Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 973
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0304365, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38820434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the molecular mechanism of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) in alleviating renal fibrosis by inhibiting Urotensin II-induced pyroptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal tubular epithelial cells. METHODS: Forty SD rats were randomly divided into control group without operation: gavage with 5ml/kg/d water for injection and UUO model group: gavage with 5ml/kg/d water for injection; UUO+ AS-IV group (gavage with AS-IV 20mg/kg/d; and UUO+ losartan potassium group (gavage with losartan potassium 10.3mg/kg/d, with 10 rats in each group. After 2 weeks, Kidney pathology, serum Urotensin II, and cAMP concentration were detected, and the expressions of NLRP3, GSDMD-N, Caspase-1, and IL-1ß were detected by immunohistochemistry. Rat renal tubular epithelial cells were cultured in vitro, and different concentrations of Urotensin II were used to intervene for 24h and 48h. Cell proliferation activity was detected using the CCK8 assay. Suitable concentrations of Urotensin II and intervention time were selected, and Urotensin II receptor antagonist (SB-611812), inhibitor of PKA(H-89), and AS-IV (15ug/ml) were simultaneously administered. After 24 hours, cells and cell supernatants from each group were collected. The cAMP concentration was detected using the ELISA kit, and the expression of PKA, α-SMA, FN, IL-1ß, NLRP3, GSDMD-N, and Caspase-1 was detected using cell immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and RT-PCR. RESULTS: Renal tissue of UUO rats showed renal interstitial infiltration, tubule dilation and atrophy, renal interstitial collagen fiber hyperplasia, and serum Urotensin II and cAMP concentrations were significantly higher than those in the sham operation group (p <0.05). AS-IV and losartan potassium intervention could alleviate renal pathological changes, and decrease serum Urotensin II, cAMP concentration levels, and the expressions of NLRP3, GSDMD-N, Caspase-1, and IL-1ß in renal tissues (p <0.05). Urotensin II at a concentration of 10-8 mol/L could lead to the decrease of cell proliferation, (p<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the cAMP level and the PKA expression were significantly increased (p<0.05). After intervention with AS-IV and Urotensin II receptor antagonist, the cAMP level and the expression of PKA were remarkably decreased (p<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the expression of IL-1ß, NLRP3, GSDMD-N, and Caspase-1 in the Urotensin II group was increased (p<0.05), which decreased in the AS-IV and H-89 groups. CONCLUSION: AS-IV can alleviate renal fibrosis by inhibiting Urotensin II-induced pyroptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells by regulating the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico , AMP Cíclico , Células Epiteliais , Túbulos Renais , Piroptose , Saponinas , Transdução de Sinais , Triterpenos , Urotensinas , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/patologia , Nefropatias/etiologia , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Piroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saponinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Urotensinas/metabolismo
2.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1870(5): 167170, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38631407

RESUMO

Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is a common pathological feature of vascular proliferative diseases, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. Urotensin II (UII) and its receptor (UTR) are widely expressed in cardiovascular tissues. However, it remains unclear whether the UII/UTR system is involved in IH. Right unilateral common carotid artery ligation was performed and maintained for 21 days to induce IH in UTR knockout (UTR-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. Histological analysis revealed that compared with WT mice, UTR-deficient mice exhibited a decreased neointimal area, angiostenosis and intima-media ratio. Immunostaining revealed fewer smooth muscle cells (SMCs), endothelial cells and macrophages in the lesions of UTR-/- mice than in those of WT mice. Protein interaction analysis suggested that the UTR may affect cell proliferation by regulating YAP and its downstream target genes. In vitro experiments revealed that UII can promote the proliferation and migration of SMCs, and western blotting also revealed that UII increased the protein expression of RhoA, CTGF, Cyclin D1 and PCNA and downregulated p-YAP protein expression, while these effects could be partly reversed by urantide. To evaluate the translational value of UTRs in IH management, WT mice were also treated with two doses of urantide, a UTR antagonist, to confirm the benefit of UTR blockade in IH progression. A high dose of urantide (600 µg/kg/day), rather than a low dose (60 µg/kg/day), successfully improved ligation-induced IH compared with that in mice receiving vehicle. The results of the present study suggested that the UII/UTR system may regulate IH partly through the RhoA-YAP signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Proliferação de Células , Hiperplasia , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Hiperplasia/metabolismo , Hiperplasia/patologia , Ligadura , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neointima/metabolismo , Neointima/patologia , Neointima/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Túnica Íntima/metabolismo , Urotensinas/metabolismo , Urotensinas/genética , Urotensinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Sinalização YAP/metabolismo
3.
Cell Signal ; 116: 111056, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262555

RESUMO

Despite the observation of synergistic interactions between the urotensinergic and angiotensinergic systems, the interplay between the urotensin II receptor (hUT) and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (hAT1R) in regulating cellular signaling remains incompletely understood. Notably, the putative interaction between hUT and hAT1R could engender reciprocal allosteric modulation of their signaling signatures, defining a unique role for these complexes in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. Using a combination of co-immunoprecipitation, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and FlAsH BRET-based conformational biosensors, we first demonstrated the physical interaction between hUT and hAT1R. Next, to analyze how this functional interaction regulated proximal and distal hUT- and hAT1R-associated signaling pathways, we used BRET-based signaling biosensors and western blots to profile pathway-specific signaling in HEK 293 cells expressing hUT, hAT1R or both. We observed that hUT-hAT1R heterodimers triggered distinct signaling outcomes compared to their respective parent receptors alone. Notably, co-transfection of hUT and hAT1R has no impact on hUII-induced Gq activation but significantly reduced the potency and efficacy of Ang II to mediate Gq activation. Interestingly, URP, the second hUT endogenous ligand, produce a distinct signaling signature compared to hUII at hUT-hAT1R. Our results therefore suggest that assembly of hUT with hAT1R might be important for allosteric modulation of outcomes associated with specific hardwired signaling complexes in healthy and disease states. Altogether, our work, which potentially explains the interplay observed in native cells and tissues, validates such complexes as potential targets to promote the design of compounds that can modulate heterodimer function selectively.


Assuntos
Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina , Urotensinas , Humanos , Angiotensina II , Células HEK293
4.
J Med Chem ; 66(20): 14241-14262, 2023 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37800680

RESUMO

Urotensin II receptor (UT) modulators that differentiate the effects of the endogenous cyclic peptide ligands urotensin II (UII) and urotensin II-related peptide (URP) offer potential for dissecting their respective biological roles in disease etiology. Selective modulators of hUII and URP activities were obtained using 1,3,4-benzotriazepin-2-one mimics of a purported bioactive γ-turn conformation about the Bip-Lys-Tyr tripeptide sequence of urocontrin ([Bip4]URP). Considering an active ß-turn conformer about the shared Phe-Trp-Lys-Tyr sequence of UII and URP, 8-substituted 1,3,4-benzotriazepin-2-ones were designed to mimic the Phe-Bip-Lys-Tyr tetrapeptide sequence of urocontrin, synthesized, and examined for biological activity. Subtle 5- and 8-position modifications resulted in biased signaling and selective modulation of hUII- or URP-induced vasoconstriction. For example, p-hydroxyphenethyl analogs 17b-d were strong Gα13 and ßarr1 activators devoid of Gαq-mediated signaling. Tertiary amides 15d and 17d negatively modulated hUII-induced vasoconstriction without affecting URP-mediated responses. Benzotriazepinone carboxamides proved to be exceptional tools for elucidating the pharmacological complexity of UT.


Assuntos
Hormônios Peptídicos , Urotensinas , Urotensinas/farmacologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/química , Conformação Molecular , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(10)2023 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37893499

RESUMO

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of thymoquinone (TMQ) treatment in osteonecrotic rats by evaluating protein levels, osteonecrosis (ON) levels, fatty acid degeneration, oxidative status, and plasma levels of Urotensin-II (U-II) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß1). Materials and Methods: 40 weight-matched adult male Wistar rats were grouped as control (n = 10), methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) (n = 10), thymoquinone (TMQ) (n = 10), and MPA + TMQ (n = 10). To induce ON, 15-week-old animals were subcutaneously injected with MPA at a dose of 15 mg/kg twice weekly for 2 weeks. TMQ was injected into 15-week-old rats via gastric gavage at a dose of 80 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks. The rats in the MPA + TMQ group were administered TMQ 2 weeks before the MPA injection. At the end of the treatments, cardiac blood samples and femur samples were collected for biochemical and histological evaluations. Results: In the control and TMQ groups, no ON pattern was observed. However, in tissues exposed to MPA, TMQ treatment resulted in significantly decreased ON levels compared to the MPA group. The number of cells that were positive for 8-OHdG and 4-HNE was significantly lower in the MPA + TMQ group than in the MPA group (p < 0.05). In terms of TGF-ß1 and U-II levels, we observed that both TGF-ß1 (367.40 ± 23.01 pg/mL vs. 248.9 ± 20.12 pg/mL) and U-II protein levels (259.5 ± 6.0 ng/mL vs. 168.20 ± 7.90 ng/mL) increased significantly in the MPA group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Furthermore, TGF-ß1 (293.50 ± 14.18 pg/mL) and U-II (174.80 ± 4.2 ng/mL) protein levels were significantly decreased in the MPA + TMQ group compared to the MPA group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). There was a statistically positive correlation (p < 0.05) between the TGF-ß1 and U-II protein levels in all groups (p = 0.002, rcontrol = 0.890; p = 0.02, rTMQ = 0.861; p = 0.024, rMPA+TMQ = 0.868) except for the MPA group (p < 0.03, rMedrol = -0.870). Conclusions: As far as we know, this is the first study to demonstrate the curative functions of TMQ on ON by causing a correlated decrease in the expression of U-II and TGF-ß1 in the femoral heads of rats.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose , Urotensinas , Ratos , Animais , Masculino , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Ratos Wistar , Urotensinas/farmacologia , Urotensinas/uso terapêutico
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(17)2023 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37686217

RESUMO

Urotensin 2 (Uts2) is a biologically active peptide involved in the regulation of a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. In both the human and rat adrenal gland, the expressions of the Uts2 gene and its receptor (Uts2r) have been described. This paper focuses on the description of the hormonal control of the mRNA levels of urotensin II and its receptor in the adrenal gland of the rat, both in vitro and in vivo. The initial in vitro experiments were carried out on freshly isolated rat adrenocortical cells and their primary culture. The obtained results indicated a stimulating PKA-independent effect of ACTH on the Uts2 mRNA level in the tested cells, with no changes in the Uts2r transcript. Subsequent in vivo experiments showed that ACTH-induced adrenal growth was accompanied by an elevated level of the Uts2 mRNA, with unchanged expression of Uts2r. In the other types of in vivo gland growth studied, enucleation-induced adrenal regeneration and compensatory growth of the gland, the mRNA levels of the studied genes showed no significant differences. The only exception was hemiadrenalectomy, which led to a significant increase in Uts2 mRNA expression level 24 h after surgery. In 12-week-old rats of both sexes, gonadectomy led to a significant increase in the level of Uts2 mRNA in the adrenal gland, an effect that was prevented by sex hormones' replacement. No changes in Uts2r transcript levels were observed under these conditions. Thus, this study suggests that the regulation of Uts2 and Uts2r mRNA levels differs significantly in the rat adrenal gland. While Uts2 transcript levels appear to be mainly dependent on ACTH action, Uts2r mRNA levels are not under the control of this hormone.


Assuntos
Secretagogos , Urotensinas , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Glândulas Suprarrenais , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Urotensinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Urotensinas/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 164: 115016, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37321059

RESUMO

HYPER-H21-4 was a randomized crossover trial that aimed to determine if cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating constituent of cannabis, has relevant effects on blood pressure and vascular health in patients with essential hypertension. In the present sub-analysis, we aimed to elucidate whether serum urotensin-II concentrations may reflect hemodynamic changes caused by oral supplementation with CBD. The sub-analysis of this randomized crossover study included 51 patients with mild to moderate hypertension that received CBD for five weeks, and placebo for five weeks. After five weeks of oral CBD supplementation, but not placebo, serum urotensin concentrations reduced significantly in comparison to baseline (3.31 ± 1.46 ng/mL vs. 2.08 ± 0.91 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Following the five weeks of CBD supplementation, the magnitude of reduction in 24 h mean arterial pressure (MAP) positively correlated with the extent of change in serum urotensin levels (r = 0.412, P = 0.003); this association was independent of age, sex, BMI and previous antihypertensive treatment (ß ± standard error, 0.023 ± 0.009, P = 0.009). No correlation was present in the placebo condition (r = -0.132, P = 0.357). In summary, potent vasoconstrictor urotensin seems to be implicated in CBD-mediated reduction in blood pressure, although further research is needed to confirm these notions.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Urotensinas , Humanos , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Cross-Over , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Essencial/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego
8.
Biomolecules ; 13(6)2023 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37371494

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has become major public concern and is continuously investigated in new aspects of pathophysiology and management. Urotensin II (UII) is a powerful vasoconstrictor with a role in cardiovascular diseases. The main goal of this study was to evaluate serum UII levels in OSA patients and matched controls. A total of 89 OSA patients and 89 controls were consecutively enrolled. A medical history review and physical examination of the participants was conducted, with polysomnography performed in the investigated group. UII levels and other biochemical parameters were assessed according to the standard laboratory protocols. The median AHI in the OSA group was 39.0 (31.4-55.2) events/h, and they had higher levels of hsCRP when compared to control group (2.87 ± 0.71 vs. 1.52 ± 0.68 mg/L; p < 0.001). Additionally, serum UII levels were significantly higher in the OSA group (3.41 ± 1.72 vs. 2.18 ± 1.36 ng/mL; p < 0.001), while positive correlation was found between UII levels and hsCRP (r = 0.450; p < 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (SPB) (r = 0.317; p < 0.001). Finally, multiple regression analysis showed significant association of UII levels with AHI (0.017 ± 0.006, p = 0.013), SBP (0.052 ± 0.008, p < 0.001) and hsCRP (0.538 ± 0.164, p = 0.001). As UII levels were associated with blood pressure and markers of inflammation and OSA severity, it might play an important role in the complex pathophysiology of OSA and its cardiometabolic complications.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Urotensinas , Humanos , Proteína C-Reativa , Polissonografia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Urotensinas/sangue
9.
PLoS Biol ; 21(3): e3002008, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36862758

RESUMO

Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is the most common spinal deformity diagnosed in childhood or early adolescence, while the underlying pathogenesis of this serious condition remains largely unknown. Here, we report zebrafish ccdc57 mutants exhibiting scoliosis during late development, similar to that observed in human adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Zebrafish ccdc57 mutants developed hydrocephalus due to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow defects caused by uncoordinated cilia beating in ependymal cells. Mechanistically, Ccdc57 localizes to ciliary basal bodies and controls the planar polarity of ependymal cells through regulating the organization of microtubule networks and proper positioning of basal bodies. Interestingly, ependymal cell polarity defects were first observed in ccdc57 mutants at approximately 17 days postfertilization, the same time when scoliosis became apparent and prior to multiciliated ependymal cell maturation. We further showed that mutant spinal cord exhibited altered expression pattern of the Urotensin neuropeptides, in consistent with the curvature of the spine. Strikingly, human IS patients also displayed abnormal Urotensin signaling in paraspinal muscles. Altogether, our data suggest that ependymal polarity defects are one of the earliest sign of scoliosis in zebrafish and disclose the essential and conserved roles of Urotensin signaling during scoliosis progression.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia , Escoliose , Urotensinas , Animais , Cílios/metabolismo , Epêndima/metabolismo , Epêndima/patologia , Hidrocefalia/genética , Hidrocefalia/metabolismo , Hidrocefalia/patologia , Escoliose/genética , Escoliose/metabolismo , Escoliose/patologia , Urotensinas/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
10.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 211: 115485, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36889446

RESUMO

The urotensinergic system, involved in the development and/or progression of numerous pathological conditions, is composed of one G protein-coupled receptor (UT) and two endogenous ligands known as urotensin II (UII) and urotensin II-related peptide (URP). These two structurally related hormones, which exert common and divergent effects, are thought to play specific biological roles. In recent years, we have characterized an analog termed urocontrin A (UCA), i.e. [Pep4]URP, which is capable of discriminating the effects of UII from URP. Such an action could allow the delineation of the respective functions of these two endogenous ligands. In an effort to define the molecular determinants involved in this behavior and to improve the pharmacological profile of UCA, we introduced modifications from urantide, considered for some time as a lead compound for the development of UT antagonists, into UCA and assessed the binding, contractile activity and G protein signaling of these newly developed compounds. Our results show that UCA and its derivatives exert probe-dependent effects on UT antagonism, and we have further identified [Pen2, Pep4]URP as a Gq biased ligand with an insurmountable antagonism in our aortic ring contraction assay.


Assuntos
Hormônios Peptídicos , Urotensinas , Ligantes , Urotensinas/farmacologia , Urotensinas/metabolismo , Hormônios Peptídicos/química , Hormônios Peptídicos/metabolismo , Hormônios Peptídicos/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 53(6): e13972, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36807243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urotensin-II receptor- (UTR) related pathway exerts a key-role in promoting inflammation. The aim was to assess the relationship between UTR expression and clinical, endoscopic and biochemical severity of ulcerative colitis (UC), exploring its predictivity of intravenous (iv) steroid administration therapeutic outcome. METHODS: One-hundred patients with first diagnosis of UC and 44 healthy subjects were enrolled. UTR expression was assessed by qPCR, Western Blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Clinical, endoscopic and histological activity of UC were evaluated by using Truelove and Witts (T&W) severity index, Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES), and Truelove and Richards Index (TRI). The partial and full Mayo scores (PMS and FMS) were assessed to stage the disease. RESULTS: The UTR expression, resulted higher in the lesioned mucosa of UC patients in comparison to healthy subjects (p < .0001 all). Direct relationship between UTR (mRNA and protein) expression and disease severity assessment (T&W, PMS, MES and TRI) was highlighted (p < .0001 all). UTR expression resulted also higher in the 72 patients requiring iv steroids administration compared to those who underwent alternative medications, (p < .0001). The 32 steroid-non-responders showed an increased UTR expression (WB, IHC and qPCR from lesioned mucosa), compared to 40 steroid-responders (p: .0002, .0001, p < .0001 respectively). The predictive role of UTR expression (p < .05) on the negative iv steroids administration therapeutic outcome was highlighted and ROC curves identified the thresholds expressing the better predictive performance. CONCLUSIONS: UTR represents a promising inflammatory marker related to clinical, endoscopic, and histological disease activity as well as a predictive marker of steroid administration therapeutic outcome in the UC context.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Urotensinas , Humanos , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Urotensinas/uso terapêutico , Colonoscopia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Mucosa Intestinal , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36835230

RESUMO

Accumulated evidence shows that elevated urotensin II (UII) levels are associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of UII in the initiation, progression, and regression of atherosclerosis remains to be verified. Different stages of atherosclerosis were induced in rabbits by a 0.3% high cholesterol diet (HCD) feeding, and either UII (5.4 µg/kg/h) or saline was chronically infused via osmotic mini-pumps. UII promoted atherosclerotic fatty streak formation in ovariectomized female rabbits (34% increase in gross lesion and 93% increase in microscopic lesion), and in male rabbits (39% increase in gross lesion). UII infusion significantly increased the plaque size of the carotid and subclavian arteries (69% increase over the control). In addition, UII infusion significantly enhanced the development of coronary lesions by increasing plaque size and lumen stenosis. Histopathological analysis revealed that aortic lesions in the UII group were characterized by increasing lesional macrophages, lipid deposition, and intra-plaque neovessel formation. UII infusion also significantly delayed the regression of atherosclerosis in rabbits by increasing the intra-plaque macrophage ratio. Furthermore, UII treatment led to a significant increase in NOX2 and HIF-1α/VEGF-A expression accompanied by increased reactive oxygen species levels in cultured macrophages. Tubule formation assays showed that UII exerted a pro-angiogenic effect in cultured endothelial cell lines and this effect was partly inhibited by urantide, a UII receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that UII can accelerate aortic and coronary plaque formation and enhance aortic plaque vulnerability, but delay the regression of atherosclerosis. The role of UII on angiogenesis in the lesion may be involved in complex plaque development.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Hipercolesterolemia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Urotensinas , Animais , Coelhos , Masculino , Feminino , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Urotensinas/metabolismo , Urotensinas/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Aorta/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo
13.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res ; 43(1): 1-8, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651469

RESUMO

THE PURPOSE OF THE ARTICLE: To identify novel small molecule antagonists of Urotensin II receptor with acceptable pharmacological profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies on 2-{N-[(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) acetyl]-N-methylamino}-3-pyrrolidinepropanamide series were conducted and shortlisted compounds were synthesized and evaluated in in vitro cell-based assays. Human and mouse Urotensin II receptor overexpressing CHO cells were used for calcium release and radioligand binding assays. Initial molecules in this series had solubility and inter-species variability issue in the calcium release assay. We, therefore, conducted SAR to overcome these 2 issues and molecules with accepted in vitro profile were evaluated further in mouse pressor response model to generate the in vivo proof of concept for UII receptor antagonization. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We report herewith identification of 2-{N-[(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetyl]-N-methylamino}-3-pyrrolidinepropanamides series to obtain novel small molecule antagonists of Urotensin II receptor with acceptable pharmacological profile.


Assuntos
Cálcio , Urotensinas , Camundongos , Cricetinae , Animais , Humanos , Cricetulus , Cálcio/metabolismo , Urotensinas/química , Urotensinas/metabolismo , Urotensinas/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Células CHO
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905813

RESUMO

Urotensin II (UII) is a kind of fish somatostatins cyclic peptide, which was originally extracted from the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS). The system of UII and UII receptor (UIIR) has been reported to have multiple physiological regulatory functions, such as cardiovascular control, osmoregulation, and lipid metabolism. However, the effect of UII and UIIR on the ovarian development has not been covered. This study investigated the expression pattern of UII and UIIR in the ovarian follicles and explored their impact on ovarian development in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The results showed that the highest UII and UIIR mRNA levels were observed at stage II and stage III follicles during ovarian development, respectively. In situ hybridization revealed that a strong signal of UII was expressed in the oocyte nuclei of stage II follicles, however, UIIR was found in the follicle cells and oocyte cytoplasm of stage II and stage III follicles. Similarly, immunohistochemistry found positive signal of UII was detected in the oocyte nuclei of stage II follicles. The results from in vitro culture of olive flounder follicles suggested the expression of UII and UIIR mRNA levels significantly increased by 10 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for 9 h. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression of UII and UIIR was not statistically significantly changed by 17α, 20ß-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP). These results firstly suggested that UII and UII receptor may play vital roles in regulating ovarian growth in olive flounder.


Assuntos
Linguado , Urotensinas , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Linguado/genética , Linguado/metabolismo , Urotensinas/genética , Urotensinas/farmacologia , Urotensinas/metabolismo , Peixes/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
15.
Elife ; 112022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36453722

RESUMO

The spine provides structure and support to the body, yet how it develops its characteristic morphology as the organism grows is little understood. This is underscored by the commonality of conditions in which the spine curves abnormally such as scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis. Understanding the origin of these spinal curves has been challenging in part due to the lack of appropriate animal models. Recently, zebrafish have emerged as promising tools with which to understand the origin of spinal curves. Using zebrafish, we demonstrate that the urotensin II-related peptides (URPs), Urp1 and Urp2, are essential for maintaining spine morphology. Urp1 and Urp2 are 10-amino acid cyclic peptides expressed by neurons lining the central canal of the spinal cord. Upon combined genetic loss of Urp1 and Urp2, adolescent-onset planar curves manifested in the caudal region of the spine. Highly similar curves were caused by mutation of Uts2r3, an URP receptor. Quantitative comparisons revealed that urotensin-associated curves were distinct from other zebrafish spinal curve mutants in curve position and direction. Last, we found that the Reissner fiber, a proteinaceous thread that sits in the central canal and has been implicated in the control of spine morphology, breaks down prior to curve formation in mutants with perturbed cilia motility but was unaffected by loss of Uts2r3. This suggests a Reissner fiber-independent mechanism of curvature in urotensin-deficient mutants. Overall, our results show that Urp1 and Urp2 control zebrafish spine morphology and establish new animal models of spine deformity.


The backbone, or spine, is an integral part of the human body, providing support to our torsos so that we can sit, stand, bend and twist. If this structure does not form correctly, it can lead to pain, neurologic problems, and mobility issues. The spine normally has curves, but these can become deformed for many reasons, including genetic and muscular factors. There are also cases in which the cause of a spine distortion is unknown, such as in scoliosis (where the spine twists to the side), lordosis (where the lower part of the spine curves excessively), and kyphosis (where the upper part of the spine shows extreme curvature). The structure of the spine is laid out during embryonic development and maintained throughout life. Experiments in zebrafish have shown that a crucial element in preserving the shape of the spine is the flow of cerebrospinal fluid or CSF. Propelled by the movement of little 'hairs' at the surface of specialized cells, this liquid runs through our central nervous system along a cavity lined with neurons. These nerve cells produce Urp1 and Urp2, two short molecules (or peptides) built from the same components as proteins. In zebrafish embryos, lowering the levels of these peptides had previously been shown to cause early body deformities. But what role, if any, do Urp1 and Urp2 play in maintaining the shape of the spine in adult zebrafish? Bearce et al. set out to answer this question. First, they generated mutant zebrafish which did not carry either Urp1, Urp2 or both peptides. Contrary to previous findings, all three of these mutants developed normally as embryos. Once they were adults, zebrafish lacking Urp1 exhibited normal spines, while those lacking Urp2 had slightly deformed curves. However, zebrafish lacking both peptides had prominent curves in the tail-region of their spines, somewhat akin to lordosis in humans. This indicates that both peptides are necessary for adult spine structure, but work in a semi-redundant manner. Interestingly, the defects observed first appeared in adolescent fish and gradually worsened as they grew; many forms of human spinal abnormalities follow a similar trajectory. Bearce et al. also tested the role of the protein Uts2r3, a receptor for peptides which belong to the urotensin family (such as Urp1 and Urp2). Fish lacking this protein showed normal spine structure as embryos, but distorted spinal curves as adults, suggesting that Urp1 and Urp2 might control spine morphology by signaling via the Uts2r3 receptor. Together, Bearce et al.'s observations show that disturbing urotensin signaling leads to a lordosis-like condition in adult zebrafish, with evident deformities in the tail-region of the spine. Considering the broad similarities in structures between the zebrafish and the human spine, these results point to a possible involvement of urotensin signaling in spine distortion in humans. More studies using zebrafish will likely provide further insights into the principles that control the shape of the spine and what goes wrong when it breaks down.


Assuntos
Escoliose , Urotensinas , Animais , Urotensinas/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Coluna Vertebral
16.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557826

RESUMO

The urotensin receptor (UT receptor), a G-protein-coupled receptor mediating urotensin-II and urotensin-II-related peptide signaling in the urotensinergic system, has multiple pharmacological activities. However, there is no drug targeting the UT receptor currently in clinical use, and the discovery of new leads is still important. The complete crystal structure of the UT receptor has not yet been resolved and a screening strategy combining multiple methods can improve the accuracy and efficiency of drug screening. This study aimed to identify novel UT receptor agonists using a combination of docking-based, pharmacophore-based, and cell-based drug screening. First, the three-dimensional structures of the UT receptor were constructed through single-template, multi-template homologous modeling and threading strategies. After structure evaluation and ligand enrichment analysis, a model from the threading modeling was selected for docking-based virtual screening based on stepwise filtering, and 1368 positive compounds were obtained from our compound library. Second, the pharmacophore models were constructed using known ligands targeting the UT receptor for pharmacophore-based virtual screening. A model was selected after model validation, and 300 positive compounds were retrieved. Then, after intersecting the results of two different virtual screening methods with 570 compound entities from our primary screening, 14 compounds were obtained. Finally, three hits were obtained after in vitro confirmation. Furthermore, preliminary evaluation of the hits showed that they influenced glucose consumption. In summary, by integrating docking-based, pharmacophore-based, and in vitro drug screening, three new agonists targeting the UT receptor were identified which may serve as promising therapeutic agents for urotensinergic system disorders.


Assuntos
Farmacóforo , Urotensinas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
17.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 41(5): 381-392, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222337

RESUMO

Both vascular adventitial fibroblasts (VAFs) and urotensin II (UII) play important roles in vascular remodeling diseases, but the mechanism of UII in VAFs is still unclear. UII inhibited miR-124 expression through up-regulating circ0004372 expression, thereby promoting SERTAD4 expression. UII significantly promoted the generation of ROS, MDA and 4-HNE, reduced the activities of SOD, GST and GR, increased Fe2+ concentration and inhibited GPX4 expression through circ0004372/miR-124/SERTAD4. Both UII and ferroptosis inducer Erastin significantly promoted the expression of α-SMA, Collagen I and TGF-ß1 in VAFs, but circ0004372 siRNA, miR-124 mimics, SERTAD4 siRNA or Ferrostatin-1 significantly inhibited the effect of UII and Erastin on cell activation. When co-transfected with circ0004372 siRNA and miR-124 inhibitors or miR-124 mimics and SERTAD4 overexpression vector, UII still significantly increased the expression of α-SMA, Collagen I and TGF-ß1. After transfection with circ0004372 overexpression vector, miR-124 inhibitors or SERTAD4 overexpression vector and then treating with UII and Ferrostatin-1, the expression of α-SMA, Collagen I and TGF-ß1 was still significant; when the circ0004372 overexpression vector and miR-124 mimics or miR-124 inhibitors and SERTAD4 siRNA were co-transfected and then UII and Ferrostatin-1 were added, the expression of α-SMA, Collagen I and TGF-ß1 was not significantly increased. Therefore, these results indicate that UII promotes the activation of VAFs through the circ0004372/miR-124/SERTAD4/ferroptosis pathway.


Assuntos
Ferroptose , MicroRNAs , Colágeno , Cicloexilaminas , Fibroblastos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fenilenodiaminas , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Urotensinas
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(35): 5230-5232, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36188724

RESUMO

It was reported that the urotensin II (U-II) level in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are significantly higher than in controls. To provide future guidance for the management of cardiovascular risk factors in IBD patients, the sample size of the current study appears to be limited, and more clinical samples to compare U-II levels in IBD patients and controls are needed. This will clarify the possible roles of inflammation factors and related signaling pathways (like EPK1/2, NF-κB and Rho/ROCK) in the pathophysiology of IBD. Therefore, large multicenter studies should be done to confirm the findings and underlying mechanisms in the future.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Urotensinas , Humanos , Inflamação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo
19.
Pharmacol Res ; 185: 106468, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167277

RESUMO

Urotensin receptor (UT) is a G-protein-coupled receptor, whose endogenous ligand is urotensin-II (U-II). Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by various conditions, such as nutritional status, exercise, and diseases. Previous studies have pointed out that the urotensinergic system is involved in skeletal muscle metabolism and function, but its mechanism remains unclear, especially given the lack of research on the effect and mechanism of fasting. In this study, UT receptor knockout mice were generated to evaluate whether UT has effects on fasting induced skeletal muscle atrophy. Furthermore, the UT antagonist palosuran (3, 10, 30 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered daily for 5 days to clarify the therapeutic effect of UT antagonism. Our results found the mice that fasted for 48 h exhibited skeletal muscle atrophy, accompanied by enhanced U-II levels in both skeletal muscles and blood. UT receptor knockout effectively prevented fasting-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. The UT antagonist ameliorated fasting-induced muscle atrophy in mice as determined by increased muscle strengths, weights, and muscle fiber areas (including fast, slow, and mixed types). In addition, the UT antagonist reduced skeletal muscle atrophic markers, including F-box only protein 32 (FBXO32) and tripartite motif containing 63 (TRIM63). Moreover, the UT antagonist was also observed to enhance PI3K/AKT/mTOR while inhibiting autophagy signaling. In summary, our study provides the first evidence that UT antagonism may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of fasting-induced skeletal muscle atrophy.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Atrofia Muscular , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Urotensinas , Animais , Camundongos , Jejum , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Urotensinas/metabolismo
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20201488, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830081

RESUMO

Urotensin-II (UT-II) is the most powerful vasoconstrictor agent and is known to play a role in heart failure, diabetes, pulmonary hypertension and asthma. The effect of passive smoking on UT-II levels is unknown. The present study aims to evaluate serum UT-II levels in children exposed to passive smoke. The study included a total of 120 children; 47 children not exposed to passive smoke were included in Group 1 (control group), and 73 children exposed to passive smoke were included in Group 2. Serum samples of the participants were stored at -80 °C after centrifugation and were assessed at least two times with high-precision human ELISA kits. Serum UT-II levels were significantly higher in the children exposed to passive smoke than in the children not exposed. Furthermore, Group 2 was grouped according to the number of cigarettes smoked at home per day, type of passive smoking (second-hand smoke or third-hand smoke), and how many people in their family and/or living together smoked. There was a positive correlation between the number of cigarettes they were exposed to per day and serum UT-II levels. Passive smoking in childhood may be associated with high serum UT-II levels.


Assuntos
Asma , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Urotensinas , Asma/sangue , Asma/etiologia , Criança , Humanos , Urotensinas/sangue
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...