Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.229
Filtrar
1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 181: 106953, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599212

RESUMO

Time-specific Safety Performance Functions (SPFs) were proposed to achieve accurate and dynamic crash frequency predictions. This study contributes to the literature by developing time-specific SPFs for freeways that include reversible lanes (RL) and freeways that include High-Occupancy Vehicle lanes (HOV) using Microwave Vehicle Detection System (MVDS) data from Virginia, Arizona and Washington States. Variables that capture the time-specific traffic turbulence were prepared and considered in the developed SPFs. Moreover, two different hierarchical models were proposed to identify factors associated with the different crash types or severity in crash frequency prediction. The results indicated that the variables representing the volume difference between reversible and general-purpose lanes (GPL) were positively associated with crash frequency. Further, the variable that indicated the design of the access point of the reversible lane was positively associated with crash frequency. The models comparison results showed that the hierarchical models outperformed the corresponding Poisson lognormal model with lower AIC and MAE values. This study also tested the proposed hierarchical models on High-Occupancy Vehicle freeway sections and reached the same conclusion on model comparison results. The significant variables representing the logarithm of volume were found to be significant and positive with crash frequency. Moreover, the difference in average speed between the HOV lanes and GPL was also found to be positive and significant with the crash frequency. In general, this study successfully identified the factors associated with the different crash types or severity in crash frequency prediction models.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Humanos , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Washington , Virginia , Arizona , Modelos Estatísticos , Segurança , Planejamento Ambiental
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(1): e32607, 2023 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607863

RESUMO

Sociodemographic factors have been found to be associated with the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet most studies focused on the period before the proliferation of vaccination and obtained inconclusive results. In this cross-sectional study, the infections, deaths, incidence rates, case fatalities, and mortalities of Virginia's 133 jurisdictions during the pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods were compared, and their associations with demographic and socioeconomic factors were studied. The cumulative infections and deaths and medians of incidence rates, case fatalities, and mortalities of COVID-19 in 133 Virginia jurisdictions were significantly higher during the post-vaccination period than during the pre-vaccination period. A variety of demographic and socioeconomic risk factors were significantly associated with COVID-19 prevalence in Virginia. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that demographic and socioeconomic factors contributed up to 80% of the variation in the infections, deaths, and incidence rates and up to 53% of the variation in the case fatalities and mortalities of COVID-19 in Virginia. The demographic and socioeconomic determinants differed during the pre- and post-vaccination periods. The developed multiple linear regression models could be used to effectively characterize the impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the infections, deaths, and incidence rates of COVID-19 in Virginia.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Virginia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Prevalência , Vacinação
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1098, 2023 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658159

RESUMO

The spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) is a novel invasive insect from Asia now established and spreading throughout the United States. This species is of particular concern given its ability to decimate important crops such as grapes, fruit trees, as well as native hardwood trees. Since its initial detection in Berks County, Pennsylvania in 2014, spotted lanternfly infestations have been detected in 130 counties (87 under quarantine) within Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia. Compounding this invasion is the associated proliferation and widespread distribution of the spotted lanternfly's preferred host plant, the tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima). While alternate host plant species have been observed, the tree-of-heaven which thrives in disturbed and human-dominated areas (e.g., along roads and railways) is likely facilitating the population growth rates of spotted lanternfly. We simulated the population and spread dynamics of the spotted lanternfly throughout the mid-Atlantic USA to help determine areas of risk and inform continued monitoring and control efforts. We tested the prediction that spotted lanternfly spread is driven by human-mediated dispersal using agent-based models that incorporated information on its life-history traits, habitat suitability, and movement and natural dispersal behavior. Overwhelmingly, our results suggest that human-mediated dispersal (e.g., cars, trucks, and trains) is driving the observed spread dynamics and distribution of the spotted lanternfly throughout the eastern USA. Our findings should encourage future surveys to focus on human-mediated dispersal of egg masses and adult spotted lanternflies (e.g., attachment to car or transported substrates) to better monitor and control this economically and ecologically important invasive species.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Humanos , Animais , Estados Unidos , Insetos , Pennsylvania , Virginia , Árvores
4.
Med (N Y) ; 4(1): 1-4, 2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640751

RESUMO

Med discusses present and future ethical issues in pediatric research with Dr. Arthur Caplan, the Drs. William F. and Virginia Connolly Mitty Professor and founding head of the Division of Medical Ethics at NYU Grossman School of Medicine in New York City.


Assuntos
Ética Médica , Criança , Humanos , Virginia , Cidade de Nova Iorque
5.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 25(1): 36-42, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examine the association between tobacco retail outlet density and adult smoking prevalence at the county level in Virginia, controlling for spatial autocorrelations. AIMS AND METHODS: Pooling data from 2020 County Health Rankings (compiled data from various sources including, but not limited to, the National Center for Health Statistics-Mortality Files, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), and the American Community Survey) and Counter Tools, we conducted regression analyses that accounted for spatial autocorrelation (spatial lag models, LMlag) and adjusted for county-level access to healthcare, demographics, SES, environmental factors, risk conditions or behaviors, and population health measures. RESULTS: Our estimates provide evidence that every increase of one tobacco retail outlet per 1000 persons was associated with 1.16 percentage points (95% CI: 0.80-1.52) higher smoking prevalence at the county level in Virginia after controlling for spatial autocorrelation. The effect of outlet density was largely explained by social determinants of health such as SES, risky conditions or behaviors, and environmental factors. We further noticed that the impact of social determinants of health were closely related and can be explained by indicators of population health (rates of mental distress (ß = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.31-1.67) and physical inactivity (ß = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.04-0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Although higher tobacco outlet density was associated with an increase in county-level smoking prevalence, the impact of outlet density was largely explained by social determinants of health and mental illness. Improving well-being at the community level could be a promising strategy in future tobacco control policies. IMPLICATION: The influence of tobacco outlet density seems to be explained by other social determinants of health and population level of mental or physical health. Thus, efforts to reduce tobacco use and consequent negative health effects should explore the impact of improving regional living standards. However, a sole focus on economic growth may not be sufficient, whereas a focus on such things as promoting work-life balance and improving overall well-being at the community level may be more.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Humanos , Tabaco , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Virginia/epidemiologia , Comércio
6.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278207, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454776

RESUMO

The shared and micro-mobility industry (ride sharing and hailing, carpooling, bike and e-scooter shares) saw direct and almost immediate impacts from COVID-19 restrictions, orders and recommendations from local governments and authorities. However, the severity of that impact differed greatly depending on variables such as different government guidelines, operating policies, system resiliency, geography and user profiles. This study investigated the impacts of the pandemic regarding bike-share travel behavior in Montgomery County, VA. We used bike-usage dataset covering two small towns in Montgomery county, namely: Blacksburg and Christiansburg, including Virginia Tech campus. The dataset used covers the period of Jan 2019-Dec 2021 with more than 14,555 trips and 5,154 active users. Findings indicated that a bikeshare user's average trip distance and duration increased in 2020 (compared to 2019) from 2+ miles to 4+ and from half an hour to about an hour. While there was a slight drop in 2021, bikeshare users continued to travel farther distances and spend more time on the bikes than pre-COVID trips. When those averages were unpacked to compare weekday trips to weekend trips, a few interesting trip patterns were observed. Unsurprisingly, more trips still took place on the weekends (increasing from 2x as many trips to 4x as many trips than the weekday). These findings could help to better understand traveler's choices and behavior when encountering future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , População Rural , Virginia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Governo Local
7.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 47(12): 2083-2090, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36543254

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability, and it has been associated with agitation and aggression. In a previous study, we reviewed the literature to identify evidence-based pharmacological agents for treatment of agitation in TBI. Based on the results of our previous study that summarizes the findings of several systematic reviews, the use of haloperidol and benzodiazepines is not supported by the available evidence while the use of amantadine, beta blockers, antiepileptics and methylphenidate is supported by the limited available evidence. In this study, we describe the psycho-pharmacological agents that were administered to patients with agitation and/or aggression in the context of TBI in inpatient facilities of a private, non-profit health care system in southwest Virginia. We will also compare the psycho-pharmacological agents ordered before and after psychiatric consultation. METHODS: Adult patients who were admitted to Carilion Clinic's inpatient facilities from March 30, 2013, to March 30, 2018, had a diagnosis of TBI, and received psychiatric consultation for agitation and/or aggression were enrolled in this study. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was conducted by researchers and data were collected on the following measures: ordered psycho-pharmacological agents, frequency, dosing and duration of orders, whether each administered psycho-pharmacological agent was started before or after psychiatric consultation, and psycho-pharmacological agents prescribed upon discharge. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: About 68% of patients were started on benzodiazepines and/or typical antipsychotics and 23% of patients were subsequently discharged on these medication categories. Only 23% of patients were ordered to receive medications supported by the evidence such as amantadine, beta blockers or antiepileptics. The percentage of patient-days with an order to receive typical antipsychotics significantly decreased following psychiatric consultation (p = 0.0056), but the percentage of patient-days with an order to receive benzodiazepines significantly increased following psychiatric consultation (p = 0.0001). This finding remained statistically significant after excluding patients with active or unclear alcohol/benzodiazepine withdrawal (p < 0.0001). WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the widespread use of typical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines in the management of agitation in TBI and the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration, research and education of providers to improve patient care.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Adulto , Humanos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Pacientes Internados , Virginia , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Agitação Psicomotora/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Agressão/psicologia , Amantadina/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico
8.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0269509, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584000

RESUMO

Opioid overdoses within the United States continue to rise and have been negatively impacting the social and economic status of the country. In order to effectively allocate resources and identify policy solutions to reduce the number of overdoses, it is important to understand the geographical differences in opioid overdose rates and their causes. In this study, we utilized data on emergency department opioid overdose (EDOOD) visits to explore the county-level spatio-temporal distribution of opioid overdose rates within the state of Virginia and their association with aggregate socio-ecological factors. The analyses were performed using a combination of techniques including Moran's I and multilevel modeling. Using data from 2016-2021, we found that Virginia counties had notable differences in their EDOOD visit rates with significant neighborhood-level associations: many counties in the southwestern region were consistently identified as the hotspots (areas with a higher concentration of EDOOD visits) whereas many counties in the northern region were consistently identified as the coldspots (areas with a lower concentration of EDOOD visits). In most Virginia counties, EDOOD visit rates declined from 2017 to 2018. In more recent years (since 2019), the visit rates showed an increasing trend. The multilevel modeling revealed that the change in clinical care factors (i.e., access to care and quality of care) and socio-economic factors (i.e., levels of education, employment, income, family and social support, and community safety) were significantly associated with the change in the EDOOD visit rates. The findings from this study have the potential to assist policymakers in proper resource planning thereby improving health outcomes.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Analgésicos Opioides , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Virginia/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(12): e0010974, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36534706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasitic protozoan, is endemic to the Americas and the causative agent of Chagas disease in humans. In South America, opossums facilitate transmission via infected anal gland secretions in addition to transmission via triatomine vectors. In North America, the Virginia opossum is a reservoir host for the parasite with transmission routes that are not clearly defined. The unique biology of this marsupial provides the opportunity to investigate vertical transmission in this wildlife species in situ. Our objectives were to investigate alternative routes of transmission that may facilitate spillover into other species and to determine if vertical transmission was evident. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Virginia opossums were sampled at 10 trapping locations over a 10-month period in a 5-county region of north central Florida. Peripheral blood, fecal swabs, and anal gland secretions were collected from each adult individual, and peripheral blood was collected from joey opossums. Total DNA was extracted from each collected sample type, and T. cruzi infected individuals and the infecting Discrete Typing Unit (DTU) were identified using real time PCR methods. Adult Virginia opossums (n = 112) were infected with T. cruzi (51.8%, 95% CI [42.6-60.8%]) throughout the sampled period and at each location. T. cruzi DNA was found in each of the three biological sample types. Vertical transmission of T. cruzi was inferred in one litter of mother-dependent (n = 20, 5.0%, 95% CI [0.9-23.6%]) joey opossums where 2 joeys from this same litter were rtPCR positive for T. cruzi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We inferred vertical transmission from mother to neonate which may serve to amplify the prevalence of T. cruzi in adult Virginia opossums. T. cruzi DNA was detected in the anal gland secretions of Virginia opossums. Infected anal gland secretions suggest a possible environmental route of transmission for T. cruzi via the deposition of contaminated feces and spraint at wildlife latrines. Only DTU1 was identified in the sampled population which is consistent with human autochthonous cases in the United States.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas , Didelphis , Parasitos , Trypanosoma cruzi , Animais , Humanos , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Virginia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Gambás/parasitologia
10.
Int J Health Geogr ; 21(1): 17, 2022 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food is not equitably available. Deficiencies and generalizations limit national datasets, food security assessments, and interventions. Additional neighborhood level studies are needed to develop a scalable and transferable process to complement national and internationally comparative data sets with timely, granular, nuanced data. Participatory geographic information systems (PGIS) offer a means to address these issues by digitizing local knowledge. METHODS: The objectives of this study were two-fold: (i) identify granular locations missing from food source and risk datasets and (ii) examine the relation between the spatial, socio-economic, and agency contributors to food security. Twenty-nine subject matter experts from three cities in Southeastern Virginia with backgrounds in food distribution, nutrition management, human services, and associated research engaged in a participatory mapping process. RESULTS: Results show that publicly available and other national datasets are not inclusive of non-traditional food sources or updated frequently enough to reflect changes associated with closures, expansion, or new programs. Almost 6 percent of food sources were missing from publicly available and national datasets. Food pantries, community gardens and fridges, farmers markets, child and adult care programs, and meals served in community centers and homeless shelters were not well represented. Over 24 km2 of participant identified need was outside United States Department of Agriculture low income, low access areas. Economic, physical, and social barriers to food security were interconnected with transportation limitations. Recommendations address an international call from development agencies, countries, and world regions for intervention methods that include systemic and generational issues with poverty, incorporate non-traditional spaces into food distribution systems, incentivize or regulate healthy food options in stores, improve educational opportunities, increase data sharing. CONCLUSIONS: Leveraging city and regional agency as appropriate to capitalize upon synergistic activities was seen as critical to achieve these goals, particularly for non-traditional partnership building. To address neighborhood scale food security needs in Southeastern Virginia, data collection and assessment should address both environment and utilization issues from consumer and producer perspectives including availability, proximity, accessibility, awareness, affordability, cooking capacity, and preference. The PGIS process utilized to facilitate information sharing about neighborhood level contributors to food insecurity and translate those contributors to intervention strategies through discussion with local subject matter experts and contextualization within larger scale food systems dynamics is transferable.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Características de Residência , Adulto , Criança , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Virginia/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Segurança Alimentar
11.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431807

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of peanut varieties cultivated in Morocco (Virginia and Valencia) and extraction methods (cold press, CP; Soxhlet, Sox and maceration, and Mac) on the fatty acid profile, phytosterol, and tocopherol contents, quality characteristics, and antioxidant potential of peanut seed oil. The DPPH method was used to determine the antioxidant activity of the oils. The results revealed that fatty acid content was slightly affected by the extraction technique. However, the CP method was shown to be an excellent approach for extracting oil with desirable quality features compared to the Sox and Mac methods. Furthermore, the peanut oil extracted via CP carried a higher amount of bioactive compounds and exhibited remarkable antioxidant activities. The findings also revealed higher oleic acid levels from the Virginia oil, ranging from 56.46% to 56.99%. Besides, a higher total phytosterol and tocopherol content and DPPH scavenging capacity were obtained from the Valencia oil. Analyzing the study, it can be inferred that extraction method and variety both affect the composition of the peanut oil's bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. This information is relevant for extracting peanut oil with a greater level of compounds of industrial interest.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Fitosteróis , Óleo de Amendoim/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Virginia , Tocoferóis/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Vitamina E/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Fitosteróis/análise , Arachis
12.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 35(5): 979-989, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257695

RESUMO

PURPOSE: HHS' Million Hearts campaign focused the delivery system on ABCS clinical quality measures (appropriate Aspirin use, Blood pressure control, Cholesterol control, and Smoking cessation counseling). AHRQ's Evidence Now project funded 7 collaboratives to test different ways to improve performance and outcomes on ABCS within small primary care practices. The Heart of Virginia Health care (HVH) collaborative designed 1 of the approaches in Evidence Now. METHODS: Two hundred sixty-four eligible practices were recruited to participate and randomized to 3 cohorts in a stepped wedge design, and 173, employing 16 different EHRs, remained for the duration of the initiative. The practice support curriculum was delivered by trained practice coaches to enhance overall practice function and improve performance on the ABCS metrics. The intervention consisted of a kickoff meeting, 3 months of intensive support, 9 months of ongoing support, and access to online learning materials and expert faculty. The mean practice contact time with coaches was 428 minutes, but the standard deviation was 426 minutes. RESULTS: Overall, the short HVH intervention had a small but statistically significant positive average effects on appropriate use of aspirin and other antithrombotics, small negative effects on blood pressure control, except for those practices which did not attend the kickoff, and small negative effects on smoking cessation counseling. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention phase was truncated due to difficulty in recruiting a sufficient number of practices. This undoubtedly contributed to the lack of substantial improvements in the ABCS. Other likely contributing factors were our inability to provide real time feedback on metrics and the frequency with which major practice disruptions occurred. Future efforts to improve primary care practice function should allow adequate time for both practice recruitment and external support.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Virginia , Fibrinolíticos , Atenção à Saúde , Aspirina , Colesterol
13.
Ann Fam Med ; 20(5): 446-451, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228075

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary care is the foundation of the health care workforce and the only part that extends life and improves health equity. Previous research on the geographic and specialty distribution of physicians has relied on the American Medical Association's Masterfile, but these data have limitations that overestimate the workforce. METHODS: We present a pragmatic, systematic, and more accurate method for identifying primary care physicians using the National Plan and Provider Enumeration System (NPPES) and the Virginia All-Payer Claims Database (VA-APCD). Between 2015 and 2019, we identified all Virginia physicians and their specialty through the NPPES. Active physicians were defined by at least 1 claim in the VA-APCD. Specialty was determined hierarchically by the NPPES. Wellness visits were used to identify non-family medicine physicians who were providing primary care. RESULTS: In 2019, there were 20,976 active physicians in Virginia, of whom 5,899 (28.1%) were classified as providing primary care. Of this primary care physician workforce, 52.4% were family medicine physicians; the remaining were internal medicine physicians (18.5%), pediatricians (16.8%), obstetricians and gynecologists (11.8%), and other specialists (0.5%). Over 5 years, the counts and relative percentages of the workforce made up by primary care physicians remained relatively stable. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel method of identifying active physicians with a primary care scope provides a realistic size of the primary care workforce in Virginia, smaller than some previous estimates. Although the method should be expanded to include advanced practice clinicians and to further delineate the scope of practice, this simple approach can be used by policy makers, payers, and planners to ensure adequate primary care capacity.


Assuntos
Medicina , Especialização , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estados Unidos , Virginia , Recursos Humanos
14.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 213, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307887

RESUMO

Sepsis is an inflammation caused by the body's systemic response to an infection. The infection could be a result of many diseases, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and other illnesses. Some of its symptoms are fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, etc. Unfortunately, sepsis remains a critical problem at the hospitals and leads to many issues, such as increasing mortality rate, health care costs, and health care utilization. Early detection of sepsis in patients can help respond quickly, take preventive actions, and prevent major issues. The main aim of this study is to predict the risk of sepsis by utilizing the patient's demographic and clinical information, i.e., patient's gender, age, severity level, mortality risk, admit type along with hospital length of stay. Six machine learning approaches, Logistic Regression (LR), Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Boosted Tree, Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and Bootstrap Forest are used to predict the risk of sepsis. The results showed that different machine learning methods have other performances in terms of various measures. For instance, the Bootstrap Forest machine learning method exhibited the highest performance in AUC and R-square or SVM and Boosted Tree showed the highest performance in terms of misclassification rate. The Bootstrap Forest can be considered the best machine learning method in predicting sepsis regarding applied features in this research, mainly because it showed superior performance and efficiency in two performance measures: AUC and R-square.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Sepse , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Virginia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Hospitais
15.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 8: e2200180, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049151

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the quality of life of tobacco farmers and their desire to stop growing tobacco. METHODS: A cross-sectional home-based survey was conducted between October 2021 and January 2022 among 2,970 Virginia and Burley tobacco farmers in Northern Thailand. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the association between farmers' characteristics and their quality of life and a desire to stop planting tobacco. RESULTS: In total, 58.5% of the participants wanted to stop growing tobacco, and most had a lower quality of life than the mean. Nine independent variables were associated with a desire to stop tobacco farming: having a low level of economic quality of life (adjusted odds ratio [ORAdj], 5.42; 95% CI, 3.8 to 7.8); having a high environmental quality of life (ORAdj, 4.60; 95% CI, 3.3 to 6.5); belonging to the Tobacco Farmers' Association (ORAdj, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.1 to 4.5); growing tobacco on their own land (ORAdj, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.8 to 2.6); having a low social quality of life (ORAdj, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.1); having a low health quality of life (ORAdj, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.1); having a low spiritual quality of life (ORAdj, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.7); being Burley tobacco farmers (ORAdj, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.8); and having a low family quality of life (ORAdj, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.4 to 0.6). CONCLUSION: The majority of the tobacco farmers had a declining quality of life, particularly economic and environmental quality of life, resulting in reducing growing tobacco. National and regional support are needed to help these farmers effectively grow alternative crops, and financial support to make such conversions.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Tabaco , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Virginia
16.
Ann Plast Surg ; 89(4): 365-372, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36149976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age, race, socioeconomic status, and proximity to plastic surgeons have been shown to impact receipt of reconstruction after mastectomy in several national studies. Given that targeted outreach efforts and programs to address these discrepancies would occur locoregionally, investigation of these reconstructive trends on a state level is warranted. STUDY DESIGN: Patients diagnosed with breast cancer in Virginia between 2000 and 2018 were identified in the Virginia Department of Health Cancer Registry. Patients who underwent mastectomy breast conservation surgery, and/or breast reconstruction at the time of oncologic surgery were identified. Patient demographics were analyzed, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine the likelihood of receipt of mastectomy, receipt of mastectomy versus breast conservation surgery, receipt of mastectomy with reconstruction versus mastectomy alone, and receipt of mastectomy with reconstruction versus breast conservation surgery with respect to the demographic variables. Geographically weighted regression analyses were also performed to determine impact of geographic location on receipt of mastectomy and reconstruction after mastectomy. RESULTS: A total of 78,682 patients in Virginia underwent surgical treatment for breast cancer between 2000 and 2018. Living outside a metropolitan area, increased age, lower socioeconomic status, non-White race, and lower number of plastic surgeons within 50 miles were associated with decreased rates of postmastectomy reconstruction. Rural setting, lower socioeconomic status, and lower plastic surgeon supply were also associated with decreased rates of breast conservation surgery. Reconstruction after mastectomy was lowest in the northwest, central, and southwest regions of Virginia. CONCLUSIONS: Within the state of Virginia, programs to improve access to breast reconstruction for patients residing in rural regions, as well as non-White patients, older patients, and those in lower socioeconomic groups should be implemented. Future studies would implement and study the efficacy of such outreach programs, which could then be applied and tailored to other states or regions to address sociodemographic disparities in access to breast reconstruction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mamoplastia , Cirurgiões , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia , Virginia
17.
Nanoscale Horiz ; 7(10): 1119-1120, 2022 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106837

RESUMO

Our Emerging Investigator Series highlights exceptional work by early-career nanoscience and nanotechnology researchers. Read Huiyuan Zhu's Emerging Investigator Series article 'Heterostructured Bi-Cu2S nanocrystals for efficient CO2 electroreduction to formate' (https://doi.org/10.1039/D1NH00661D) and read more about her in the interview below.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Formiatos , Feminino , Humanos , Virginia
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 871864, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937230

RESUMO

Audience segmentation is necessary in health communications to ensure equitable resource distribution. Peer crowds, which are macro-level teen subcultures, are effective psychographic segments for health communications because each crowd has unique mindsets, values, norms, and health behavior profiles. These mindsets affect behaviors, and can be used to develop targeted health communication campaigns to reach those in greatest need. Though peer crowd research is plentiful, no existing peer crowd measurement tool has been formally validated. As such, we developed and validated Virginia's Mindset Lens Survey (V-MLS), a mindset-based teen peer crowd segmentation survey to support health communication efforts. Using an online convenience sample of teens (N = 1,113), we assessed convergent and discriminant validity by comparing the V-MLS against an existing, widely-used peer crowd survey (I-Base Survey®) utilizing a multi-trait multi-method matrix. We also examined the V-MLS's predictive ability through a series of regressions using peer crowd scores to predict behaviors, experiences, and traits relevant to health communication campaign planning. The V-MLS demonstrated reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. Additionally, the V-MLS effectively distinguished teen peer crowds with unique health behaviors, experiences, and personal traits. When combined with appropriate information processing and campaign development frameworks, this new tool can complement existing instruments to inform message framing, tone, and style for campaigns that target at-risk teens to increase campaign equity and reach.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Adolescente , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Virginia
19.
J Med Entomol ; 59(6): 1993-2005, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996864

RESUMO

To better understand tick ecology in Virginia and the increasing Lyme disease incidence in western Virginia, a comparative phenological study was conducted in which monthly collections were performed at twelve sampling locations in southwestern Virginia (high Lyme disease incidence) and 18 equivalent sampling locations in southeastern Virginia (low Lyme disease incidence) for one year. In western Virginia, we also explored the effect of elevation on collection rates of Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae). In total, 35,438 ticks were collected (33,106 A. americanum; 2,052 I. scapularis; 134 Ixodes affinis Neumann [Acari: Ixodidae]; 84 Dermacentor variabilis [Say] [Acari: Ixodidae]; 49 Dermacentor albipictus [Packard] [Acari: Ixodidae]; 10 Haemaphysalis leporispalustris [Packard] [Acari: Ixodidae]; 2 Ixodes brunneus Koch [Acari: Ixodidae]; 1 Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann [Acari: Ixodidae]). Within southwestern Virginia, Ixodes scapularis collection rates were not influenced by elevation, unlike A. americanum which were collected more frequently at lower elevations (e.g., below 500 m). Notably, I. scapularis larvae and nymphs were commonly collected in southwestern Virginia (indicating that they were questing on or above the leaf litter) but not in southeastern Virginia. Questing on or above the leaf litter is primarily associated with northern populations of I. scapularis. These findings may support the hypothesis that I. scapularis from the northeastern United States are migrating into western Virginia and contributing to the higher incidence of Lyme disease in this region. This comparative phenological study underscores the value of these types of studies and the need for additional research to further understand the rapidly changing tick-borne disease dynamics in Virginia.


Assuntos
Ixodes , Ixodidae , Doença de Lyme , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Animais , Virginia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia
20.
Theor Appl Genet ; 135(10): 3433-3442, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951034

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Contamination at the FAD2B locus due to inadequate screening protocols is the primary cause of sporadic, insufficient oleic acid content in Virginia-type peanut. The high oleic trait in peanut is conditioned by loss-of-function mutations in a pair of homeologous enzymes and is well known to improve the shelf life of peanut products. As such, the trait is given high priority in current and future cultivars by the North Carolina State University peanut breeding program. For unknown reasons, high oleic cultivars and breeding lines intermittently failed to meet self-imposed thresholds for oleic acid content in internal testing. To determine why, a manual seed chipper, crude DNA isolation protocol, genotyping assays for both mutations, and a web-based SNP calling application were developed. The primary cause was determined to be contamination with normal oleic seeds resulting from inadequate screening protocols. In order to correct the problem, a faster screening method was acquired to accommodate a higher oleic acid threshold. Additionally, results showed the mutation in one homeolog is fixed in the program, dig date had no significant effect on oleic acid content, and minor modifiers segregating within the program explained 6% of the variation in oleic acid content.


Assuntos
Arachis , Ácido Oleico , Arachis/genética , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Humanos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Sementes/genética , Virginia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...