distribution on 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT after sRT was compared using Chi-square tests. Risk factors were tested for association with pelvic LN relapse after RP and salvage PBRT using logistic regression. RESULTS: 979 18F-DCFPyL PET/CTs performed at our institution between 1/1/2022 - 3/24/2023 were analyzed. There were 246 patients meeting criteria, of which 84 received salvage RT after RP (post-salvage RT group) and 162 received only RP (post-RP group). Salvage PBRT patients (n = 58) had frequent pelvic nodal (53.6%) and nodal-only (42.6%) relapse. Salvage WPRT patients (n = 26) had comparatively lower rates of pelvic nodal (16.7%, p = 0.002) and nodal-only (19.2%, p = 0.04) relapse. The proportion of distant metastases did not differ between the two groups. Multiple patient characteristics, including ISUP grade and seminal vesicle invasion, were associated with pelvic LN disease in the post-RP group. CONCLUSION: At PSA persistence or progression, salvage WPRT resulted in lower rates of nodal involvement than salvage PBRT, but did not reduce distant metastases. Certain risk factors increase the likelihood of pelvic LN relapse after RP and can help inform salvage RT field selection.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Terapia de Salvação , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Idoso , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Metástase Linfática , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Pelve/efeitos da radiação , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/efeitos da radiação , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Ureia/análogos & derivados
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...