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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 153(3): 860-867.e1, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38048884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight and obesity have been associated with an increased risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the offspring, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vernix caseosa (VC) is a proteolipid material covering the fetus produced during skin development. However, whether maternal prepregnancy weight excess influences fetal skin development is unknown. Characterizing the VC of newborns from mothers with prepregnancy overweight and obesity might reveal AD-prone alterations during fetal skin development. OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore AD biomarkers and staphylococcal loads in VC from the offspring of mothers who were overweight/obese (O/O) before pregnancy versus in those from offspring of normal weight mothers. METHODS: The VC of newborns of 14 O/O and 12 normal weight mothers were collected immediately after birth. Biomarkers were determined by ELISA and staphylococcal species by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The VC from the O/O group showed decreased expression of skin barrier proteins (filaggrin and loricrin) and increased levels of proinflammatory biomarkers (IgA, thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP], S100A8, IL-25, and IL-33). No differences in concentrations of antimicrobial peptides and enzymes were detected. The VC from the O/O group had a lower Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis commensal bacterial load, whereas Staphylococcus aureus bacterial load was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Maternal body mass index was negatively correlated with VC filaggrin expression and S epidermidis load and was positively associated with TSLP concentration. One-year follow-up established that the offspring of O/O mothers had a higher incidence of AD that was specifically linked with decreased VC filaggrin expression and lower S epidermidis load. CONCLUSIONS: VC from neonates of mothers with prepregnancy overweight and obesity exhibit skin barrier molecular alterations and staphylococcal dysbiosis that suggest early mechanistic clues to this population's increased risk of AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Obesidade Materna , Verniz Caseoso , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Proteínas Filagrinas , Obesidade Materna/metabolismo , Obesidade Materna/patologia , Verniz Caseoso/metabolismo , Sobrepeso , Pele/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Linfopoietina do Estroma do Timo , Obesidade/patologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo
2.
J Mother Child ; 27(1): 114-118, 2023 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37668443

RESUMO

The caesarean section is a frequently performed method of delivery. Although the caesarean section is a low-risk and safe surgery, there is an increase in maternal and infant morbidity and mortality due to caesarean delivery. One of the most common infant morbidities is foetal laceration. Caesarean delivery has a 1-2% risk of laceration to the foetus. Various methods have been proposed to deal with laceration wounds. Studies have been conducted on vernix caseosa, which can heal wounds on the skin. This case series report aims to demonstrate that vernix caseosa application is a wound healing method that is highly effective, costless, and of immediate availability.


Assuntos
Lacerações , Verniz Caseoso , Gravidez , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Lacerações/etiologia , Lacerações/terapia , Feto , Cuidado Pré-Natal
4.
Am J Case Rep ; 24: e938276, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Vernix caseosa peritonitis (VCP) is a rare complication that typically presents following an otherwise uneventful cesarean section. Leakage of vernix caseosa into the peritoneum is thought to elicit a granulomatous foreign body reaction. Symptoms can be similar to other acute abdominal conditions, and diagnosis is confirmed by intraoperative findings and histological examination. Peritoneal lavage with supportive measures is the mainstay of treatment and recovery. CASE REPORT Case 1 was a 30-year-old woman who developed right iliac fossa pain, fever, tachycardia, and tachypnea less than a week after her lower segment cesarean section (LSCS). She underwent a laparoscopy for a peritonitic abdomen and concern for intra-abdominal sepsis. A peritoneal biopsy demonstrated histological changes consistent with VCP. Case 2 was a 39-year-old woman who underwent a LSCS. After discharge, she re-presented with generalized abdominal pain. With computed tomography (CT) scan findings suggestive of appendicitis, an appendectomy was performed, and vernix caseosa was detected in all quadrants. Case 3 was a 33-year-old woman who presented with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and iliac fossa pain 9 days following an LSCS. She was given analgesia and antibiotics for a pelvic fluid collection noted on CT scan. She re-presented with tense swelling and pain above her cesarean section incision. Laparoscopy revealed adhesions over the lower abdomen and pelvis and white plaques suggestive of vernix caseosa along the peritoneal side walls. CONCLUSIONS The rising incidence of cesarean births worldwide creates the potential for increased numbers of VCP cases. Greater recognition of VCP is warranted to prevent unnecessary procedures.


Assuntos
Abdome Agudo , Peritonite , Verniz Caseoso , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Abdome Agudo/etiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Peritonite/etiologia , Peritônio
5.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 45: 101475, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vernix caseosa, a natural substance similar to mother's milk with protective effects on the skin, might be effective in preventing nipple problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential efficacy of vernix caseosa compared to the conventional use of mother's milk in the prevention of postpartum nipple problems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized, controlled, single-blind experimental study involved 64 primipara mothers who underwent cesarean section and were randomly and equally divided between the vernix caseosa group and the mother's milk group. All mothers received nipple care four times daily during the first postpartum week. Data were collected using personal information and nipple monitoring forms. RESULTS: The incidence of nipple pain, rashes, and an abnormal appearance was similar in both groups on the first day postpartum (p = 0.132, p = 0.516, and p = 0.132, respectively), and none of the mothers had nipple cracks. On the seventh day, mothers in the vernix caseosa group had significantly less pain (p = 0.042), significantly reduced rash (p = 0.048), significantly higher satisfaction (p = 0.023), and no nipple cracks. CONCLUSION: Nipple care with vernix caseosa is more effective than with mother's milk in preventing postpartum nipple pain, rashes, and cracks.


Assuntos
Verniz Caseoso , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mamilos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Método Simples-Cego
6.
Technol Health Care ; 29(S1): 327-334, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The stratum corneum (SC) is the outermost layer of human skin and deemed as barrier against chemical exposure and water loss. Moisturizers have beneficial effects in treating dry skin, especially the SC. Confocal Raman spectroscopy (CRS) was used to evaluate the efficacy of moisturizers on skin hydration and penetration, with such agents posing inherent characteristics of being noninvasive, nondestructive, timesaving, and cost effective. Bionics vernix caseosa (BVC) cream mimics the composition of vernix caseosa (VC), which could protect the newborn skin. METHODS: This research applied CRS to evaluate the penetration depth and water content variation during the intervention with two moisturizers, BVC cream and Vaseline. Volunteers received the 2 h application of BVC cream and Vaseline on the forearms. The evaluations on 0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h were performed clinical assessment. Experimental data was processed by least square method and analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: The penetration depth of Vaseline was deeper than that of Bionics vernix caseosa cream. Specifically, BVC cream penetrated 18 µm into human skin, while Vaseline penetrated at least 20 µm. Compared with Vaseline, only BVC cream increased skin hydration, with a moisturizing effect lasting for 4 h. At 6 h, the Vaseline moisturizing effect decreased significantly.


Assuntos
Verniz Caseoso , Biônica , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Vaselina , Pele , Análise Espectral Raman
7.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 41(7): 1048-1052, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427538

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to analyse the clinical features of the third-trimester pregnant women, with echogenic amniotic fluid and to compare their obstetric and neonatal outcomes with pregnant women with normal amniotic fluid echogenicity. This case-control study was conducted in a tertiary antenatal care centre. A total of 560 term (37-42 weeks of gestation) singleton women; 280 with echogenic particles in amniotic fluid and 280 with clear amniotic fluid, who delivered within 24 h after the ultrasound scan were evaluated. The women in the two groups were similar in terms of age, parity, body mass index, foetal birth weight, and gestational age. More patients in the particulate amnion group had lower Apgar scores (<7) in 1st and 5th minutes than controls (p = .006, p = .031 respectively) however the rate of admission to neonatal intensive care was similar. Vernix stained amniotic fluid was more common in the study group (48.8%, p = .031), the rate of meconium-stained amniotic fluid was similar in the study and control groups (9.6-9.2%, p = .881). The primary caesarean section rate was higher in women with particulate amnion (18.4%, p = .037). Echogenic particles in the amniotic fluid in the third trimester could not be attributed to meconium, however, higher rates of primary caesarean section may require further attention.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? Previous studies showed that high-density intra-amniotic particles were possibly related to vernix caseosa, intra-amniotic bleeding, and meconium. The number of study groups in these studies was also limited.What do the results of this study add? Additional to other previous studies, we found an increased rate of intra-amniotic echogenic particles in male foetuses.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? The presence of echogenic particles on ultrasound was not related to increased risk for the presence of meconium. Significantly more neonates born to mothers with intra-amniotic echogenic particles tended to have lower Apgar scores (<7), however, this significant difference did not affect the need for NICU admission. The presence of echogenic particles in the amniotic fluid of the third-trimester pregnant women could not be attributed to meconium and adverse perinatal outcomes, however, the higher rates of primary caesarean section may require further attention.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico/química , Líquido Amniótico/diagnóstico por imagem , Material Particulado/análise , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto , Âmnio/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Apgar , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mecônio/química , Mecônio/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/metabolismo , Verniz Caseoso/química , Verniz Caseoso/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(5): 780-783, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842059

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vernix caseosa peritonitis (VCP) is a rare peripartum complication secondary to the introduction of fetal vernix into the maternal peritoneal cavity. Vernix caseosa peritonitis typically manifests a few hours to days after a cesarian section and is often initially misdiagnosed as a more common disease process resulting in delayed diagnosis. We report the computed tomography (CT) findings in 2 patients with VCP and reviewed the previously reported CT findings of VCP. CASES: Two patients, aged 17 and 24 years, presented with signs and symptoms of peritonitis within days of undergoing a cesarian section. In both cases, CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated ascites and multiple small, well-defined, peripherally enhancing, cystic peritoneal nodules which were most prominent around the liver and became larger and more numerous over time. Antibiotic therapy was not effective, subsequent laparoscopic peritoneal biopsy demonstrated VCP, and patients were successfully treated with lavage and the addition of intravenous steroids. CONCLUSIONS: Vernix caseosa peritonitis is an underrecognized disorder that is most often mistaken for other more common causes of peritonitis. In the setting of peripartum peritonitis, the CT findings of ascites with multiple small, well-defined, peripherally enhancing, cystic peritoneal nodules, especially adjacent to the liver, which grow in size and number strongly suggests VCP.


Assuntos
Reação a Corpo Estranho/diagnóstico por imagem , Peritonite/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Verniz Caseoso , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos/patologia , Cistos/cirurgia , Feminino , Reação a Corpo Estranho/patologia , Reação a Corpo Estranho/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Peritonite/patologia , Peritonite/cirurgia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Complicações na Gravidez/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Verniz Caseoso/citologia , Verniz Caseoso/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(10): 2291-2302, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907593

RESUMO

Fatty acid esters of long-chain hydroxy fatty acids or (O-acyl)-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs) were identified for the first time in vernix caseosa and characterized using chromatography and mass spectrometry. OAHFAs were isolated from the total lipid extract by a two-step semipreparative TLC. The general structure of OAHFAs was established using high-resolution and tandem mass spectrometry of intact lipids and their transesterification and derivatization products. Two isomeric lipid classes were identified: O-acyl esters of ω-hydroxy fatty acids (ωOAHFA) and O-acyl esters of α-hydroxy fatty acids (αOAHFAs). To the best of our knowledge, αOAHFAs have never been detected in any biological sample before. Chromatographic separation and identification of OAHFAs species were achieved using non-aqueous reversed-phase HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The lipid species were detected as deprotonated molecules, and their structures were elucidated using data-dependent fragmentation in the negative ion mode. More than 400 OAHFAs were identified in this way. The most abundant ωOAHFAs species were 28:0/ω-18:2, 29:0/ω-18:2, 30:0/ω-18:2, 32:0/ω-18:2, and 30:0/ω-18:3, while αOAHFAs comprised saturated species 21:0/α-24:0, 22:0/α-24:0, 23:0/α-24:0, 24:0/α-24:0, and 26:0/α-24:0. OAHFAs were estimated to account for approximately 0.04% of vernix caseosa lipids. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Verniz Caseoso/química , Humanos , Isomerismo , Lipídeos/química
10.
Ceska Gynekol ; 85(4): 263-267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize current knowledge about the composition and function of the vernix caseoza with respect to the prenatal and postnatal period. DESIGN: Summary article. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove. CONCLUSION: According to current knowledge about composition, vernix caseoza consists of desquamate cells from outer layers of epidermidis with proteolipid material. The formation of vernix caseoza is related to the formation of the fetal skin. The lipid content protects a fetus from maceration with amniotic fluid. Vernix caseoza further enhance the process of adaptation during the transition of a newborn from intrauterine to postnatal life. During delivery, vernix caseoza serves mainly as lubricant function. In a postpartum period, verxic caseoza may have moisturizing, antiinflammatory, antioxidative and healing function.


Assuntos
Verniz Caseoso , Líquido Amniótico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
12.
Med Hypotheses ; 134: 109412, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622924

RESUMO

Acne is a disease unique to humans and is associated with sebaceous glands that are found at high density on the scalp, forehead and face. Despite being a near universal problem in adolescence, the reason why such troublesome sebaceous glands exist at all is not well understood. Some interesting theories have been postulated including roles for skin maintenance, immunological function and perhaps even pheromones, but pre-pubertal skin which has sebaceous glands that are largely inactive, is healthy. Dystocia, obstructed labour, is unique to humans and no other animal has as much trouble giving birth. This is thought to reflect the relatively large human foetal head and proportionally small maternal pelvis. Noting the high density of sebaceous glands on the face, chest and back; these are exactly the same structures that pose the greatest obstruction during childbirth. Sebaceous glands develop after the fourth month of gestation and are large and well-developed at birth. Sebum production is also relatively high at birth. Having extra lubrication at these sites would help make the baby more slippery for birth conferring a selective advantage to successful delivery, as does the presence of the vernix caseosa, a white creamy substance, unique to humans that coats new-born infants. It is proposed that the sebaceous glands that cause acne are present on the face and forehead as they confer a selective advantage by 'lubricating' the widest parts of the new born baby to ease the passage of childbirth. Later in life, sebaceous glands may be inappropriately and pathologically primed, driven by a combination of hormones, diet and lifestyle to create acne.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/etiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Glândulas Sebáceas/fisiologia , Acne Vulgar/microbiologia , Acne Vulgar/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Androgênios/fisiologia , Biofilmes , Dieta , Distocia , Feminino , Folículo Piloso/patologia , Cabeça/embriologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação , Tamanho do Órgão , Parto , Gravidez , Propionibacterium acnes/fisiologia , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Glândulas Sebáceas/fisiopatologia , Sebo/microbiologia , Sebo/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Verniz Caseoso/fisiologia
13.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 45(11): 2145-2149, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507021

RESUMO

The vernix caseosa is a complex membranous structure comprising 80% water, 10% protein, and 10% lipids including barrier lipids such as ceramides, free fatty acids, phospholipids and cholesterol, synthesized partly by fetal sebaceous glands during the last trimester of pregnancy in an antero-posterior and dorsoventral manner. Because of its lipid content, vernix is hydrophobic and protects the skin from excessive water exposure during the development of the stratum corneum. The vernix caseosa has various functions during fetal transition from an intrauterine to an extrauterine environment, including lubrication of the birth canal during parturition, barrier function to prevent water loss, temperature regulation, for innate immunity and for intestinal development. This review discusses the evidence supporting the prenatal and postnatal functions of vernix caseosa, along with its structure, composition, and physical and biological characteristics. Understanding the biology of the vernix may facilitate improved care of preterm infants immediately post-partum.


Assuntos
Feto/fisiologia , Verniz Caseoso/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez , Verniz Caseoso/química
14.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 30(10): 2135-2143, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347025

RESUMO

The specific positions of carbon-carbon double bond(s) within an unsaturated fatty acid exert a significant effect on the physical and chemical properties of the lipid that ultimately inform its biological function(s). Contemporary liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) strategies based on electrospray ionization coupled to tandem MS can easily detect fatty acyl lipids but generally cannot reveal those specific site(s) of unsaturation. Herein, we describe a novel and versatile workflow whereby fatty acids are first converted to fixed charge N-(4-aminomethylphenyl)pyridinium (AMPP) derivatives and subsequently subjected to ozone-induced dissociation (OzID) on a modified triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The AMPP modification enhances the detection of fatty acids introduced by direct infusion. Fragmentation of the derivatized fatty acids also provides diagnostic fragment ions upon collision-induced dissociation that can be targeted in precursor ion scans to subsequently trigger OzID analyses in an automated data-dependent workflow. It is these OzID analyses that provide unambiguous assignment of carbon-carbon double bond locations in the AMPP-derivatized fatty acids. The performance of this analysis pipeline is assessed in profiling the patterns of unsaturation in fatty acids within the complex biological secretion vernix caseosa. This analysis uncovers significant isomeric diversity within the fatty acid pool of this sample, including a number of hitherto unreported double bond positional isomers that hint at the activity of potentially new metabolic pathways.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ozônio/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/química , Verniz Caseoso/química
16.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 611-620, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-762396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vernix caseosa (VC), which is known as a unique human substance, is a biofilm that covers the skin of most human newborns. VC has many biological functions including anti-infective, skin cleansing and skin barrier repair. OBJECTIVE: In the study, we purpose to investigate the novel effect of lipids extracted from VC on the regulation of filaggrin (FLG) expression and anti-inflammation in normal human epidermal keratinocyte (NHEK) cells. METHODS: The lipids were extracted by chloroform/methanol (Folch method) and the major properties of fatty acid methyl esters were determined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The relative viability of NHEK cells was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit 8 assay. The related expression of skin barrier protein was accessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and Immunofluorescence in NHEK cells with or without poly (I:C). Meanwhile, the changes of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: VC lipids mostly contained saturated and branched chains fatty acids. The expression of mRNA and protein of FLG were significantly increased after the supplement with lipid in NHEK cells. Meanwhile, lipids reversed the inhibition of poly (I:C) on FLG. Moreover, lipids suppressed the over secretion of TSLP and TNF-α induced by poly (I:C). CONCLUSION: These results indicate that lipids extracted from VC has positive effects on the expression of FLG and anti-inflammation, suggesting that lipids of VC may be used for a reference for novel therapeutic method in reducing and remedying skin disease like atopic disease.


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Biofilmes , Western Blotting , Contagem de Células , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Ésteres , Ácidos Graxos , Imunofluorescência , Inflamação , Queratinócitos , Métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Mensageiro , Pele , Dermatopatias , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Verniz Caseoso
17.
J Lipid Res ; 59(11): 2164-2173, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254076

RESUMO

Vernix caseosa, the waxy substance that coats the skin of newborn babies, has an extremely complex lipid composition. We have explored these lipids and identified nonhydroxylated 1-O-acylceramides (1-O-ENSs) as a new class of lipids in vernix caseosa. These ceramides mostly contain saturated C11-C38 ester-linked (1-O) acyls, saturated C12-C39 amide-linked acyls, and C16-C24 sphingoid bases. Because their fatty acyl chains are frequently branched, numerous molecular species were separable and detectable by HPLC/MS: we found more than 2,300 molecular species, 972 of which were structurally characterized. The most abundant 1-O-ENSs contained straight-chain and branched fatty acyls with 20, 22, 24, or 26 carbons in the 1-O position, 24 or 26 carbons in the N position, and sphingosine. The 1-O-ENSs were isolated using multistep TLC and HPLC and they accounted for 1% of the total lipid extract. The molecular species of 1-O-ENSs were separated on a C18 HPLC column using an acetonitrile/propan-2-ol gradient and detected by APCI-MS, and the structures were elucidated by high-resolution and tandem MS. Medium-polarity 1-O-ENSs likely contribute to the cohesiveness and to the waterproofing and moisturizing properties of vernix caseosa.


Assuntos
Ceramidas/metabolismo , Verniz Caseoso/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lipídeos/sangue , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Pele/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7478, 2018 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748625

RESUMO

Vernix caseosa, the white waxy coating found on newborn human skin, is thought to be a uniquely human substance. Its signature characteristic is exceptional richness in saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) and squalene. Vernix particles sloughed from the skin suspended in amniotic fluid are swallowed by the human fetus, depositing BCFA/squalene throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thereby establishing a unique microbial niche that influences development of nascent microbiota. Here we show that late-term California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) fetuses have true vernix caseosa, delivering BCFA and squalene to the fetal GI tract thereby recapitulating the human fetal gut microbial niche. These are the first data demonstrating the production of true vernix caseosa in a species other than Homo sapiens. Its presence in a marine mammal supports the hypothesis of an aquatic habituation period in the evolution of modern humans.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feto/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Leões-Marinhos/metabolismo , Esqualeno/metabolismo , Verniz Caseoso/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Feto/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
J Lipid Res ; 59(2): 250-260, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217624

RESUMO

Restoring the lipid homeostasis of the stratum corneum (SC) is a common strategy to enhance skin barrier function. Here, we used a ceramide containing vernix caseosa (VC)-based formulation and were able to accelerate barrier recovery in healthy volunteers. The recovery was examined over 16 days by monitoring trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) after barrier disruption by tape-stripping. Four skin sites were used to examine the effects of both treatment and barrier recovery. After 16 days, samples were harvested at these sites to examine the SC ceramide composition and lipid organization. Changes in ceramide profiles were identified using principal component analysis. After barrier recovery, the untreated sites showed increased levels of ceramide subclass AS and ceramides with a 34 total carbon-atom chain length, while the mean ceramide chain length was reduced. These changes were diminished by treatment with the studied formulation, which concurrently increased the formulated ceramides. Correlations were observed between SC lipid composition, lipid organization, and TEWL, and changes in the ceramide subclass composition suggest changes in the ceramide biosynthesis. These results suggest that VC-based formulations enhance skin barrier recovery and are attractive candidates to treat skin disorders with impaired barrier properties.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/biossíntese , Pele/metabolismo , Verniz Caseoso/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Verniz Caseoso/química , Adulto Jovem
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