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1.
J Oleo Sci ; 73(4): 539-546, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556287

RESUMO

Mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL) has attracted much attention as an environmentally benign and biocompatible material in many research fields due to its significant biochemical and physiological properties. However, heterogeneity always exists in MEL obtained from microbial products with respect to the chain length of the fatty acids. In this context, the total synthesis of the 20 members of MEL was effectively and stereoselectively achieved using our boron-mediated aglycon delivery (BMAD) method. In addition, structure-function relationship (SFR) studies of antibacterial activity, self-assembling properties, and recovery effects on damaged skin cells have been conducted, and these results are introduced in this mini-review article.


Assuntos
Tensoativos , Ustilaginales , Tensoativos/química , Glicolipídeos/química , Ácidos Graxos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(8): 4476-4492, 2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373255

RESUMO

Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisorium scitamineum, poses a severe threat to sugarcane production. The genetic basis of sugarcane resistance to S. scitamineum remains elusive. A comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic study was conducted on two wild Saccharum species of S. spontaneum with contrast smut resistance. Following infection, the resistant line exhibited greater down-regulation of genes and metabolites compared to the susceptible line, indicating distinct biological processes. Lignan and lignin biosynthesis and SA signal transduction were activated in the resistant line, while flavonoid biosynthesis and auxin signal transduction were enhanced in the susceptible line. TGA2.2 and ARF14 were identified as playing positive and negative roles, respectively, in plant defense. Exogenous auxin application significantly increased the susceptibility of S. spontaneum to S. scitaminum. This study established the significant switching of defense signaling pathways in contrast-resistant S. spontaneum following S. scitamineum infection, offering a hypothetical model and candidate genes for further research into sugarcane smut disease.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Saccharum , Ustilaginales , Saccharum/genética , Saccharum/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ustilaginales/genética , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(7): 3325-3333, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329286

RESUMO

The cultivation of sugar cane using perennial roots is the primary planting method, which is one of the reasons for the serious occurrence of sugar cane smut disease caused by the basidiomycetous fungus Sporisorium scitamineum in the sugar cane perennial root planting area. Consequently, it is crucial to eliminate pathogens from perennial sugar cane buds. In this study, we found that MAP kinase Hog1 is necessary for heat stress resistance. Subsequent investigations revealed a significant reduction in the expression of the heat shock protein 104-encoding gene, SsHSP104, in the ss1hog1Δ mutant. Additionally, the overexpression of SsHSP104 partially restored colony growth in the ss1hog1Δ strain following heat stress treatment, demonstrating the crucial role of SsHsp104 in SsHog1-mediated heat stress tolerance. Hence, we constructed the ss1hsp104:eGFP fusion strain in the wild type of S. scitamineum to identify small-molecule compounds that could inhibit the heat stress response, leading to the discovery of N-benzyl-4-(1-bromonaphthalen-2-yl)oxybutan-1-amine as a potential compound that targets the SsHog1 mediation SsHsp104 pathway during heat treatment. Furthermore, the combination of N-benzyl-4-(1-bromonaphthalen-2-yl)oxybutan-1-amine and warm water treatment (45 °C for 15 min) inhibits the growth of S. scitamineum and teliospore germination, thereby reducing the occurrence of sugar cane smut diseases and indicating its potential for eliminating pathogens from perennial sugar cane buds. In conclusion, these findings suggest that N-benzyl-4-(1-bromonaphthalen-2-yl)oxybutan-1-amine is promising as a targeted compound for the SsHog1-mediated SsHsp104 pathway and may enable the reduction of hot water treatment duration and/or temperature, thereby limiting the occurrence of sugar cane smut diseases caused by S. scitamineum.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Saccharum , Ustilaginales , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/genética , Ustilaginales/fisiologia , Saccharum/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
4.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 37(3): 250-263, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416124

RESUMO

Fungal pathogens deploy a set of molecules (proteins, specialized metabolites, and sRNAs), so-called effectors, to aid the infection process. In comparison to other plant pathogens, smut fungi have small genomes and secretomes of 20 Mb and around 500 proteins, respectively. Previous comparative genomic studies have shown that many secreted effector proteins without known domains, i.e., novel, are conserved only in the Ustilaginaceae family. By analyzing the secretomes of 11 species within Ustilaginaceae, we identified 53 core homologous groups commonly present in this lineage. By collecting existing mutants and generating additional ones, we gathered 44 Ustilago maydis strains lacking single core effectors as well as 9 strains containing multiple deletions of core effector gene families. Pathogenicity assays revealed that 20 of these 53 mutant strains were affected in virulence. Among the 33 mutants that had no obvious phenotypic changes, 13 carried additional, sequence-divergent, structurally similar paralogs. We report a virulence contribution of seven previously uncharacterized single core effectors and of one effector family. Our results help to prioritize effectors for understanding U. maydis virulence and provide genetic resources for further characterization. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2024 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Ustilaginales , Ustilago , Virulência/genética , Ustilago/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
5.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 25(1): e13393, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37814404

RESUMO

Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum seriously impairs sugarcane production and quality. Sexual mating/filamentation is a critical step of S. scitamineum pathogenesis, yet the regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we identified the SsAGA, SsODC, and SsSAMDC genes, which are involved in polyamine biosynthesis in S. scitamineum. Deletion of SsODC led to complete loss of filamentous growth after sexual mating, and deletion of SsAGA or SsSAMDC caused reduced filamentation. Double deletion of SsODC and SsSAMDC resulted in auxotrophy for putrescine (PUT) and spermidine (SPD) when grown on minimal medium (MM), indicating that these two genes encode enzymes that are critical for PUT and SPD biosynthesis. We further showed that low PUT concentrations promoted S. scitamineum filamentation, while high PUT concentrations suppressed filamentation. Disrupted fungal polyamine biosynthesis also resulted in a loss of pathogenicity and reduced fungal biomass within infected plants at the early infection stage. SPD formed a gradient from the diseased part to nonsymptom parts of the cane stem, suggesting that SPD is probably favourable for fungal virulence. Mutants of the cAMP-PKA (SsGPA3-SsUAC1-SsADR1) signalling pathway displayed up-regulation of the SsODC gene and elevated intracellular levels of PUT. SsODC directly interacted with SsGPA3, and sporidia of the ss1uac1ΔodcΔ mutant displayed abundant pseudohyphae. Furthermore, we found that elevated PUT levels caused accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), probably by suppressing transcription of ROS-scavenging enzymes, while SPD played the opposite role. Overall, our work proves that polyamines play important roles in the pathogenic development of sugarcane smut fungus, probably by collaboratively regulating intracellular redox homeostasis with the cAMP-PKA signalling pathway.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Saccharum , Ustilaginales , Virulência , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Putrescina/metabolismo , Espermidina/metabolismo , Homeostase , Saccharum/genética , Saccharum/metabolismo , Saccharum/microbiologia
6.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 121(3): 853-876, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38108218

RESUMO

Biosurfactants are natural compounds with remarkable surface-active properties that may offer an eco-friendly alternative to conventional surfactants. Among them, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) stand out as an intriguing example of a glycolipid biosurfactant. MELs have been used in a variety of sectors for various applications, and are currently commercially produced. Industrially, they are used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food, and agricultural industries, based on their ability to reduce surface tension and enhance emulsification. However, despite their utility, their production is comparatively limited industrially. From a bioprocessing standpoint, two areas of interest to improve the production process are upstream production and downstream (separation and purification) product recovery. The former has seen a significant amount of research, with researchers investigating several production factors: the microbial species or strain employed, the producing media composition, and the production strategy implemented. Improvement and optimization of these are key to scale-up the production of MELs. On the other hand, the latter has seen comparatively limited work presented in the literature. For the most part traditional separation techniques have been employed. This systematic review presents the production and purification methodologies used by researchers by comprehensively analyzing the current state-of-the-art with regards the production, separation, and purification of MELs. By doing so, the review presents different possible approaches, and highlights some potential areas for future work by identifying opportunities for the commercialization of MELs.


Assuntos
Ustilaginales , Glicolipídeos , Tensoativos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(21)2023 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37958588

RESUMO

Host jumps are a major factor for the emergence of new fungal pathogens. In the evolution of smut fungi, a putative host jump occurred in Sporisorium reilianum that today exists in two host-adapted formae speciales, the sorghum-pathogenic S. reilianum f. sp. reilianum and maize-pathogenic S. reilianum f. sp. zeae. To understand the molecular host-specific adaptation to maize, we compared the transcriptomes of maize leaves colonized by both formae speciales. We found that both varieties induce many common defense response-associated genes, indicating that both are recognized by the plant as pathogens. S. reilianum f. sp. reilianum additionally induced genes involved in systemic acquired resistance. In contrast, only S. reilianum f. sp. zeae induced expression of chorismate mutases that function in reducing the level of precursors for generation of the defense compound salicylic acid (SA), as well as oxylipin biosynthesis enzymes necessary for generation of the SA antagonist jasmonic acid (JA). In accordance, we found reduced SA levels as well as elevated JA and JA-Ile levels in maize leaves inoculated with the maize-adapted variety. These findings support a model of the emergence of the maize-pathogenic variety from a sorghum-specific ancestor following a recent host jump.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Ustilaginales , Zea mays/genética , Ustilaginales/fisiologia , Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(13)2023 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37445981

RESUMO

Rice false smut, caused by the fungal pathogen Ustilaginoidea virens, is a worldwide rice fungal disease. However, the molecular mechanism of the pathogenicity of the fungus U. virens remains unclear. To understand the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis of the fungus U. virens, we performed an integrated analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome of strongly (S) and weakly (W) virulent strains both before and after the infection of panicles. A total of 7932 differential expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using transcriptome analysis. Gene ontology (GO) and metabolic pathway enrichment analysis indicated that amino acid metabolism, autophagy-yeast, MAPK signaling pathway-yeast, and starch and sucrose metabolism were closely related to the pathogenicity of U. virens. Genes related to pathogenicity were significantly upregulated in the strongly virulent strain, and were ATG, MAPK, STE, TPS, and NTH genes. However, genes involved in the negative regulation of pathogenesis were significantly downregulated and contained TOR kinase, TORC1, and autophagy-related protein genes. Metabolome analysis identified 698 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs), including 13 categories of organic acids and derivatives, lipids and lipid-like molecules, organoheterocyclic compounds. The significantly enriched pathways of DAMs mainly included amino acids and carbohydrates, and they accumulated after infection by the S strain. To understand the relevance of DEGs and DAMs in the pathogenicity of U. virens, transcriptomic and metabolomic data were integrated and analyzed. These results further confirmed that the pathogenesis of U. virens was regulated by DEGs and DAMs related to these four pathways, involving arginine and proline metabolism, lysine biosynthesis, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, and starch and sugar metabolism. Therefore, we speculate that the pathogenicity of U. virens is closely related to the accumulation of amino acids and carbohydrates, and to the changes in the expression of related genes.


Assuntos
Hypocreales , Oryza , Ustilaginales , Transcriptoma , Oryza/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Aminoácidos/genética , Carboidratos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
9.
BMC Genomics ; 24(1): 321, 2023 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37312063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ustilaginales comprise hundreds of plant-parasitic fungi with a characteristic life cycle that directly links sexual reproduction and parasitism: One of the two mating-type loci codes for a transcription factor that not only facilitates mating, but also initiates the infection process. However, several species within the Ustilaginales have no described parasitic stage and were historically assigned to the genus Pseudozyma. Molecular studies have shown that the group is polyphyletic, with members being scattered in various lineages of the Ustilaginales. Together with recent findings of conserved fungal effectors in these non-parasitic species, this raises the question if parasitism has been lost recently and in multiple independent events or if there are hitherto undescribed parasitic stages of these fungi. RESULTS: In this study, we sequenced genomes of five Pseudozyma species together with six parasitic species from the Ustilaginales to compare their genomic capability to perform two central functions in sexual reproduction: mating and meiosis. While the loss of sexual capability is assumed in certain lineages and asexual species are common in Asco- and Basidiomycota, we were able to successfully annotate potentially functional mating and meiosis genes that are conserved throughout the whole group. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that at least the key functions of a sexual lifestyle are maintained in the analyzed genomes, challenging the current understanding of the so-called asexual species with respect to their evolution and ecological role.


Assuntos
Ustilaginales , Ustilaginales/genética , Reprodução/genética , Genômica , Comunicação Celular , Meiose/genética
10.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 24(7): 768-787, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37171083

RESUMO

Plant-pathogenic fungi are causative agents of the majority of plant diseases and can lead to severe crop loss in infected populations. Fungal colonization is achieved by combining different strategies, such as avoiding and counteracting the plant immune system and manipulating the host metabolome. Of major importance are virulence factors secreted by fungi, which fulfil diverse functions to support the infection process. Most of these proteins are highly specialized, with structural and biochemical information often absent. Here, we present the atomic structures of the cerato-platanin-like protein Cpl1 from Ustilago maydis and its homologue Uvi2 from Ustilago hordei. Both proteins adopt a double-Ψß-barrel architecture reminiscent of cerato-platanin proteins, a class so far not described in smut fungi. Our structure-function analysis shows that Cpl1 binds to soluble chitin fragments via two extended grooves at the dimer interface of the two monomer molecules. This carbohydrate-binding mode has not been observed previously and expands the repertoire of chitin-binding proteins. Cpl1 localizes to the cell wall of U. maydis and might synergize with cell wall-degrading and decorating proteins during maize infection. The architecture of Cpl1 harbouring four surface-exposed loop regions supports the idea that it might play a role in the spatial coordination of these proteins. While deletion of cpl1 has only mild effects on the virulence of U. maydis, a recent study showed that deletion of uvi2 strongly impairs U. hordei virulence. Our structural comparison between Cpl1 and Uvi2 reveals sequence variations in the loop regions that might explain a diverging function.


Assuntos
Plumbaginaceae , Ustilaginales , Ustilago , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Ustilaginales/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Zea mays/microbiologia
11.
Nat Microbiol ; 8(8): 1419-1433, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37142774

RESUMO

Mutualistic interactions between host plants and their microbiota have the potential to provide disease resistance. Most research has focused on the rhizosphere, but it is unclear how the microbiome associated with the aerial surface of plants protects against infection. Here we identify a metabolic defence underlying the mutualistic interaction between the panicle and the resident microbiota in rice to defend against a globally prevalent phytopathogen, Ustilaginoidea virens, which causes false-smut disease. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and internal transcribed spacer sequencing data identified keystone microbial taxa enriched in the disease-suppressive panicle, in particular Lactobacillus spp. and Aspergillus spp. Integration of these data with primary metabolism profiling, host genome editing and microbial isolate transplantation experiments revealed that plants with these taxa could resist U. virens infection in a host branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-dependent manner. Leucine, a predominant BCAA, suppressed U. virens pathogenicity by inducing apoptosis-like cell death through H2O2 overproduction. Additionally, preliminary field experiments showed that leucine could be used in combination with chemical fungicides with a 50% reduction in dose but similar efficacy to higher fungicide concentrations. These findings may facilitate protection of crops from panicle diseases prevalent at a global scale.


Assuntos
Oryza , Ustilaginales , Oryza/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Leucina
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 200: 107760, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37207494

RESUMO

Sugarcane is an important sugar and energy crop and smut disease caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is a major fungal disease which can seriously reduce the yield and quality of sugarcane. In plants, TGACG motif binding (TGA) transcription factors are involved in the regulation of salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) signaling pathways, as well as in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no TGA-related transcription factor has been reported in Saccharum. In the present study, 44 SsTGA genes were identified from Saccharum spontaneum, and were assorted into three clades (I, II, III). Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) analysis revealed that SsTGA genes may be involved in hormone and stress response. RNA-seq data and RT-qPCR analysis indicated that SsTGAs were constitutively expressed in different tissues and induced by S. scitamineum stress. In addition, a ScTGA1 gene (GenBank accession number ON416997) was cloned from the sugarcane cultivar ROC22, which was homologous to SsTGA1e in S. spontaneum and encoded a nucleus protein. It was constitutively expressed in sugarcane tissues and up-regulated by SA, MeJA and S. scitamineum stresses. Furthermore, transient overexpression of ScTGA1 in Nicotiana benthamiana could enhance its resistance to the infection of Ralstonia solanacearum and Fusarium solani var. coeruleum, by regulating the expression of immune genes related to hypersensitive response (HR), ethylene (ET), SA and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. This study should contribute to our understanding on the evolution and function of the SsTGA gene family in Saccharum, and provide a basis for the functional identification of ScTGA1 under biotic stresses.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Ustilaginales , Saccharum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ustilaginales/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 34(3): 846-852, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37087669

RESUMO

Sugarcane is the most important sugar crop. Sugarcane smut is one of the major diseases, which could reduce sugarcane yield and quality and seriously threaten the sustainable and healthy development of sugar industry. Microbial control of sugarcane smut is a rapidly emerging green biocontrol technology, with advantage to increase environmental compatibility and soil fertility. In this review, we briefly described the characteristics of Sporisorium scitamineum which causes sugarcane smut, synthesized the the mechanisms underlying the infection of sugarcane by S. scitamineum, and presented the research status of microbial controls of sugarcane smut via the application of bio-organic fertilizers and biopesticides. We then reviewed the mechanisms underlying the suppression of sugarcane smut by microorganisms through competition with pathogens for nutrients and ecological niches, secreting antagonistic substances, and improving plant resistance. It is notable that there are still some problems in the application of microbial control technologies, including poor colonization ability and unstable biocontrol efficiency. Finally, the major directions of future research on the biocontrol of sugarcane smut were proposed from the perspective of improving the biocontrol efficiency. This review would benefit the microbial control of sugarcane smut and the healthy development of sugar industry.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Ustilaginales , Saccharum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ustilaginales/metabolismo , Açúcares
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 89(5): e0220822, 2023 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37093016

RESUMO

Sporisorium scitamineum and Ustilago maydis are two fungal pathogens causing severe sugarcane and maize diseases, respectively. Sexual mating of compatible sporidia is essential for these pathogens to form infections dikaryotic mycelia and cause smut diseases. We showed recently that in the presence of exogenous glucose, the Pseudomonas sp. strain ST4 could block the fungal mating and display a strong disease suppression potency on S. scitamineum. With the aim of conferring strain ST4 the ability to metabolize sucrose in plants for glucose production, we identified a strong native promoter pSsrA in strain ST4 and additional promoter elements to facilitate translation and peptide translocation for the construction of a fusion gene encoding sucrose metabolism. The cscA gene encoding sucrose hydrolase from Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 was fused to the promoter pSsrA, a translational coupler bicistronic design and a Tat signal peptide, which was then cloned into mini-Tn7 transposon. This synthetic gene cassette was integrated into the chromosome of strain ST4, and the resultant engineered strain ST4E was able to hydrolyze sucrose with high efficiency and displayed elevated inhibitory activity on the mating and virulence of S. scitamineum and U. maydis. The findings from this study provide a valuable device and useful clues for the engineering of sucrose metabolism in non- or weak-sucrose-utilizing bacterial strains and present an improved biocontrol agent against plant smut pathogens. IMPORTANCE Sporisorium scitamineum and Ustilago maydis are typical dimorphic fungi causing severe sugarcane and maize smut diseases, respectively. Sexual mating of compatible sporidia is essential for these pathogens to form infections dikaryotic mycelia and cause smut diseases. We previously demonstrated that the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas sp. ST4 could block the fungal mating and displays a strong suppression potency on smut diseases, while it was unable to utilize the host-sourced sucrose for glucose production critical for antifungus efficiency. In this study, we constructed a high-expression gene cassette for minitransposon-mediated genome integration and sucrose hydrolysis in the bacterial periplasmic space. The resultant engineered strain ST4E was able to hydrolyze sucrose and inhibit the mating and hyphal growth of S. scitamineum and U. maydis. These findings provide a valuable tool and useful clues for the engineering of sucrose metabolism in non- or weak-sucrose-utilizing bacterial strains and present an improved biocontrol agent against plant smut pathogens.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Saccharum , Ustilaginales , Ustilago , Ustilaginales/genética , Virulência , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Saccharum/genética , Saccharum/metabolismo , Saccharum/microbiologia , Ustilago/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0281251, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36952474

RESUMO

The RNA subunit of telomerase is an essential component whose primary sequence and length are poorly conserved among eukaryotic organisms. The phytopathogen Ustilago maydis is a dimorphic fungus of the order Ustilaginales. We analyzed several species of Ustilaginales to computationally identify the TElomere RNA (TER) gene ter1. To confirm the identity of the TER gene, we disrupted the gene and characterized telomerase-negative mutants. Similar to catalytic TERT mutants, ter1Δ mutants exhibit phenotypes of growth delay, telomere shortening and low replicative potential. ter1-disrupted mutants were unable to infect maize seedlings in heterozygous crosses and showed defects such as cell cycle arrest and segregation failure. We concluded that ter1, which encodes the TER subunit of the telomerase of U. maydis, have similar and perhaps more extensive functions than trt1.


Assuntos
Telomerase , Ustilaginales , Ustilago , Animais , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo , Ustilaginales/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Ustilago/genética , Ustilago/metabolismo
16.
BMC Genom Data ; 24(1): 9, 2023 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36793017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The fungal pathogen Thecaphora frezii Carranza & Lindquist causes peanut smut, a severe disease currently endemic in Argentina. To study the ecology of T. frezii and to understand the mechanisms of smut resistance in peanut plants, it is crucial to know the genetics of this pathogen. The objective of this work was to isolate the pathogen and generate the first draft genome of T. frezii that will be the basis for analyzing its potential genetic diversity and its interaction with peanut cultivars. Our research group is working to identify peanut germplasm with smut resistance and to understand the genetics of the pathogen. Knowing the genome of T. frezii will help analyze potential variants of this pathogen and contribute to develop enhanced peanut germplasm with broader and long-lasting resistance. DATA DESCRIPTION: Thecaphora frezii isolate IPAVE 0401 (here referred as T.f.B7) was obtained from a single hyphal-tip culture, its DNA was sequenced using Pacific Biosciences Sequel II (PacBio) and Illumina NovaSeq6000 (Nova). Data from both sequencing platforms were combined and the de novo assembling estimated a 29.3 Mb genome size. Completeness of the genome examined using Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) showed the assembly had 84.6% of the 758 genes in fungi_odb10.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Fabaceae , Ustilaginales , Arachis/genética , Genoma , Fabaceae/genética , Ustilaginales/genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36835053

RESUMO

Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is one of the most devastating sugarcane diseases. Furthermore, Rhizoctonia solani causes severe diseases in various crops including rice, tomato, potato, sugar beet, tobacco, and torenia. However, effective disease-resistant genes against these pathogens have not been identified in target crops. Therefore, the transgenic approach can be used since conventional cross-breeding is not applicable. Herein, the overexpression of BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1), a rice receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, was conducted in sugarcane, tomato and torenia. BSR1-overexpressing tomatoes exhibited resistance to the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and the fungus R. solani, whereas BSR1-overexpressing torenia showed resistance to R. solani in the growth room. Additionally, BSR1 overexpression conferred resistance to sugarcane smut in the greenhouse. These three BSR1-overexpressing crops exhibited normal growth and morphologies except in the case of exceedingly high levels of overexpression. These results indicate that BSR1 overexpression is a simple and effective tool for conferring broad-spectrum disease resistance to many crops.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Oryza , Saccharum , Solanum lycopersicum , Ustilaginales , Oryza/genética , Saccharum/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
18.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 195(10): 6132-6149, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36811772

RESUMO

Biosurfactants can replace fossil-driven surfactants with positive environmental impacts, owing to their low eco-toxicity and high biodegradability. However, their large-scale production and application are restricted by high production costs. Such costs can be reduced using renewable raw materials and facilitated downstream processing. Here, a novel strategy for mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL) production explores the combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic carbon sources sideways with a novel downstream processing strategy, based on nanofiltration technology. Co-substrate MEL production by Moesziomyces antarcticus was threefold higher than using D-glucose with low levels of residual lipids. The use of waste frying oil instead of soybean oil (SBO) in co-substrate strategy resulted in similar MEL production. Moesziomyces antarcticus cultivations, using 3.9 M of total carbon in substrates, yields 7.3, 18.1, and 20.1 g/L of MEL, and 2.1, 10.0, and 5.1 g/L of residual lipids, for D-glucose, SBO, and a combination of D-Glucose and SBO, respectively. Such approach makes it possible to reduce the amount of oil used, offset by the equivalent molar increase in D-glucose, improving sustainability and decreasing residual unconsumed oil substrates, facilitating downstream processing. Moesziomyces spp. also produces lipases that broken down the oil and, thus, residual unconsumed oils are in the form of free fatty-acids or monoacylglycerol, which are smaller molecules than MEL. Therefore, nanofiltration of ethyl acetate extracts from co-substrate-based culture broths allows to improve MEL purity (ratio of MEL per total MEL and residual lipids) from 66 to 93% using 3-diavolumes.


Assuntos
Ustilaginales , Óleo de Soja , Óleos , Glicolipídeos , Tensoativos/química , Glucose , Carbono
20.
Plant Dis ; 107(3): 896-898, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265154

RESUMO

Ustilaginoidea virens is the fungal pathogen causing an emerging false smut disease that affects crop yield as well as deteriorates quality of the grains by producing mycotoxins. A high quality genome of U. virens isolate UV2_4G was sequenced using Nanopore and Illumina HiSeq 2,000 sequencing platforms. The total assembled genome of Indian isolate UV2_4G was 35.9 Mb, which comprised 89 scaffolds with N50 of 700,296 bp. A total of 358,697 variants were identified in the genome, out of which 355,173 were SNPs and 3,524 were INDELS. Further, 7,390 SSRs belonging to different repeat types were also identified in the genome. Out of 7,444 proteins predicted, 7,206 were functionally annotated. A total of 1,307 CAZymes, 501 signal peptides, 1,876 effectors, and 2,709 genes involved in host-pathogen interactions were identified. Comparative analysis revealed isolate UV2_4G is distinct with 31 unique clusters and placed distantly in phylogenetic analysis. Taken together, this high-quality genome assembly and sequence annotation resource can give an improved insight for characterizing the biological and pathogenic mechanisms of U. virens.


Assuntos
Hypocreales , Oryza , Ustilaginales , Oryza/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Hypocreales/genética , Ustilaginales/genética
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