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1.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 39(10): 789-790, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727665

RESUMO

The case of oral hydrochloric acid poisoning is rare in clinic, and it is easy to be misdiagnosed when the poison is not clear. The clinical data of 1 case of oral hydrochloric acid poisoning successfully treated was retrospectively analyzed to provide reference for diagnosis and treatment of similar clinical cases.


Assuntos
Envenenamento , Venenos , Administração Oral , Humanos , Ácido Clorídrico , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) ; 64(3): 145-152, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779379

RESUMO

AIM: The comparison of neuroprotective and central reactivating effects of the oxime K870 in combination with atropine with the efficacy of standard antidotal treatment in tabun-poisoned rats. METHODS: The neuroprotective effects of antidotal treatment were determined in rats poisoned with tabun at a sublethal dose using a functional observational battery 2 h and 24 h after tabun administration, the tabun-induced brain damage was investigated by the histopathological evaluation and central reactivating effects of oximes was evaluated by the determination of acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain using a standard spectrophotometric method. RESULTS: The central reactivating efficacy of a newly developed oxime K870 roughly corresponds to the central reactivating efficacy of pralidoxime while the ability of the oxime HI-6 to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the brain was negligible. The ability of the oxime K870 to decrease tabun-induced acute neurotoxicity was slightly higher than that of pralidoxime and similar to the oxime HI-6. These results roughly correspond to the histopathological evaluation of tabun-induced brain damage. CONCLUSION: The newly synthesized oxime K870 is not a suitable replacement for commonly used oximes in the antidotal treatment of acute tabun poisonings because its neuroprotective efficacy is only slightly higher or similar compared to studied currently used oximes.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química , Reativadores da Colinesterase , Organofosfatos , Oximas , Venenos , Compostos de Piridínio , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Antídotos/farmacologia , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/toxicidade , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Reativadores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Oximas/farmacologia , Compostos de Pralidoxima , Compostos de Piridínio/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
Zootaxa ; 5047(5): 531-546, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810826

RESUMO

A new species of Andinobates (Dendrobatidae) is described from the East Andes of Colombia, just 37 km away from the Colombian capital, Bogot. Andinobates supata sp. nov., represents the second known species of yellow Andinobates, and can be distinguished from the other, Andinobates tolimensis, by an unique combination of ventral and dorsal color patterns. Our phylogenetic analyses, based on ≈ 1120 bp from two mitochondrial markers (16S rRNA and cytochrome b) showed that this new taxon is sister to a clade formed by A. cassidyhornae, A. bombetes, A. opisthomelas, A. tolimensis and A. virolinensis. The new species appears to be restricted to a handful of small forest fragments (10 ha) distributed in no more than 5 km2, between 18002000 m elevation, where the human activity is high. In addition, more than 90% of the original forest has been logged at the type locality, and its watersheds receive considerable agrochemical discharges. Altogether, the evidence suggests that this new species should be listed as Critically Endangered and should receive immediate attention regarding basic research and urgent conservation measures.


Assuntos
Anuros , Venenos , Animais , Anuros/genética , Colômbia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
4.
Toxicon ; 204: 5-8, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34666135

RESUMO

The Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease characterized by a progressive deterioration of the articular cartilage producing a strong inflammatory activity and chronic pain in patients. Horses also show osteoarthritis. Since the activation and progression of the disease are similar to that of human we developed a study model in horses. In this study, we test the effect of Neosaxitoxin, a phycotoxin from Paralytic Shellfish Poison, in the remediation of osteoarthritis equine clinical symptoms such as pain (showed in lameness) and inflammation quantifying the amounts of pro-inflammatory markers like cellular infiltration, TNF-alpha and nitric oxide in the synovial fluid obtained from the horse damaged joint. The outcomes show that Neosaxitoxin blocks pain for long lasting period (average 24.7 days). Furthermore, the amounts of pro-inflammatory markers were reduced and consequently an enhanced horse's well-being was obtained. Neosaxitoxin showed to be a candidate for establishing treatment protocols for OA, being safe and effective as a pain blocker in equine osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Osteoartrite , Venenos , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/veterinária , Osteoartrite/induzido quimicamente , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Saxitoxina/análogos & derivados , Frutos do Mar
5.
J Prim Health Care ; 13(2): 191-192, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620303
6.
J Prim Health Care ; 13(3): 289-290, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588114

Assuntos
Borago , Venenos , Humanos
8.
J Psychosom Res ; 150: 110626, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The success of COVID-19 vaccination programs relies on community attitudes, yet little is known about parents' views. We aimed to explore the reasons behind Australian parents' vaccine intentions for themselves and for their children. METHOD: This mixed methods study relates to Wave 13 (January 2021) of a longitudinal study of Australian parents' experiences during COVID-19 and contained 1094 participants (83% mothers). We used multinomial logistic regression to understand demographic predictors of vaccine intention, and a descriptive template thematic analysis to analyse open-ended questions about parents' reasons for vaccine intentions for themselves and their children. RESULTS: 64% of Australian parents intend on vaccination, 26% are unsure and 9% intend to decline; 48% intend to vaccinate their children, 38% are unsure, and 14% intend to decline. Relative to those intending to vaccinate, parents unsure (OR = -0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, -0.84, p = .002) or not intending (OR = -0.41, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.67 p < .001) to vaccinate were more likely to have lower trust in doctors. Similar predictors emerged for parents who did not intend to vaccinate their children (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.31, 0.70, p < .001). Qualitative data indicated that many parents had not made a firm decision, including a lack of alignment between intentions and reasons. For example, parents who said 'yes' to vaccination, often then expressed hesitance and a focus on risks in their written response. Reasons for hesitancy for themselves included concerns about testing, side effects, and long-term outcomes. Similar themes were present for children, but parents expressed a strong desire to protect their children, and an eagerness for health information. CONCLUSION: Based on prior research and the themes identified here, a multipronged campaign that includes education/promotion, good access to vaccines and role models, is likely to support parents to make informed decisions regarding COVID-19 vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Venenos , Austrália , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Estudos Longitudinais , Pais , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360748

RESUMO

Research on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has yielded fundamental discoveries on highly conserved biological pathways and yeast remains the best-studied eukaryotic cell in the world. Studies on the mitotic cell cycle and the discovery of cell cycle checkpoints in budding yeast has led to a detailed, although incomplete, understanding of eukaryotic cell cycle progression. In multicellular eukaryotic organisms, uncontrolled aberrant cell division is the defining feature of cancer. Some of the most successful classes of anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agents are mitotic poisons. Mitotic poisons are thought to function by inducing a mitotic spindle checkpoint-dependent cell cycle arrest, via the assembly of the highly conserved mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), leading to apoptosis. Even in the presence of mitotic poisons, some cancer cells continue cell division via 'mitotic slippage', which may correlate with a cancer becoming refractory to mitotic poison chemotherapeutic treatments. In this review, knowledge about budding yeast cell cycle control is explored to suggest novel potential drug targets, namely, specific regions in the highly conserved anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) subunits Apc1 and/or Apc5, and in a specific N-terminal region in the APC/C co-factor cell division cycle 20 (Cdc20), which may yield molecules which block 'mitotic slippage' only in the presence of mitotic poisons.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Mitose , Neoplasias , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Mitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitose/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Venenos/química , Venenos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
10.
Toxicon ; 201: 86-91, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437876

RESUMO

Senna occidentalis may be accidently ingested by humans and animals. In this study, the percentages of S. occidentalis seeds necessary for experimental reproduction of hepatic encephalopathy were determined in a pig model and the biochemical and microscopic pathology is described in detail, with emphasis on the astrocytes. The experimental groups (G1, G2 and G3) were fed rations containing 5%, 7.5% and 10% of S. occidentalis seeds for 7-11 days. Pigs from the three experimental groups showed incoordination, ataxia, disorientation, head pressing, anorexia, recumbency and depression. In addition, the enzymes aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine phosphokinase increased in all treated animals, which also showed higher serum total bilirubin and ammonia levels than in the control group (C). Microscopically, all experimental animals revealed acute hepatocellular swelling, multifocal coagulative necrosis in the pancreas, necrosis in the cardiac muscle, severe spongiosis in brain white and grey matter, and Alzheimer type II astrocytes in grey matter of the cerebral cortex. These cells were glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) negative in G3. In white matter, a decrease in the positive area occupied by GFAP-immunolabelling and in the number of astrocytes per immunoreactive area was observed in G3 animals (5.35 ± 1.14% and 410 ± 45 cells/mm2, respectively) compared to the C animals (13.93 ± 1.59% and 581 ± 36 cells/mm2, respectively). This loss of GFAP was accompanied by alterations in astrocyte morphology, such as shrinkage of the cell body and retraction of the extending processes. This pig model of ammonia-mediated astrocyte damage could be used to study not only poisoning by S. occidentalis, but also other medical conditions resulting in hepatoencephalopathy.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática , Venenos , Senna (Planta) , Animais , Astrócitos , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida , Encefalopatia Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Sementes , Suínos
11.
Trop Doct ; 51(4): 561-565, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340627

RESUMO

Rodenticide or 'rat poison' is easily available in a predominantly agrarian economy such as India. Metal phosphides or yellow phosphorous are two common rodenticides. Acute liver failure caused by accidental or suicidal poisoning with rodenticides has been infrequently reported in literature. Liver transplantation offers the best chances of survival in severe intoxication. However, the availability of liver transplantation in resource-limited settings presents a challenge. N-acetyl cysteine has been successfully used in paracetamol poisoning. Its use in rodenticide-induced acute liver failure is not so well known. We report three cases of rodenticide-related acute liver failure, one of them being a pregnant lady. All three patients were given N-acetyl cysteine and two patients improved. It is possible that the administration of N-acetyl cysteine contributed to the improvement in these two.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática Aguda , Venenos , Rodenticidas , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Falência Hepática Aguda/diagnóstico , Fósforo , Ratos
12.
J Gen Physiol ; 153(9)2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351379

RESUMO

Many poisonous organisms carry small-molecule toxins that alter voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV) function. Among these, batrachotoxin (BTX) from Pitohui poison birds and Phyllobates poison frogs stands out because of its lethality and unusual effects on NaV function. How these toxin-bearing organisms avoid autointoxication remains poorly understood. In poison frogs, a NaV DIVS6 pore-forming helix N-to-T mutation has been proposed as the BTX resistance mechanism. Here, we show that this variant is absent from Pitohui and poison frog NaVs, incurs a strong cost compromising channel function, and fails to produce BTX-resistant channels in poison frog NaVs. We also show that captivity-raised poison frogs are resistant to two NaV-directed toxins, BTX and saxitoxin (STX), even though they bear NaVs sensitive to both. Moreover, we demonstrate that the amphibian STX "toxin sponge" protein saxiphilin is able to protect and rescue NaVs from block by STX. Taken together, our data contradict the hypothesis that BTX autoresistance is rooted in the DIVS6 N→T mutation, challenge the idea that ion channel mutations are a primary driver of toxin resistance, and suggest the possibility that toxin sequestration mechanisms may be key for protecting poisonous species from the action of small-molecule toxins.


Assuntos
Venenos , Animais , Batraquiotoxinas , Aves , Mutação , Venenos/toxicidade , Canais de Sódio/genética
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 676784, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249843

RESUMO

Declaring racism a public health crisis has the potential to shepherd meaningful anti-racism policy forward and bridge long standing divisions between policy-makers, community organizers, healers, and public health practitioners. At their best, the declarations are a first step to address long standing inaction in the face of need. At their worst, the declarations poison or sedate grassroots momentum toward anti-racism structural change by delivering politicians unearned publicity and slowing progress on health equity. Declaring racism as a public health crisis is a tool that must be used with clarity and caution in order to maximize impact. Key to holding public institutions accountable for creating declarations is the direct involvement of Black and Indigenous People of Color (BIPOC) led groups and organizers. Sharing power, centering their voices and working in tandem, these collaborations ensure that declarations push for change from the lens of those most impacted and authentically engage with the demands of communities and their legacies. Superficial diversity and inclusion efforts that bring BIPOC people and organizers into the conversation and then fail to implement their ideas repeat historical patterns of harm, stall momentum for structural change at best, and poison the strategy at worst. In this paper we will examine three declarations in the United States and analyze them utilizing evaluative criteria aligned with health equity and anti-racism practices. Finally, we offer recommendations to inform anti-racist public health work for meaningful systematic change toward decentralization and empowerment of communities in their health futures.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Venenos , Racismo , Afro-Americanos , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos
14.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218561

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the mechanism of diallyl sulfide (DAS) on paraquat (PQ) - induced acute lung injury in rats. Methods: In May 2016, 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, model (PQ) group, DAS treatment group and dexamethasone (DXM) treatment group, with 8 rats in each group. PQ poisoning model was established by intragastric administration of PQ solution (70 mg/kg) . 100 mg/kg DAS (DAS treatment group) , normal saline (control group and PQ group) and 1 mg/kg DXM (DXM treatment group) were injected intraperitoneally before and after modeling. After 24 hours, the rats were killed and the degree of lung injury was observed. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lung tissue was measured. Alveolar macrophages were isolated and cultured. The supernatant was taken to determine the content of NO, and the expressions of iNOS mRNA in alveolar macrophages were detected. Results: Compared with the control group, the pathological injury score and the expression of iNOS in the lung tissue of PQ group were significantly increased, and the content of NO secreted by alveolar macrophages and the expression of iNOS mRNA were significantly increased (P<0.05) . Compared with PQ group, the pathological injury scores and the expressions of iNOS in lung tissue of rats in DAS treatment group and DXM treatment group were significantly decreased, and the contents of NO secreted by alveolar macrophages and the expressions of iNOS mRNA were significantly decreased (P<0.05) . There was no significant difference between DXM group and DAS group (P>0.05) . Conclusion: DAS may have protective effect on acute lung injury induced by PQ in rats.


Assuntos
Paraquat , Venenos , Compostos Alílicos , Animais , Pulmão , Masculino , Paraquat/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Sulfetos
17.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 261: 120040, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146824

RESUMO

In view of the problem of the paralytic shellfish poison producing algae on-line measurement and identification, a new feature extraction method of paralytic shellfish poison producing algae measurement and identification based on quaternion principal component analysis (QPCA) is investigated. The three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectra of three common species of paralytic shellfish poison producing algae and eight species common of non paralytic shellfish poison producing algae are analyzed. The quaternion parallel representation model of algae three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum data is established, then the features of quaternion principal component is extracted to use as the input of k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier, and the identification of paralytic shellfish poison producing algae is realized by the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra coupled with quaternion principal component analysis. The results show that under the quaternion parallel representation model, the recognition accuracy rate of multiplication feature, modulus feature and summation feature is 90%, 95% and 100% respectively. Compared with that of the principal component analysis feature extraction method, the recognition accuracy rate in pure samples by summation feature of quaternion principal component is improved by 10%. This study provides an experimental basis for the accurate monitoring technology of three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum of paralytic shellfish poison producing algae.


Assuntos
Venenos , Frutos do Mar , Análise de Componente Principal
18.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 84(20): 821-835, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187333

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine pharmacokinetics of α-amanitin, a toxic bicyclic octapeptide isolated from the poisonous mushrooms, following intravenous (iv) or oral (po) administration in mice using a newly developed and validated liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The iv injected α-amanitin disappeared rapidly from the plasma with high a clearance rate (26.9-30.4 ml/min/kg) at 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg/kg doses, which was consistent with a rapid and a major excretion of α-amanitin via the renal route (32.6%). After the po administration of α-amanitin at doses of 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg to mice, the absolute bioavailability of α-amanitin was 3.5-4.8%. Due to this low bioavailability, 72.5% of the po administered α-amanitin was recovered from the feces. When α-amanitin is administered po, the tissue to plasma area under the curve ratio was higher in stomach > large intestine > small intestine > lung ~ kidneys > liver but not detected in brain, heart, and spleen. The high distribution of α-amanitin to intestine, kidneys, and liver is in agreement with the previously reported major intoxicated organs following acute α-amanitin exposure. In addition, α-amanitin weakly or negligibly inhibited cytochrome P450 and 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes activity in human liver microsomes as well as major drug transport functions in mammalian cells overexpressing transporters. Data suggested remote drug interaction potential may be associated with α-amanitin exposure.


Assuntos
Alfa-Amanitina/farmacocinética , Venenos/farmacocinética , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Microssomos/metabolismo
20.
Cell Chem Biol ; 28(6): 743-745, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143956

RESUMO

Topoisomerase I is the target for a number of widely prescribed anticancer drugs that are based on camptothecin. In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Flor et al. (2020) demonstrate that the cellular response to camptothecin is mediated by lipid-derived electrophiles that are generated as a result of drug-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I , Venenos , Camptotecina/farmacologia , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/metabolismo , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I
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