Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 265
Filtrar
1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(8): 3277-3288, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378715

RESUMO

The board game Violets: cinema and action in combating violence against women was developed prioritising the liberating features of play to offer a setting for struggles to secure citizenship. The objective of the article was to examine the gameplay of Violets as regards players' understanding of the rules and engagement, and the game's mechanics and design; and to evaluate gameplay, emotions and learning comparatively as dimensions of play. This mixed method study proceeded in stages: a) perfecting gameplay: a workshop with 12 experts, usability tests with 33 participants and content analysis; and b) evaluating play: questionnaires for 78 participants and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test comparing groups of variables. Agreement among participants on aspects of gameplay was high. The group of gameplay variables returned values equal to those of the learning group; both differed significantly from the group for emotions felt while playing. In Violets, the interweave of gameplay with the formative, learning components set up a challenging, affective, symbolic field where players' imagination, interaction, tension and interest were expressed during play.


Assuntos
Jogos de Vídeo , Viola , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Violência
2.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2343-2346, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097143

RESUMO

Viola mottle virus (VMoV) was discovered in Viola odorata showing symptoms of reduced growth, leaf mottling, and whitish stripes on flowers in northern Italy in 1977. This virus has been provisionally classified as a member of the genus Potexvirus based on its morphological, serological, and biological characteristics. However, since genetic information of VMoV has never been reported, the taxonomic status of this virus is unclear. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of VMoV to clarify its taxonomic position. Its genomic RNA is 6,052 nucleotides long, excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail, and has five open reading frames (ORFs) typical of potexviruses. Among potexviruses, VMoV showed the most similarity to tulip virus X (TVX) with 81.1-81.2% nucleotide and 90.4-90.7% amino acid sequence identity in ORF1 and 82.9-83.5% nucleotide and 93.2-95.2% amino acid sequence identity in ORF5. These values are much higher than the species demarcation threshold for the genus. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated that VMoV is nested within the clade of TVX isolates. These data demonstrate that VMoV and TVX are members of the same species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Potexvirus/classificação , Viola/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Viral , Itália , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Potexvirus/genética , Potexvirus/isolamento & purificação
3.
Phytochemistry ; 187: 112749, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932786

RESUMO

Cyclotides are an extremely stable class of peptides, ubiquitously distributed in Violaceae. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of cyclotides in Sri Lankan Violaceae plants, using combined tools of transcriptomics and mass spectrometry. New cyclotides were discovered for the first time in the wild flora of Sri Lanka, within Viola betonicifolia, a plant used in traditional medicine as an antimicrobial. Plant extracts prepared in small scale from Viola betonicifolia were first subjected to LC-MS analysis. Subsequent transcriptome de novo sequencing of Viola betonicifolia uncovered 25 new (vibe 1-25) and three known (varv A/kalata S, viba 17, viba 11) peptide sequences from Möbius and bracelet cyclotide subfamilies as well as hybrid cyclotides. Among the transcripts, putative linear acyclotide sequences (vibe 4, vibe 10, vibe 11 and vibe 22) that lack a conserved asparagine or aspartic acid vital for cyclisation were also present. Four asparagine endopeptidases (AEPs), VbAEP1-4 were found within the Viola betonicifolia transcriptome, including a peptide asparaginyl ligase (PAL), potentially involved in cyclotide backbone cyclisation, showing >93% sequence homology to Viola yedoensis peptide asparaginyl ligases, VyPALs. In addition, we identified two protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs), VbPDI1-2, likely involved in cyclotide oxidative folding, having high sequence homology (>74%) with previously reported Rubiaceae and Violaceae PDIs. The current study highlights the ubiquity of cyclotides in Violaceae as well as the utility of transcriptomic analysis for cyclotides and their putative processing enzyme discovery. The high variability of cyclotide sequences in terms of loop sizes and residues in V. betonicifolia showcase the cyclotide structure as an adaptable scaffold as well as their importance as a combinatorial library, implicated in plant defense.


Assuntos
Ciclotídeos , Viola , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ciclotídeos/genética , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sri Lanka , Transcriptoma , Viola/genética , Viola/metabolismo
4.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(6): e2001043, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33929783

RESUMO

Viola yedoensis Makino was used to treat inflammation, viral hepatitis, acute pyogenic infection, and ulcerative carbuncles. However, the protective effect on immunological liver injury (ILI) of V. yedoensis had been rarely reported. This study aimed to explore the protective effect of n-butanol extract (BE) from V. yedoensis on ILI in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the BE significantly inhibited the secretions of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 cells and the replication of HBV DNA. The research data in vivo revealed that the BE reduced the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) in liver tissues of the ConA-induced mice, while increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and the effective contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and the BE could ameliorate liver histological lesions. These results motivated a further investigation into the chemical constituents of BE. Four coumarins (esculetin, prionanthoside, cichoriin, and esculin) and one flavonoid (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) were isolated from the BE by silica gel column chromatography and recrystallization, of which structures were eventually confirmed by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, and MS.


Assuntos
1-Butanol/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Viola/química , 1-Butanol/química , 1-Butanol/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/lesões , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
5.
Plant Sci ; 303: 110749, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487338

RESUMO

Photoperiod is a major determinant of chasmogamous (CH)-cleistogamous (CL) dimorphic flower development in Viola philippica, and only long-day (LD) conditions induce CL flowers. In this study, it was found that the active gibberellin (GA) content in CL floral buds was higher than in CH floral buds formed under short-day (SD) conditions, suggesting that the biosynthesis of active GAs is enhanced by a longer photoperiod and may be associated with dimorphic flower development. Thus, the next step was to molecularly characterize the key V. philippica GA synthesis genes GA 20-oxidase (VpGA20ox) and GA 3-oxidase (VpGA3ox). In terms of the expression of VpGA20ox and VpGA3ox, it was found that the active GAs could be upregulated in developing pistils under both LD and SD conditions to develop functional pistils, and GAs could also accumulate in the stamens under SD conditions. The anthers and the adjacent petals were well developed under SD conditions. In contrast, the above-mentioned floral organs displayed low GA contents under LD conditions and were poorly developed. Although the application of paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA synthesis, did not reverse CL development under LD conditions, exogenous GAs could partially trigger the transition from CH to CL flowers under relative SD conditions (≤12 h daylight). This was coupled with the downregulation of B-class MADS-box genes, thereby restraining stamen and petal development. Both VpGA20ox and VpGA3ox exhibited similar expression profiles with B-class MADS-box genes in the development of the stamens and petals. Therefore, in response to photoperiod, GA signaling could affect the expression of B-class homeotic genes and regulate dimorphic flower development in Viola. As a compensation for poorly-developed nectaries, anthers, and petals, filament elongation, style shortness, and inward bending could ensure self-pollination in CL flowers. This work provides new insights into the regulation of CH-CL floral development and the evolutionary significance of the formation of dimorphic flowers.


Assuntos
Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Viola/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hibridização In Situ , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Viola/anatomia & histologia , Viola/metabolismo
6.
Nature ; 588(7836): 118-123, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177711

RESUMO

Wavelength is a physical measure of light, and the intricate understanding of its link to perceived colour enables the creation of perceptual entities such as metamers-non-overlapping spectral compositions that generate identical colour percepts1. By contrast, scientists have been unable to develop a physical measure linked to perceived smell, even one that merely reflects the extent of perceptual similarity between odorants2. Here, to generate such a measure, we collected perceptual similarity estimates of 49,788 pairwise odorants from 199 participants who smelled 242 different multicomponent odorants and used these data to refine a predictive model that links odorant structure to odorant perception3. The resulting measure combines 21 physicochemical features of the odorants into a single number-expressed in radians-that accurately predicts the extent of perceptual similarity between multicomponent odorant pairs. To assess the usefulness of this measure, we investigated whether we could use it to create olfactory metamers. To this end, we first identified a cut-off in the measure: pairs of multicomponent odorants that were within 0.05 radians of each other or less were very difficult to discriminate. Using this cut-off, we were able to design olfactory metamers-pairs of non-overlapping molecular compositions that generated identical odour percepts. The accurate predictions of perceptual similarity, and the ensuing creation of olfactory metamers, suggest that we have obtained a valid olfactory measure, one that may enable the digitization of smell.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Adulto , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Discriminação Psicológica , Feminino , Ferula , Humanos , Masculino , Rosa , Viola , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 547177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042872

RESUMO

Despite the continuous emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens, the number of new antimicrobials reaching the market is critically low. Natural product peptides are a rich source of bioactive compounds, and advances in mass spectrometry have achieved unprecedented capabilities for the discovery and characterization of novel molecular species. However, traditional bioactivity assay formats hinder the discovery and biochemical characterization of natural product antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), necessitating large sample quantities and significant optimization of experimental parameters to achieve accurate/consistent activity measurements. Microfluidic devices offer a promising alternative to bulk assay systems. Herein, a microfluidics-based bioassay was compared to the traditional 96-well plate format in respective commercially-available hardware. Bioactivity in each assay type was compared using a Viola inconspicua peptide library screened against E. coli ATCC 25922. Brightfield microcopy was used to determine bioactivity in microfluidic channels while both common optical and fluorescence-based measurements of cell viability were critically assessed in plate-based assays. Exhibiting some variation in optical density and fluorescence-based measurements, all plate-based assays conferred bioactivity in late eluting V. inconspicua library fractions. However, significant differences in the bioactivity profiles of plate-based and microfluidic assays were found, and may be derived from the materials comprising each assay device or the growth/assay conditions utilized in each format. While new technologies are necessary to overcome the limitations of traditional bioactivity assays, we demonstrate that off-the-shelf implementation of microfluidic devices is non-trivial and significant method development/optimization is required before conventional use can be realized for sensitive and rapid detection of AMPs in natural product matrices.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Viola , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Escherichia coli , Microfluídica
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3812-3818, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893575

RESUMO

The current study was conducted to explore the effects of light intensity in cultivating environment on the cleaning away heat property of Viola yedoensis. In the present study, we established the acute inflammation model of ICR mice by injecting carrageenan. We compared the effects of V. yedoensis grown under different light intensities(100%, 80%, 50%, 35% and 5% of full sunlight) on mice body temperature, thermal radiation and the swelling degree of foot tissue before and after modeling observing by thermal infrared imaging technique and weighing method. The changes of energy metabolism related enzymes in liver were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). In addition, the effects of V. yedoensis grown under different light intensities on human lung cancer cell A549 proliferation were explored with MTT method. The results showed that the body temperature of all groups of mice in V. yedoensis group were significantly lower than that of the blank group, except 5% full sunlight group, and the body temperature declined in positive proportion to light intensity. V. yedoensis group could alleviate foot swelling, reduce SDH activity in liver tissue(especially 100% full sunlight group and 80% full sunlight group were significantly lower than model group), and the degree of alleviating and reducing was positively correlated with light intensity. There was no significant difference in the activity of Na~+-K~+-ATPase and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase in liver tissue among treatments. The contents of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, PGE_2 in foot tissue of mice in V. yedoensis groups were significantly lower than those in model group. Among them, the lowest levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, PGE_2 were found in 80% full sunlight group, and there was no significant difference in TNF-α among different groups. The effects of V. yedoensis aqueous extract on A549 cell line proliferation inhibition rate increased with the light intensities of V. yedoensis cultivating environment. And the effects of V. yedoensis grown under 100% of full sunlight showed significantly higher A549 cell line proliferation inhibition rate compared with other groups(P<0.05). In summary, the light intensity of V. yedoensis cultivating environment is positively correlated with the cleaning away heat property of V. yedoensis, which conforms to the "light-cold and heat property" hypothesis,The V. yedoensis should be planted under full light according.


Assuntos
Viola , Animais , Temperatura Alta , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 262: 113116, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736046

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) has been established as a valuable source of medicinal plants for the treatment of insomnia for thousands of years. Accordingly, oil extracts from plants' parts have been widely used to alleviate central nervous system (CNS) ailments including sleep disorders. A number of preparations have been recommended by TPM for the treatment of insomnia. Among them, an intranasal formulation containing oily macerates of Viola odorata L., Crocus sativus L. and Lactuca sativa L. stands out. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present double-dummy, double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination of violet oil, saffron oil, and lettuce seeds oil nasal drop compared with the placebo (sesame oil). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients with primary chronic insomnia were randomly assigned in TPM-treatment or placebo groups, received either two drops of the herbal oil or placebo into each nostril every noon and evening for 8 weeks. Before the study commencement and after 1, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires were completed by all patients. The primary outcome measure was considered as any changes in ISI scores between the first visit and after 8 weeks. Changes in PSQI scores during the study and possible side effects were also assessed. The multicompound herbal oil was standardized using HPLC analysis and contained 0.02 mg/mL crocin and 4 µg/mL isoquercitrin. RESULTS: Our study revealed a significant reduction in the ISI and PSQI scores from baseline by the study endpoint (P ≤ 0.01). The mean ISI scores in week 8 decreased significantly for the intervention group (P = 0.001) and also the placebo group (P < 0.01) when compared with baseline. Moreover, the use of hypnotic drugs in the intervention group was significantly reduced (P < 0.001), while in the control group was maintained at baseline level. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that intranasal use of the multi-herbal preparation can be used to improve chronic insomnia and to reduce the dose of conventional hypnotic medications in insomniac patients.


Assuntos
Crocus , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Alface , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Viola , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Formas de Dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sementes , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Plant Cell Rep ; 39(10): 1359-1367, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719893

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Turnover rates have implications for understanding cyclotide biology and improving plant cell culture-based production systems. Cyclotides are a family of polypeptides recognized for a broad spectrum of bioactivities. The cyclic, cystine knot structural motif imparts these peptides with resistance to temperature, chemicals and proteolysis. Cyclotides are found widely distributed across the Violaceae and in five other plant families, where their presumed biological role is host defense. Violets produce mixtures of different cyclotides that vary depending on the organ, tissue or influence of environmental factors. In the present study, we investigated the biosynthesis and turnover of cyclotides in plant cells. Viola uliginosa suspension cultures were grown in media where all nitrogen containing salts were replaced with their 15N counterparts. This approach combined with LC-MS analysis allowed to separately observe the production of 15N-labelled peptides and decomposition of 14N cyclotides present in the cells when switching the media. Additionally, we investigated changes in cyclotide content in V. odorata germinating seeds. In the suspension cultures, the degradation rates varied for individual cyclotides and the highest was noted for cyO13. Rapid increase in production of 15N peptides was observed until day 19 and subsequently, a plateau of production, indicating an equilibrium between biosynthesis and turnover. The developing seedling appeared to consume cyclotides present in the seed endosperm. We show that degradation processes shape the cyclotide pattern present in different tissues and environments. The results indicate that individual cyclotides play different roles-some in defense and others as storage proteins. The turnover of cyclotides should be accounted to improve cell culture production systems.


Assuntos
Ciclotídeos/biossíntese , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Viola/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromatografia Líquida , Ciclotídeos/química , Endosperma/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Plântula/metabolismo
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 163: 44-54, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615224

RESUMO

Viola odorata Linn or sweet violet has several biological activities due to the presence of flavonoids, tannins, alaloid, glycoside, and saponins. However, susceptibility of these compounds to harsh conditions and low solubility is a great challenge for their incorporation into food products. Therefore, encapsulation can be an effective approach in this respect. In the present study, chitosan-coated microcapsules loaded with Viola extract were prepared for the first time and the effects of independent variables (sodium alginate: 1-1.5%, calcium chloride: 0.6-1.5% and extract concentrations: 5-10%) on encapsulation efficiency (EE%) were investigated. After evaluation of the model, the optimum condition for preparation of microcapsules was selected as 1.47% sodium alginate, 5.02% extract and 1.42% CaCl2 with EE% of 83.21%. The microcapsules developed at this condition had an acceptable spherical shape and the results obtained in Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the presence of the extract within the microcapsules. The mean diameters of the uncoated and chitosan-coated microcapsules were 73 and 141 µm, respectively. The in vitro release in acidic medium (pH 1.5) and phosphate buffer saline (pH 7) were 43.21% and 95.39%, respectively. The prepared extract-loaded microcapsules have potential to be used in food products providing acceptable antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Viola/química , Alginatos/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Cápsulas/análise , Cápsulas/química , Química Farmacêutica , Química Computacional , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Químicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
FASEB J ; 34(7): 9102-9119, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475023

RESUMO

Viola tricolor Linn. is used as cardio-protective and anti-hypertensive agent in traditional medicine. Current study objective was to evaluate cardio-protective and hypotensive effects of Viola tricolor L. in vitro and in vivo studies. Viola tricolor L. crude extract (Vt.Cr) and its fractions (Aqueous and organic) were tested at rabbit atria and aorta coupled to Power Lab Data Acquisition System for cardio depressant and vasorelaxant effects in vitro whereas in vivo Blood Pressure was checked by invasive method in normotensive ketamine-diazepam anesthetized rats. Isoproterenol was employed for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) development and cardioprotective effects of Vt.Cr were evaluated hemodynamically and histopathologically. Vt.Cr and its fractions decreased heart rate and contractile force in paired atria and relaxed Phenylephrine (1 µM) and K+ (80 mM) stimulated contractions in aorta possibly mediated through Voltage dependent L-type calcium channels blockage supported by in vivo hypotensive action. In LVH, Vt.Cr lowered Angiotensin Converting Enzymes and renin, increased cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate and nitric oxide levels, decreased cardiomyocytes size and fibrosis attributed to Gallic acid as detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Partial positive results were seen hemodynamically and histologically in AMI Viola tricolor L. showed vasorelaxant, cardio-relaxant, hypotensive, and cardio protective effect validating traditional practice in cardiovascular disorders.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/química , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Viola/química , Animais , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Hipotensão/patologia , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
J Plant Physiol ; 250: 153185, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497866

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of metalliferous conditions on the functioning of photosynthetic electron transport in waste heap populations of a pseudometallophyte, Viola tricolor L. Measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and the absorbance changes at 830 nm enabled a non-invasive assessment of photosynthetic apparatus performance. This was complemented by the evaluation of the chlorophyll content. Low temperature chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra were also recorded. Based on the OJIP test performed in situ, we demonstrated a disturbed condition of photosystem II (PSII) in three metalliferous populations in comparison with a non-metallicolous one. The combined effects of elevated concentrations of zinc, cadmium and lead in soil resulted in the decline of some parameters describing the efficiency and electron flow through PSII. The differences between waste heap populations seemed to be partly correlated with the concentration of heavy metals in the soil. The characteristic of electron transport at photosystem I (PSI) in the light-adapted state revealed increased values of PSI donor-side limitation (YND) and a declined PSI quantum efficiency (YI). It was also demonstrated that the waste heap conditions negatively affect the total chlorophyll content in leaves and led to an increased ratio of fluorescence emission at 77 K (F730/F685). The obtained data indicate that, regardless of the high adaptation of metallicolous populations, photosynthetic electron transport is hampered in V. tricolor plants at metal polluted sites.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Transporte de Elétrons , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Viola/efeitos dos fármacos , Viola/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Polônia , Solo/química , Zinco/metabolismo
16.
Food Res Int ; 132: 109070, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331663

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the nutritional and bioactive potential of four edible flowers (borage, centaurea, camellia, and pansies). Significant differences were observed among the four. Water was the main constituent (>76%, fresh weight - fw). Linoleic and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids found in borage and red and yellow pansies, while in camellia it was the arachidic acid. In white pansies, behenic and arachidic acids were predominant. Concerning vitamin E, α-tocopherol was the major vitamer. Carotenoids values varied between 5.8 and 181.4 mg ß-carotene/100 g dry weight (dw) in centaurea and borage, respectively, being particularly rich in lutein. Malic acid was the major organic acid, except in centaurea, where succinic acid was predominant. Fructose, glucose and sucrose were detected in all flowers. These results can contribute to the knowledge of these edible flowers and consequently increase their popularity among consumers and in the food industry.


Assuntos
Borago/química , Camellia/química , Carotenoides/análise , Centaurea/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Açúcares/análise , Viola/química , Vitamina E/análise , Flores/química , Luteína/análise , Valor Nutritivo , alfa-Tocoferol/análise
17.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 87, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antiprotozoal and antioxidant activities of Viola tricolor and Laurus nobilis have been reported recently. Thus, the existing study pursued to assess the growth inhibition effect of methanolic extract of V. tricolor (MEVT) and acetonic extract of L. nobilis (AELN) against five Babesia parasites and Theileria equi in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: MEVT and AELN suppressed Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and T. equi growth at half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 75.7 ± 2.6, 43.3 ± 1.8, 67.6 ± 2.8, 48 ± 3.8, 54 ± 2.1 µg/mL, and 86.6 ± 8.2, 33.3 ± 5.1, 62.2 ± 3.3, 34.5 ± 7.5 and 82.2 ± 9.3 µg/mL, respectively. Qualitative phytochemical estimation revealed that both extracts containing multiple bioactive constituents and significant amounts of flavonoids and phenols. The toxicity assay revealed that MEVT and AELN affected the mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3 T3) and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell viability with half-maximum effective concentrations (EC50) of 930 ± 29.9, 1260 ± 18.9 µg/mL, and 573.7 ± 12.4, 831 ± 19.9 µg/mL, respectively, while human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) cell viability was not influenced even at 1500 µg/mL. The in vivo experiment revealed that the oral administration of MEVT and AELN prohibited B. microti multiplication in mice by 35.1 and 56.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses indicate the prospects of MEVT and AELN as good candidates for isolating new anti-protozoal compounds which could assist in the development of new drug molecules with new drug targets.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Babesia/efeitos dos fármacos , Laurus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Theileria/efeitos dos fármacos , Viola/química , Acetona , Antiprotozoários/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metanol , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160228

RESUMO

Viola pubescens is a perennial, mixed breeding herb that produces both chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers at different times of the season. Once bud type is specified, it does not convert from one form to the other. While temporal production of the two flowers is known to be influenced by environmental factors, the specific environmental cues that signal emergence of each flower type have not been empirically studied. To investigate the environmental parameters driving seasonal development of chasmogamous versus cleistogamous flowers, a native V. pubescens population was examined during the spring and summer of 2016 and 2017. Measurements of light quantity, canopy cover, photoperiod, temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, and the number of chasmogamous and cleistogamous buds were collected on either a weekly or biweekly basis. Independent zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regressions were used to model the odds of bud production (0 versus 1 bud) and bud counts (≥ 1 bud) as a function of the environmental variables. Results of the ZINB models highlight key differences between the environmental variables that influence chasmogamous versus cleistogamous bud development and counts. In addition to the ZINB regressions, individual logistic regressions were fit to the bud data. The logistic models support results of the ZINB models and, more crucially, identify specific environmental thresholds at which each bud type is probable. Collectively, this work offers novel insight into how environmental variables shape temporal development of chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers, suggests distinct threshold values that may aid in selectively inducing each flower type, and provides insight into how climatic change may impact mixed breeding species.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Meio Ambiente , Flores/fisiologia , Viola/fisiologia , Luz , Fotoperíodo , Probabilidade , Análise de Regressão , Estações do Ano , Solo , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1151-1159, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157694

RESUMO

Edible flowers are a new gourmet product; however, they are not always available all years. Thus, it is essential to find out technologies to guarantee this product for a longer time. Flowers of four species (borage [Borago officinalis], heartsease [Viola tricolor], kalanchoe [Kalanchoe blossfeldiana], and dandelion [Taraxacum officinale]) were subjected to freezing (in their natural form and in ice cubes) and analyzed in terms of visual appearance, the content of flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, phenolics, antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power), and microbial quality after storage for 1 and 3 months. Flowers in ice cubes showed similar appearance to fresh ones during the 3 months of storage, whereas frozen flowers were only equivalent up to 1 month with the exception of kalanchoe. Even though flowers in ice cubes showed good appearance after 3 months of storage, they had the lowest values of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. On the contrary, when frozen, the content of bioactive compounds maintained or even increased up to 1 month of storage compared to fresh flowers, except for borage. Furthermore, in both freezing treatments, the microorganisms' counts decreased or maintained when compared to fresh samples, except in dandelion. In general, both treatments may allow keeping the flowers after their flowering times. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The market of edible flowers is increasing, although they are a very perishable product with short shelf-life. Edible flowers are stored in the cold (frozen or in ice cubes); however, the effect on the bioactive compounds and microbial quality that this treatment may have on borage (Borago officinalis), heartsease (Viola tricolor), kalanchoe (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flowers is unknown. So, the present study was conducted to increase the knowledge about the changes that freezing treatments may have in different edible flowers. The results of the present study underline that each flower has different behavior at frozen and ice cubes storage. However, freezing flowers maintain/increase the contents of bioactive compounds, while ice cubes not. Both treatments are effective in protecting flowers from microorganism growth. So, suggesting that both freezing treatments can be used as a preservative method and may allow keeping the flowers after their flowering times.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Flores/química , Flores/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Borago/química , Borago/microbiologia , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Congelamento , Kalanchoe/química , Kalanchoe/microbiologia , Fenóis/análise , Taraxacum/química , Taraxacum/microbiologia , Viola/química , Viola/microbiologia
20.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 22(9): 1619-1634, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mammospheres are breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) that could be yielded through culturing cells in non-adherent and non-differentiating condition. With regard to therapy resistance of cancer stem cells (CSCs), it is essential to discover efficient approaches targeting CSCs. Viola odorata extract has been considered as a traditional herbal anti-metastatic drug in several cancer cells. Effect of this drug on BCSCs has not been clearly identified. Current study tries to detect and to compare effect of Viola odorata extract on malignant characterization of breast cancer cell lines and BCSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCF7 and SKBR3 and their derived mammospheres as BCSCs were used and the effect of alcoholic extraction of Viola odorata on apoptosis and malignant characters of MCF7, SKBR3 and their derived BCSCs were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: Viola odorata extract induced cell death in MCF7, SKBR3 and their derived mammospheres through apoptosis without any effects on MCF10A. Also, this extract showed anti-migratory, anti-invasion and anti-colony formation activity in MCF7, SKBR3 and their derived mammospheres which was significantly more in MCF7- and SKBR3-derived mammospheres. Also, this extract decreased size and volume of tumors generated by MCF7, SKBR3 and their derived mammospheres in chicken embryo model. CONCLUSION: Viola odorata extract exerted anti-cancerous activity on both breast cancer cell lines and their derived BCSCs. Anti-cancerous activity of this extract was significantly more in MCF7-, SKBR3-derived mammospheres in comparison with dedicated cell lines. Data suggest that Viola odorata extract mostly targets cancerous cells, not normal cells with exception in high concentration. It acts in a cell-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Viola/química , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Esferoides Celulares
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...