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1.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1170628, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584913

RESUMO

Background: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, limited research has focused on socioeconomic disparities in Local Healthcare System Efficiency (LHSE) among Japanese prefectures. This study seeks to investigate the moderating impact of vaccination on the relationship between LHSE and socioeconomic characteristics and endowments. Methods: To explore these relationships, we first utilized the Data Envelopment Analysis with Slack-Based Measure to measure the LHSE, based on data from Japanese prefectures during waves 2 to 5 of the pandemic. Then estimating the impact of socioeconomic variables on LHSE. Finally, we assessed the changes in the way socioeconomic variables affect LHSE before and after vaccine deployment using the Seemingly Unrelated Estimation t-test methodology. Results: The research findings suggest an overall reduction in LHSE disparities across various regions due to the utilization of vaccines. Particularly in areas with relatively nsufficient bed resources, a significant improvement in LHSE was observed in most regions. However, there was no evidence supporting the role of vaccine deployment in mitigating socioeconomic inequalities in LHSE. Conversely, the utilization of vaccines showed a positive correlation between the improvement in LHSE and the proportion of older adult population in regions with sufficient bed resources. In regions facing bed shortages, the enhancement of LHSE became more reliant on reducing the occupancy rate of secured beds for severe cases after the introduction of vaccination. Discussion: In regions facing bed shortages, the enhancement of LHSE became more reliant on reducing the occupancy rate of secured beds for severe cases. This underscores the importance for policymakers and implementers to prioritize the treatment of severe cases and ensure an effective supply of medical resources, particularly secured beds for severe cases, in their efforts to improve LHSE, in the post-COVID-19 era with rising vaccine coverage.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Idoso , Japão/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Vacinação , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1250192, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584930

RESUMO

Background: Since 2020, Thailand has experienced four waves of COVID-19. By 31 January 2022, there were 2.4 million cumulative cases and 22,176 deaths nationwide. This study assessed the governance and policy responses adapted to different sizes of the pandemic outbreaks and other challenges. Methods: A qualitative study was applied, including literature reviews and in-depth interviews with 17 multi-sectoral actors purposively identified from those who were responsible for pandemic control and vaccine rollout. We applied deductive approaches using health systems building blocks, and inductive approaches using analysis of in-depth interview content, where key content formed sub-themes, and different sub-themes formed the themes of the study. Findings: Three themes emerged from this study. First, the large scale of COVID-19 infections, especially the Delta strain in 2021, challenged the functioning of the health system's capacity to respond to cases and maintain essential health services. The Bangkok local government insufficiently performed due to its limited capacity, ineffective multi-sectoral collaboration, and high levels of vulnerability in the population. However, adequate financing, universal health coverage, and health workforce professionalism and commitment were key enabling factors that supported the health system. Second, the population's vulnerability exacerbated infection spread, and protracted political conflicts and political interference resulted in the politicization of pandemic control measures and vaccine roll-out; all were key barriers to effective pandemic control. Third, various innovations and adaptive capacities minimized the supply-side gaps, while social capital and civil society engagement boosted community resilience. Conclusion: This study identifies key governance gaps including in public communication, managing infodemics, and inadequate coordination with Bangkok local government, and between public and private sectors on pandemic control and health service provisions. The Bangkok government had limited capacity in light of high levels of population vulnerability. These gaps were widened by political conflicts and interference. Key strengths are universal health coverage with full funding support, and health workforce commitment, innovations, and capacity to adapt interventions to the unfolding emergency. Existing social capital and civil society action increases community resilience and minimizes negative impacts on the population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Governo Local , Políticas
3.
Glob Health Action ; 17(1): 2330758, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577884

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic put the life science sector to the test. Vaccines were developed at unprecedented speed, benefiting from decades of fundamental research and now honoured by a Nobel Prize. However, we saw that the fruits of science were inequitably distributed. Most low- and middle-income countries were left behind, deepening the inequalities that the Sustainable Development Goals were set to reduce. We argue that the life science sector must reinvent itself to be better and more equitably prepared for the next health crisis and to ensure fair access to health across current and future generations. Our recommendations include global governance, national strategies and the role of universities and corporations. Improved and more equitable health care should be centre stage for global health action and a core mission of a reframed Life Science sector - what we call Life Science 2.0.Paper ContextMain findings: During the COVID-19 pandemic the Life Science sector stepped up to the challenge, but vaccines and medicines were not equitably distributed.Added knowledge: Obstacles were identified that hindered global access to medical innovations.Global health impact for policy and action: Global and national governance, universities and the private sector should join forces to create a Life Science sector (Life Science 2.0) that affords equitable access to medical advances across geographical and generational boundaries and socio-economic strata.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde , Políticas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1376725, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590440

RESUMO

In China, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccines are widely used. These vaccines, which contain inactivated and live attenuated vaccines (LAVs), are produced by MARC-145 cells derived from the monkey kidney cell line. However, some PRRSV strains in MARC-145 cells have a low yield. Here, we used two type 2 PRRSV strains (CH-1R and HuN4) to identify the genes responsible for virus yield in MARC-145 cells. Our findings indicate that the two viruses have different spread patterns, which ultimately determine their yield. By replacing the viral envelope genes with a reverse genetics system, we discovered that the minor envelope proteins, from GP2a to GP4, play a crucial role in determining the spread pattern and yield of type 2 PRRSV in MARC-145 cells. The cell-free transmission pattern of type 2 PRRSV appears to be more efficient than the cell-to-cell transmission pattern. Overall, these findings suggest that GP2a to GP4 contributes to the spread pattern and yield of type 2 PRRSV.


Assuntos
Guanidinas , Piperazinas , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vacinas , Suínos , Animais , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Linhagem Celular
5.
Oncoimmunology ; 13(1): 2338951, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590800

RESUMO

Recently, we showed that an autologous DC-based vaccine induces an increase in immunosuppressive PD-L1+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) both in the tumor and the tumor draining lymph nodes, thereby blunting the efficacy of therapeutic immunization. Only the combination of the DC vaccine with anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibition, but not the use of antibodies targeting PD-1 alone, was able to set off CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated tumor suppression in mice. In sum, we delineated a PD-L1 checkpoint blockade-based strategy to avoid TAM-induced T cell exhaustion during DC vaccine therapy.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Vacinas , Animais , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Macrófagos
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 946, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental vaccine hesitancy could lead to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Although parental vaccine hesitancy exists in the Vietnamese community, no research has directly investigated this social phenomenon in Vietnam. Among the validated measures, the 15-item Parent Attitudes About Childhood Vaccines survey tool (PACV) was reliable for predicting vaccine-hesitant parents. However, the PACV was not available in Vietnamese. This study aimed to develop a Vietnamese version of the PACV and examine factors associated with parental vaccine hesitancy in Hue city, Vietnam. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study. The English PACV was translated into Vietnamese with content and face validation. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 400 parents at ten commune health centres in Hue city, Vietnam. The parents were asked to answer the questionnaire again after two weeks for the test-retest reliability. The Vietnamese PACV reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega, and the intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficients were used for the test-retest reliability. The construct validity was tested by the hypothesis that parental vaccine hesitancy would be related to the intention of getting the children vaccinated. Exploratory factor analysis was also undertaken to determine the construct validity. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the factors associated with parental vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: The Vietnamese PACV final version (PACV-Viet) contained 14 items. Three hundred and fifteen parents returned completed questionnaires, giving a response rate of 78.8%. The Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega were 0.72 and 0.70, respectively. Out of 315 parents, 84 responses were returned for test-retest reliability. All ICCs were good to excellent, ranging from 0.81 to 0.99. The PACV-Viet was confirmed to have construct validity. Using the PACV-Viet, 8.9% of the parents were found hesitant to childhood vaccination. Being unemployed and having seen the news about adverse events following immunisation were associated with parental vaccine hesitancy, with AOR = 3.2 (95% CI 1.3-8.0) and AOR = 4.5 (95% CI 1.2-16.7), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The PACV-Viet is a valid and reliable tool. Community outreach is necessary to alleviate parents' concerns about childhood vaccination.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinas , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Vietnã , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Vacinação , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 165, 2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease (STI) worldwide. Vaccination is generally considered to be one of the most effective methods of preventing infectious diseases. Using AP65, AP33 and α-actinin proteins, this research aims to develop a protein vaccine against Trichomonas vaginalis. METHODS: Based on the B-cell and T-cell epitope prediction servers, the most antigenic epitopes were selected, and with the necessary evaluations, epitope-rich domains of three proteins, AP65, AP33, and α-actinin, were selected and linked. Subsequently, the ability of the vaccine to interact with toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) was assessed. The stability of the interactions was also studied by molecular dynamics for a duration of 100 nanoseconds. RESULTS: The designed protein consists of 780 amino acids with a molecular weight of 85247.31 daltons. The results of the interaction of the vaccine candidate with TLR2 and TLR4 of the immune system also showed that there are strong interactions between the vaccine candidate protein with TLR2 (-890.7 kcal mol-1) and TLR4 (-967.3 kcal mol-1). All parameters studied to evaluate the stability of the protein structure and the protein-TLR2 and protein-TLR4 complexes showed that the structure of the vaccine candidate protein is stable alone and in complex with the immune system receptors. Investigation of the ability of the designed protein to induce an immune response using the C-ImmSim web server also showed that the designed protein is capable of stimulating B- and T-cell lymphocytes to produce the necessary cytokines and antibodies against Trichomonas vaginalis. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our vaccine may have potential protection against Trichomonas vaginalis. However, for experimental in vivo and in vitro studies, it may be a good vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Trichomonas vaginalis , Vacinas , Animais , Trichomonas vaginalis/metabolismo , Actinina/metabolismo , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Vacinas/metabolismo , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
8.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299302, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573911

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Following the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, vaccination became the main strategy against disease severity and even death. Healthcare workers were considered high-risk for infection and, thus, were prioritised for vaccination. METHODS: A follow-up to a SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study among clinical and non-clinical HCWs at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, we assessed how vaccination influenced SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG antibody responses and kinetics. Blood samples were drawn at two points spanning 6 to 18 months post-vaccination, and SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Almost all participants, 98% (961/981), received a second vaccine dose, and only 8.5% (83/981) received a third dose. SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG antibodies were detected in 100% (961/961) and 92.7% (707/762) of participants who received two vaccine doses, with the first and second post-vaccine test, respectively, and in 100% (83/83) and 91.4% (64/70) of those who received three vaccine doses at the first and second post-vaccine test, respectively. Seventy-six participants developed mild infections, not requiring hospitalisation even after receiving primary vaccination. Receiving three vaccine doses influenced the anti-spike S/Co at both the first (p<0.001) and second post-vaccination testing (p<0.001). Of those who tested SARS-CoV-2 positive, the anti-spike S/Co ratio was significantly higher than those who were seronegative at the first post-vaccine test (p = 0.001). Side effects were reported by almost half of those who received the first dose, 47.3% (464/981), 28.9% (278/961) and 25.3% (21/83) of those who received the second and third vaccine doses, respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Following the second dose of primary vaccination, all participants had detectable anti-spike antibodies. The observed mild breakthrough infections may have been due to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Findings suggest that although protective antibodies are induced, vaccination protected against COVID-19 disease severity and not necessarily infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Formação de Anticorpos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Anticorpos Antivirais , Pessoal de Saúde , Imunoglobulina G
9.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298117, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573916

RESUMO

Selection of adjuvant to be combined with the antigen is an extremely important point for formulating effective vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate reactogenicity, levels of IgM, IgG and subclasses (IgG1, IgG2b and IgG3), and protection elicited by vaccine formulations with association of chitosan coated alginate or Montanide ISA 61 with γ-irradiated Brucella ovis. The alginate/chitosan biopolymers as well as the Montanide ISA 61 emulsion elicited intense and long-lasting local response, especially when associated with the antigen. However, Montanide ISA 61 induced less intense reactogenicity when compared to alginate/chitosan. Furthermore, γ-irradiated B. ovis with Montanide ISA 61 induced higher levels of IgG2b an important marker of cellular immune response. In conclusion, Montanide ISA 61 resulted in milder reactogenicity when compared to the alginate/chitosan, while it induced a high IgG2b/IgG1 ratio compatible with a Th1 profile response.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Óleo Mineral , Vacinas , Animais , Camundongos , Ovinos , Adjuvantes de Vacinas , Cápsulas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunoglobulina G , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
10.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297093, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that when vaccines prevent infection, the dynamics of mixing between vaccinated and unvaccinated sub-populations is such that use of imperfect vaccines markedly decreases risk for vaccinated people, and for the population overall. Risks to vaccinated people accrue disproportionately from contact with unvaccinated people. In the context of the emergence of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 and evolving understanding of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology, we updated our analysis to evaluate whether our earlier conclusions remained valid. METHODS: We modified a previously published Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) compartmental model of SARS-CoV-2 with two connected sub-populations: vaccinated and unvaccinated, with non-random mixing between groups. Our expanded model incorporates diminished vaccine efficacy for preventing infection with the emergence of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants, waning immunity, the impact of prior immune experience on infectivity, "hybrid" effects of infection in previously vaccinated individuals, and booster vaccination. We evaluated the dynamics of an epidemic within each subgroup and in the overall population over a 10-year time horizon. RESULTS: Even with vaccine efficacy as low as 20%, and in the presence of waning immunity, the incidence of COVID-19 in the vaccinated subpopulation was lower than that among the unvaccinated population across the full 10-year time horizon. The cumulative risk of infection was 3-4 fold higher among unvaccinated people than among vaccinated people, and unvaccinated people contributed to infection risk among vaccinated individuals at twice the rate that would have been expected based on the frequency of contacts. These findings were robust across a range of assumptions around the rate of waning immunity, the impact of "hybrid immunity", frequency of boosting, and the impact of prior infection on infectivity in unvaccinated people. INTERPRETATION: Although the emergence of the Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 has diminished the protective effects of vaccination against infection with SARS-CoV-2, updating our earlier model to incorporate loss of immunity, diminished vaccine efficacy and a longer time horizon, does not qualitatively change our earlier conclusions. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 continues to diminish the risk of infection among vaccinated people and in the population as a whole. By contrast, the risk of infection among vaccinated people accrues disproportionately from contact with unvaccinated people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Vacinas , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Modelos Epidemiológicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
11.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 118, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575865

RESUMO

Q fever, a worldwide-occurring zoonotic disease, can cause economic losses for public and veterinary health systems. Vaccines are not yet available worldwide and currently under development. In this regard, it is important to produce a whole cell antigen, with preserved structural and antigenic properties and free of chemical modifications. Thus, inactivation of Coxiella burnetii with ultraviolet light C (UVC) was evaluated. C. burnetii Nine Mile phase I (NMI) and phase II (NMII) were exposed to decreasing intensities in a time-dependent manner and viability was tested by rescue cultivation in axenic medium or cell culture. Effects on the cell structure were visualized by transmission electron microscopy and antigenicity of UVC-treated NMI was studied by immunization of rabbits. NMI and NMII were inactivated at UVC intensities of 250 µW/cm2 for 5 min or 100 µW/cm2 for 20 min. Reactivation by DNA repair was considered to be unlikely. No morphological changes were observed directly after UVC inactivation by transmission electron microscopy, but severe swelling and membrane degradation of bacteria with increasing severity occurred after 24 and 48 h. Immunization of rabbits resulted in a pronounced antibody response. UVC inactivation of C. burnetii resulted in a structural preserved, safe whole cell antigen and might be useful as antigen for diagnostic purposes or as vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii , Febre Q , Vacinas , Animais , Coelhos , Febre Q/microbiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301409, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely vaccination is the practice of administering the vaccine within the first birthday of the child. Not vaccinating the child at the appropriate age is the cause of improper protection of diseases and can be a possible factor in death. The problem of not completing the vaccine in the scheduled period is a globally distributed problem, but especially in sub-Saharan African countries, it is a bottleneck to child health. Even if timely vaccination is crucial for reducing the impact of VPDs, there are no current national-level studies to generate conclusive and tangible evidence in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To assess spatial variations and determinants of timely completion of vaccination in Ethiopia using further analysis of EDHS 2019 data. METHOD: The secondary data analysis of a community-based cross-sectional study design was employed among 3094 participants. Stata-14 software was used for data cleaning, recording, and analysis. Arc GIS version 10.3 and Kuldorff SAT scan version 9.6 software are used for spatial and SAT scan statistics. A multilevel mixed-effect binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of timely vaccination. The clustering effect was also evaluated by Moran's I statistics and intra class correlation. RESULTS: The timely completion of vaccination among Ethiopian women who had a child aged 12-35 months was 19.5% (95%CI: 18.2-20.8), and the spatial distribution of timely completion of vaccinations in Ethiopia was non-randomly distributed. A statistically significant high proportion of timely completion areas were clustered in the eastern part of Amhara, the south part of Afar, Addis Ababa, and Oromia. The primary cluster was located at a 13.11 km radius in Diredawa, which was 3.68 times higher than outside the window (RR = 3.68, LLR = 68.76, p-value < 0.001). History of antenatal care follow-up (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.3-2.04), giving birth at health facilities (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.25-2.13), age ≥ 35 years (AOR = 186, 95% CI: 1.35-2.63), age 25-34 years (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.33-2.21), and being richest (AOR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.86-3.94) were the factors contributing to the timely completion of vaccination. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of timely completion of vaccination was low in Ethiopia, and the spatial distribution of timely completion of vaccination in Ethiopia was non-randomly distributed across the regions. The factors associated with the timely completion of vaccinations were ANC follow-up, place of delivery, age of the participant, and wealth index. We recommend expanding facility delivery, antenatal care services, and empowering women to scale up timely vaccination in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Vacinação , Vacinas , Criança , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Análise Multinível , Estudos Transversais , Análise Espacial
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47241, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The VACCELERATE Pan-European Scientific network aims to strengthen the foundation of vaccine trial research across Europe by following the principles of equity, inclusion, and diversity. The VACCELERATE Volunteer Registry network provides access to vaccine trial sites across the European region and supports a sustainable volunteer platform for identifying potential participants for forthcoming vaccine clinical research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to approach members of patient advocacy groups (PAGs) across Europe to assess their willingness to register for the VACCELERATE Volunteer Registry and their perspectives related to participating in vaccine trials. METHODS: In an effort to understand how to increase recruitment for the VACCELERATE Volunteer Registry, a standardized survey was developed in English and translated into 8 different languages (Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Spanish, and Swedish) by the respective National Coordinator team. The online, anonymous survey was circulated, from March 2022 to May 2022, to PAGs across 10 European countries (Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Spain, and Sweden) to share with their members. The questionnaire constituted of multiple choice and open-ended questions evaluating information regarding participants' perceptions on participating in vaccine trials and their willingness to become involved in the VACCELERATE Volunteer Registry. RESULTS: In total, 520 responses were collected and analyzed. The PAG members reported that the principal criteria influencing their decision to participate in clinical trials overall are (1) the risks involved, (2) the benefits that will be gained from their potential participation, and (3) the quality and quantity of information provided regarding the trial. The survey revealed that, out of the 520 respondents, 133 individuals across all age groups were "positive" toward registering in the VACCELERATE Volunteer Registry, with an additional 47 individuals reporting being "very positive." Respondents from Northern European countries were 1.725 (95% CI 1.206-2.468) times more likely to be willing to participate in the VACCELERATE Volunteer Registry than respondents from Southern European countries. CONCLUSIONS: Factors discouraging participants from joining vaccine trial registries or clinical trials primarily include concerns of the safety of novel vaccines and a lack of trust in those involved in vaccine development. These outcomes aid in identifying issues and setbacks in present registries, providing the VACCELERATE network with feedback on how to potentially increase participation and enrollment in trials across Europe. Development of European health communication strategies among diverse public communities, especially via PAGs, is the key for increasing patients' willingness to participate in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Defesa do Paciente , Vacinas , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , França , Alemanha
14.
J Med Microbiol ; 73(4)2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567639

RESUMO

Background. Invasive Group B Streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) remains a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) has been implemented in many countries with a reduction in early-onset disease, but an effective vaccine may further reduce the disease burden. Candidate vaccines targeting capsular polysaccharides and surface proteins are now in clinical trials.Methods. Using whole-genome sequencing and phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing, we characterized sterile-site GBS isolates recovered from Western Australian infants between 2004 and 2020. Characteristics were compared between three time periods: 2004-2008, 2009-2015 and 2016-2020.Results. A total of 135 isolates were identified. The proportion of serotype III (22.7 % in Period 1 to 47.9 % in Period 3, P=0.04) and clonal complex 17 (13.6-39.6 %, P=0.01) isolates increased over time. Overall coverage of vaccines currently being trialled was >95 %. No isolates were penicillin resistant (MIC>0.25 mg l-1), but 21.5 % of isolates had reduced penicillin susceptibility (MIC>0.12 mg l-1) and penicillin MIC increased significantly over time (P=0.04). Clindamycin resistance increased over time to 45.8 % in the latest period.Conclusions. Based on comprehensive characterization of invasive infant GBS in Western Australia, we found that coverage for leading capsular polysaccharide and surface protein vaccine candidates was high. The demonstrated changes in serotype and molecular type highlight the need for ongoing surveillance, particularly with regard to future GBS vaccination programmes. The reduced susceptibility to IAP agents over time should inform changes to antibiotic guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções Estreptocócicas , Vacinas , Lactente , Humanos , Streptococcus agalactiae , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Penicilinas , Sorogrupo , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(13): S56-S61, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561865

RESUMO

Increasing vaccination knowledge is effective in addressing hesitancy and is particularly important in populations deprived of liberty who may not routinely have access to health information, ensuring health equity. RISE-Vac is a European Union-funded project aiming to promote vaccine literacy, offer, and uptake in prisons in Europe. We consulted persons living in prisons in the United Kingdom (through the Prisoner Policy Network), France, and Moldova to determine their vaccination knowledge gaps, the information they would like to receive, and how they would like to receive it. We received 344 responses: 224 from the United Kingdom, 70 from France, and 50 from Moldova. Participants were particularly interested in learning about the effectiveness, side effects, and manufacturing of vaccines. Their responses guided the development of educational materials, including a brochure that will be piloted in prisons in Europe. Persons with experience of imprisonment were involved at every stage of this project.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Vacinas , Humanos , Prisões , Reino Unido , França
16.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e076451, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582532

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on people experiencing incarceration (PEI), focusing particularly on clinical outcomes compared with the general population. DESIGN: Systematic review with narrative synthesis in accordance with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination's good practice guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Social Policy and Practice, Criminology Connection, ASSIA, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web Of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Cochrane COVID-19 reviews, COVID-19 Evidence Reviews and L*OVE COVID-19 Evidence databases were searched up to 21 October 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: We included studies presenting data specific to adults ≥18 years experiencing incarceration, with exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection. All studies with a comparison group, regardless of study design and country were included. Studies with no comparison group data or not measuring clinical outcomes/health inequalities were excluded. Studies focussing on detained migrants, forensic hospitals, prison staff and those not in English were also excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Data underwent narrative synthesis using a framework analysis based on the objectives, for infection rates, testing, hospitalisation, mortality, vaccine uptake rates and mental health outcomes. There was no scope for meta-analysis, due to the heterogeneity of evidence available. RESULTS: 4516 references were exported from the databases and grey literature searched, of which 55 met the inclusion criteria. Most were from the USA and were retrospective analyses. Compared with the general population, PEI were usually found to have higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and poorer clinical outcomes. Conflicting data were found regarding vaccine uptake and testing rates compared with the general population. The mental health of PEI declined during the pandemic. Certain subgroups were more adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, such as ethnic minorities and older PEI. CONCLUSION: PEI have poorer COVID-19 clinical outcomes than the general public, as shown by largely low-quality heterogenous evidence. Further high-quality research of continuing clinical outcomes and appropriate mitigating interventions is required to assess downstream effects of the pandemic on PEI. However, performing such research in the context of incarceration facilities is highly complex and potentially challenging. Prioritisation of resources for this vulnerable group should be a focus of national policy in the event of future pandemics. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022296968.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301818, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593132

RESUMO

The widespread dissemination of misinformation on social media is a serious threat to global health. To a large extent, it is still unclear who actually shares health-related misinformation deliberately and accidentally. We conducted a large-scale online survey among 5,307 Facebook users in six sub-Saharan African countries, in which we collected information on sharing of fake news and truth discernment. We estimate the magnitude and determinants of deliberate and accidental sharing of misinformation related to three vaccines (HPV, polio, and COVID-19). In an OLS framework we relate the actual sharing of fake news to several socioeconomic characteristics (age, gender, employment status, education), social media consumption, personality factors and vaccine-related characteristics while controlling for country and vaccine-specific effects. We first show that actual sharing rates of fake news articles are substantially higher than those reported from developed countries and that most of the sharing occurs accidentally. Second, we reveal that the determinants of deliberate vs. accidental sharing differ. While deliberate sharing is related to being older and risk-loving, accidental sharing is associated with being older, male, and high levels of trust in institutions. Lastly, we demonstrate that the determinants of sharing differ by the adopted measure (intentions vs. actual sharing) which underscores the limitations of commonly used intention-based measures to derive insights about actual fake news sharing behaviour.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Mídias Sociais , Vacinas , Humanos , Masculino , Desinformação , África Subsaariana/epidemiologia
19.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2340950, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593326
20.
BMJ Open ; 14(4): e076064, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594182

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The paediatric population represents a quarter of the world's population, and like adult patients, they have also suffered immeasurably from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Immunisation is an effective strategy for reducing the number of COVID-19 cases. With the advancements in vaccination for younger age groups, parents or guardians have raised doubts and questions about adverse effects and the number of doses required. Therefore, systematic reviews focusing on this population are needed to consolidate evidence that can help in decision-making and clinical practice. This protocol aims to assess the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in paediatric patients and evaluate the correlation between the number of vaccine doses and side effects. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search the PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Scopus and Cochrane databases for randomised and quasi-randomised clinical trials that list the adverse effects of the COVID-19 vaccine and assess its correlation with the number of doses, without any language restrictions. Two reviewers will select the studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extract data and asses for risk of bias using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The Review Software Manager (RevMan V.5.4.1) will be used to synthesise the data. We will use the Working Group's Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluations to grade the strength of the evidence of the results. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required as no primary data are collected. This systematic review will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42023390077.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Metanálise como Assunto
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