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1.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 15(8): 1712-1727, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581382

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are gut microbial metabolic derivatives produced during the fermentation of ingested complex carbohydrates. SCFAs have been widely regarded to have a potent anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective role and have implications in several disease conditions, such as, inflammatory bowel disease, type-2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a neurotropic flavivirus, is associated with life threatening neuro-inflammation and neurological sequelae in infected hosts. In this study, we hypothesize that SCFAs have potential in mitigating JEV pathogenesis. Postnatal day 10 BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with either a SCFA mixture (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) or PBS for a period of 7 days, followed by JEV infection. All mice were observed for onset and progression of symptoms. The brain tissue was collected upon reaching terminal illness for further analysis. SCFA-supplemented JEV-infected mice (SCFA + JEV) showed a delayed onset of symptoms, lower hindlimb clasping score, and decreased weight loss and increased survival by 3 days (p < 0.0001) upon infection as opposed to the PBS-treated JEV-infected animals (JEV). Significant downregulation of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-6, and IFN-Υ in the SCFA + JEV group relative to the JEV-infected control group was observed. Inflammatory mediators, phospho-NF-kB (P-NF-kB) and iba1, showed 2.08 ± 0.1 and 3.132 ± 0.43-fold upregulation in JEV versus 1.19 ± 0.11 and 1.31 ± 0.11-fold in the SCFA + JEV group, respectively. Tissue section analysis exhibited reduced glial activation (JEV group─42 ± 2.15 microglia/ROI; SCFA + JEV group─27.07 ± 1.8 microglia/ROI) in animals that received SCFA supplementation prior to infection as seen from the astrocytic and microglial morphometric analysis. Caspase-3 immunoblotting showed 4.08 ± 1.3-fold upregulation in JEV as compared to 1.03 ± 0.14-fold in the SCFA + JEV group and TUNEL assay showed a reduced cellular death post-JEV infection (JEV-6.4 ± 1.5 cells/ROI and SCFA + JEV-3.7 ± 0.73 cells/ROI). Our study critically contributes to the increasing evidence in support of SCFAs as an anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective agent, we further expand its scope as a potential supplementary intervention in JEV-mediated neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Encefalite Japonesa , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/imunologia , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias/microbiologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/imunologia , Encefalite Japonesa/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalite Japonesa/imunologia , Encefalite Japonesa/microbiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/prevenção & controle , Encefalite Japonesa/virologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo)/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo)/imunologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo)/patogenicidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/metabolismo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
2.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 76, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38532383

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic pathogen that causes lethal encephalitis. The high susceptibility and massive proliferation of JEV in neurons lead to extensive neuronal damage and inflammation within the central nervous system. Despite extensive research on JEV pathogenesis, the effect of JEV on the cellular composition and viral tropism towards distinct neuronal subtypes in the brain is still not well comprehended. To address these issues, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) on cells isolated from the JEV-highly infected regions of mouse brain. We obtained 88,000 single cells and identified 34 clusters representing 10 major cell types. The scRNA-seq results revealed an increasing amount of activated microglia cells and infiltrating immune cells, including monocytes & macrophages, T cells, and natural killer cells, which were associated with the severity of symptoms. Additionally, we observed enhanced communication between individual cells and significant ligand-receptor pairs related to tight junctions, chemokines and antigen-presenting molecules upon JEV infection, suggesting an upregulation of endothelial permeability, inflammation and antiviral response. Moreover, we identified that Baiap2-positive neurons were highly susceptible to JEV. Our findings provide valuable clues for understanding the mechanism of JEV induced neuro-damage and inflammation as well as developing therapies for Japanese encephalitis.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Camundongos , Animais , Tropismo Viral , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Encefalite Japonesa/patologia , Inflamação , Análise de Sequência de RNA
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(17)2023 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37686137

RESUMO

The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes viral encephalitis in humans, pigs and other mammals across Asia and the Western Pacific. Genetic screening tools such as CRISPR screening, DNA sequencing and RNA interference have greatly improved our understanding of JEV replication and its potential antiviral approaches. However, information on exon and intron mutations associated with JEV replication is still scanty. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated cytosine base editing can efficiently generate C: G-to-T: A conversion in the genome of living cells. One intriguing application of base editing is to screen pivotal variants for gene function that is yet to be achieved in pigs. Here, we illustrate that CRISPR-Cas9-mediated cytosine base editor, known as AncBE4max, can be used for the functional analysis of calreticulin (CALR) variants. We conducted a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated cytosine base editing screen using 457 single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) against all exons and introns of CALR to identify loss-of-function variants involved in JEV replication. We unexpectedly uncovered that two enriched sgRNAs targeted the same site in intron-2 of the CALR gene. We found that mutating four consecutive G bases in the intron-2 of the CALR gene to four A bases significantly inhibited JEV replication. Thus, we established a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated cytosine-base-editing point mutation screening technique in pigs. Our results suggest that CRISPR-mediated base editing is a powerful tool for identifying the antiviral functions of variants in the coding and noncoding regions of the CALR gene.


Assuntos
Calreticulina , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Animais , Humanos , Antivirais , Calreticulina/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Citosina , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Edição de Genes , Íntrons/genética , Mamíferos , Mutação , RNA Guia de Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Suínos
4.
J Neuroinflammation ; 20(1): 216, 2023 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37752509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains a predominant cause of Japanese encephalitis (JE) globally. Its infection is usually accompanied by disrupted blood‒brain barrier (BBB) integrity and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in a poorly understood pathogenesis. Productive JEV infection in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) is considered the initial event of the virus in penetrating the BBB. Type I/III IFN and related factors have been described as negative regulators in CNS inflammation, whereas their role in JE remains ambiguous. METHODS: RNA-sequencing profiling (RNA-seq), real-time quantitative PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting analysis were performed to analyze the gene and protein expression changes between mock- and JEV-infected hBMECs. Bioinformatic tools were used to cluster altered signaling pathway members during JEV infection. The shRNA-mediated immune factor-knockdown hBMECs and the in vitro transwell BBB model were utilized to explore the interrelation between immune factors, as well as between immune factors and BBB endothelial integrity. RESULTS: RNA-Seq data of JEV-infected hBMECs identified 417, 1256, and 2748 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 12, 36, and 72 h post-infection (hpi), respectively. The altered genes clustered into distinct pathways in gene ontology (GO) terms and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, including host antiviral immune defense and endothelial cell leakage. Further investigation revealed that pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, including TLR3, RIG-I, and MDA5) sensed JEV and initiated IRF/IFN signaling. IFNs triggered the expression of interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) via the JAK/STAT pathway. Distinct PRRs exert different functions in barrier homeostasis, while treatment with IFN (IFN-ß and IFN-λ1) in hBMECs stabilizes the endothelial barrier by alleviating exogenous destruction. Despite the complex interrelationship, IFITs are considered nonessential in the IFN-mediated maintenance of hBMEC barrier integrity. CONCLUSIONS: This research provided the first comprehensive description of the molecular mechanisms of host‒pathogen interplay in hBMECs responding to JEV invasion, in which type I/III IFN and related factors strongly correlated with regulating the hBMEC barrier and restricting JEV infection. This might help with developing an attractive therapeutic strategy in JE.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Interferon Tipo I , Humanos , Encefalite Japonesa/genética , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Interferon lambda , Células Endoteliais , Janus Quinases , Fatores de Transcrição STAT , Transdução de Sinais , Inflamação
5.
J Neuroinflammation ; 20(1): 168, 2023 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37480121

RESUMO

Histone methylation is an important epigenetic modification that affects various biological processes, including the inflammatory response. In this study, we found that infection with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) leads to an increase in H3K27me3 in BV2 microglial cell line, primary mouse microglia and mouse brain. Inhibition of H3K27me3 modification through EZH2 knockdown and treatment with EZH2 inhibitor significantly reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines during JEV infection, which suggests that H3K27me3 modification plays a crucial role in the neuroinflammatory response caused by JEV infection. The chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-sequencing) assay revealed an increase in H3K27me3 modification of E3 ubiquitin ligases Rnf19a following JEV infection, which leads to downregulation of Rnf19a expression. Furthermore, the results showed that Rnf19a negatively regulates the neuroinflammatory response induced by JEV. This is achieved through the degradation of RIG-I by mediating its ubiquitination. In conclusion, our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which JEV triggers extensive neuroinflammation from an epigenetic perspective.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Animais , Camundongos , Histonas , Encefalite Japonesa/genética , Inflamação , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
6.
Antiviral Res ; 216: 105652, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37301446

RESUMO

Manipulation of the flavivirus genome to accommodate and express a heterologous gene of interest has become an attractive approach for gene delivery and the development of viral-vectored vaccines. However, due to the inherent genetic instability of the flavivirus genomes, the construction of recombinant viruses carrying a foreign gene could be problematic and heavily resistant. In this study, the possibility of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) as a stable flavivirus vector for the expression of a foreign gene was assessed using reverse genetics. The full-length cDNA genome of genotype I (GI) JEV inherently possessed excellent stability and manipulability in a bacterial host, while mutations and deletions accumulated in the cDNA genomes of genotype Ⅲ (GⅢ) JEV strains. Using the GI JEV as backbones, we generate a panel of recombinant viruses expressing various foreign genes. All recombinant viruses exhibited excellent genetic stability and efficiently express foreign genes for at least ten serial passages in vitro. In application, a convenient, rapid and reliable image-based assay for neutralizing antibody testing and antiviral drug discovery was established with a mCherry-reporter recombinant virus (rBJ-mCherry). Meanwhile, the recombinant viruses expressing the antigens of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) or Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) could effectively induce antibody responses to the JEV vector and foreign antigens in a mouse vaccination model. Therefore, GI JEV strains could serve as viral vectors accommodating the expression of large foreign genes.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Vacinas Virais , Camundongos , Suínos , Animais , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , DNA Complementar , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo)/genética , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo
7.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37112954

RESUMO

As a zoonotic virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) poses a serious threat to human health and the breeding industry. Regarding the mechanism and complications of tissue inflammation caused by JEV, such as encephalitis and orchitis, there is no effective drug treatment currently, and the mechanism of occurrence has not been thoroughly studied. Therefore, it is necessary to study the mechanism of the inflammatory pathway caused by JEV. As one of the key proteins regulating cell death, BCL2 antagonist/killer (BAK) is also a necessary prerequisite for the release of cellular inflammatory factors. We found that after JEV infection, BAK-knockdown cells died less than normal cells, and the transcription levels of inflammatory factors such as TNF, IFNα, and IL-1ß and their corresponding regulatory genes were also significantly reduced. By further verifying protein expression on the cell death pathway, it was found that pyroptotic activation and virus titer were also significantly reduced in BAK.KD cells, suggesting that JEV proliferation might be related to BAK-induced cell death. From our data, we could conclude that JEV utilized the BAK-promoted pyroptotic pathway to release more virions after the final Gasdermin D-N (GSDMD-N) protein pore formation for the purpose of JEV proliferation. Therefore, the study of the endogenous cell death activator protein BAK and the final release pathway of JEV, is expected to provide some new theoretical basis for future research on the screening of targeted drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases caused by JEV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Proliferação de Células , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/fisiologia , Piroptose , Suínos , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/genética , Proteína Killer-Antagonista Homóloga a bcl-2/metabolismo
8.
Virus Res ; 331: 199120, 2023 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37086856

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic virus that can cause severe viral encephalitis. Initial interactions between JEV and host cells are required for productive viral infection and initiation of the viral life cycle. The elucidation of these interactions is critical, not only to understand the pathogenesis of JEV infection, but also to design efficient antiviral strategies. In this review, we outline the known viral and cellular components involved in JEV entry into host cells, with a particular focus on the initial virus-host cell interaction on the cell surface and the downstream early events such as endocytosis, membrane fusion, and viral genome release.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Internalização do Vírus , Endocitose , Replicação Viral
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6063, 2023 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37055489

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, causes high mortality rates in humans and it is the most clinically important and common cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. To date, there is no specific treatment for JEV infection. Melatonin, a neurotropic hormone, is reported to be effective in combating various bacterial and viral infections. However, the effects of melatonin on JEV infection have not yet been studied. The investigation tested the antiviral effects of melatonin against JEV infection and elucidated the possible molecular mechanisms of inhibition. Melatonin inhibited the viral production in JEV-infected SH-SY5Y cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Time-of-addition assays demonstrated a potent inhibitory effect of melatonin at the post-entry stage of viral replication. Molecular docking analysis revealed that melatonin negatively affected viral replication by interfering with physiological function and/or enzymatic activity of both JEV nonstructural 3 (NS3) and NS5 protein, suggesting a possible underlying mechanism of JEV replication inhibition. Moreover, treatment with melatonin reduced neuronal apoptosis and inhibited neuroinflammation induced by JEV infection. The present findings reveal a new property of melatonin as a potential molecule for the further development of anti-JEV agents and treatment of JEV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Melatonina , Neuroblastoma , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/fisiologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Melatonina/farmacologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Encefalite Japonesa/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose , Replicação Viral
10.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36992334

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which uses a mosquito primary vector and swine as a reservoir host, poses a significant risk to human and animal health. JEV can be detected in cattle, goats and dogs. A molecular epidemiological survey of JEV was conducted in 3105 mammals from five species, swine, fox, racoon dog, yak and goat, and 17,300 mosquitoes from 11 Chinese provinces. JEV was detected in pigs from Heilongjiang (12/328, 3.66%), Jilin (17/642, 2.65%), Shandong (14/832, 1.68%), Guangxi (8/278, 2.88%) and Inner Mongolia (9/952, 0.94%); in goats (1/51, 1.96%) from Tibet; and mosquitoes (6/131, 4.58%) from Yunnan. A total of 13 JEV envelope (E) gene sequences were amplified in pigs from Heilongjiang (5/13), Jilin (2/13) and Guangxi (6/13). Swine had the highest JEV infection rate of any animal species, and the highest infection rates were found in Heilongjiang. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the predominant strain in Northern China was genotype I. Mutations were found at residues 76, 95, 123, 138, 244, 474 and 475 of E protein but all sequences had predicted glycosylation sites at 'N154. Three strains lacked the threonine 76 phosphorylation site from non-specific (unsp) and protein kinase G (PKG) site predictions; one lacked the threonine 186 phosphorylation site from protein kinase II (CKII) prediction; and one lacked the tyrosine 90 phosphorylation site from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) prediction. The aim of the current study was to contribute to JEV prevention and control through the characterization of its molecular epidemiology and prediction of functional changes due to E-protein mutations.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Bovinos , Animais , Humanos , Suínos , Cães , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Filogenia , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/veterinária , Treonina/genética , Mamíferos
11.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36992335

RESUMO

An outbreak of viral encephalitis caused by a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype IV infection occurred in Australia between 2021 and 2022. A total of 47 cases and seven deaths were reported as of November 2022. This is the first outbreak of human viral encephalitis caused by JEV GIV since it was first isolated in Indonesia in the late 1970s. Here, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis based on the whole genome sequences of JEVs revealed it emerged 1037 years ago (95% HPD: 463 to 2100 years). The evolutionary order of JEV genotypes is as follows: GV, GIII, GII, GI, and GIV. The JEV GIV emerged 122 years ago (95% HPD: 57-233) and is the youngest viral lineage. The mean substitution rate of the JEV GIV lineage was 1.145 × 10-3 (95% HPD values, 9.55 × 10-4, 1.35 × 10-3), belonging to rapidly evolving viruses. A series of amino acid mutations with the changes of physico-chemical properties located in the functional important domains within the core and E proteins distinguished emerging GIV isolates from old ones. These results demonstrate the JEV GIV is the youngest JEV genotype at a rapid evolution stage and has good host/vector adaptability for introduction to non-endemic areas. Thus, surveillance of JEVs is highly recommended.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Humanos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Filogenia , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Genótipo
12.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36851485

RESUMO

I read with interest the article "The Emergence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Australia in 2022: Existing Knowledge of Mosquito Vectors" [...].


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Animais , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Austrália
13.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36851664

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an arboviral, encephalitogenic, zoonotic flavivirus characterized by its complex epidemiology whose transmission cycle involves reservoir and amplifying hosts, competent vector species and optimal environmental conditions. Although typically endemic in Asia and parts of the Pacific Islands, unprecedented outbreaks in both humans and domestic pigs in southeastern Australia emphasize the virus' expanding geographical range. To estimate areas at highest risk of JEV transmission in Australia, ecological niche models of vectors and waterbirds, a sample of piggery coordinates and feral pig population density models were combined using mathematical and geospatial mapping techniques. These results highlight that both coastal and inland regions across the continent are estimated to have varying risks of enzootic and/or epidemic JEV transmission. We recommend increased surveillance of waterbirds, feral pigs and mosquito populations in areas where domestic pigs and human populations are present.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Epidemias , Humanos , Animais , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/veterinária , Mosquitos Vetores , Austrália/epidemiologia
14.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36851748

RESUMO

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection causes host endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) reaction, and then induces cell apoptosis through the UPR pathway, invading the central nervous system and causing an inflammation storm. The endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, 4-phenyl-butyric acid (4-PBA), has an inhibitory effect on the replication of flavivirus. Here, we studied the effect of 4-PBA on JEV infection both in vitro and vivo. The results showed that 4-PBA treatment could significantly decrease the titer of JEV, inhibit the expression of the JEV NS3 protein (in vitro, p < 0.01) and reduce the positive rate of the JEV E protein (in vivo, p < 0.001). Compared to the control group, 4-PBA treatment can restore the weight of JEV-infected mice, decrease the level of IL-1ß in serum and alleviate the abnormalities in brain tissue structure. Endoplasmic reticulum stress test found that the expression level of GRP78 was much lower and activation levels of PERK and IRE1 pathways were reduced in the 4-PBA treatment group. Furthermore, 4-PBA inhibited the UPR pathway activated by NS3, NS4b and NS5 RdRp. The above results indicated that 4-PBA could block JEV replication and inhibit ER stress caused by JEV. Interestingly, 4-PBA could reduce the expression of NS5 by inhibiting transcription (p < 0.001), but had no effect on the expression of NS3 and NS4b. This result may indicate that 4-PBA has antiviral activity independent of the UPR pathway. In summary, the effect of 4-PBA on JEV infection is related to the inhibition of ER stress, and it may be a promising drug for the treatment of Japanese encephalitis.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Animais , Camundongos , Ácido Butírico , Encefalite Japonesa/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático
15.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 308, 2023 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609450

RESUMO

The increasing trend of mosquito-borne pathogens demands more accurate global estimations of infection and transmission risks between mosquitoes. Here, we systematically review field and laboratory studies to assess the natural field infection and experimental laboratory transmission risk in Culex mosquitoes. We studied four worldwide flaviviruses: West Nile, Usutu, Japanese encephalitis, and St. Louis encephalitis, belonging to the Japanese encephalitis Serocomplex (JES). The PRISMA statement was carried out for both approaches. The Transmission-Infection Risk of the diverse mosquito species for the different viruses was estimated through seven variables. We considered 130 and 95 articles for field and experimental approach, respectively. We identified 30 species naturally infected, and 23 species capable to transmit some of the four flaviviruses. For the JES, the highest Transmission-Infection Risk estimate was recorded in Culex quinquefasciatus (North America). The maximum Infection-Transmission Risk values for West Nile was Culex restuans, for Usutu it was Culex pipiens (Europe), for St. Louis encephalitis Culex quinquefasciatus (North America), and for Japanese encephalitis Culex gelidus (Oceania). We conclude that on a worldwide scale, a combination of field and experimental data offers a better way of understanding natural infection and transmission risks between mosquito populations.


Assuntos
Culex , Culicidae , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Encefalite de St. Louis , Flavivirus , Febre do Nilo Ocidental , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores , Encefalite de St. Louis/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia
16.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680278

RESUMO

Genotype IV Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (GIV JEV) is the least common and most neglected genotype in JEV. We evaluated the growth and pathogenic potential of the GIV strain 19CxBa-83-Cv, which was isolated from a mosquito pool in Bali, Indonesia, in 2019, and serological analyses were also conducted. The growth ability of 19CxBa-83-Cv in Vero cells was intermediate between that of the genotype I (GI) strain Mie/41/2002 and the genotype V (GV) strain Muar, whereas 19CxBa-83-Cv and Mie/41/2002 grew faster than Muar in mouse neuroblastoma cells. The neuroinvasiveness of 19CxBa-83-Cv in mice was higher than that of Mie/41/2002 but lower than that of Muar; however, there were no significant differences in neurovirulence in mice among the three strains. The neutralizing titers of sera from 19CxBa-83-Cv- and Mie/41/2002-inoculated mice against 19CxBa-83-Cv and Mie/41/2002 were similar, whereas the titers against Muar were lower than those of the other two viruses. The neutralizing titers of JE vaccine-inoculated mouse pool serum against 19CxBa-83-Cv and Muar were significantly lower than those against Mie/41/2002. The neutralizing titers against the three viruses were similar in three out of the five serum samples from GI-infected JE patients, although the titers against Mie/41/2002 were higher than those against 19CxBa-83-Cv and Muar in the remaining two sera samples. In summary, we identified the basic characteristics of 19CxBa-83-Cv, but further studies are needed to better understand GIV JEV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animais , Camundongos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Células Vero , Anticorpos Antivirais , Genótipo
17.
Viruses ; 14(12)2022 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36560690

RESUMO

The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most common cause of neurodegenerative disease in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region; approximately 1.15 billion people are at risk, and thousands suffer from permanent neurological disorders across Asian countries, with 10-15 thousand people dying each year. JEV crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and forms a complex with receptors on the surface of neurons. GRP78, Src, TLR7, caveolin-1, and dopamine receptor D2 are involved in JEV binding and entry into the neurons, and these receptors also play a role in carcinogenic activity in cells. JEV binds to GRP78, a member of the HSP70 overexpressed on malignant cells to enter neurons, indicating a higher chance of JEV infection in cancer patients. However, JEV enters human brain microvascular endothelial cells via an endocytic pathway mediated by caveolae and the ezrin protein and also targets dopamine-rich areas for infection of the midbrain via altering dopamine levels. In addition, JEV complexed with CLEC5A receptor of macrophage cells is involved in the breakdown of the BBB and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. CLEC5A-mediated infection is also responsible for the influx of cytokines into the CNS. In this review, we discuss the neuronal and macrophage surface receptors involved in neuronal death.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Chaperona BiP do Retículo Endoplasmático , Dopamina , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Sistema Nervoso Central , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo)/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(11): e0010754, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A fatal case of Japanese encephalitis (JE) occurred in a resident of the Tiwi Islands, in the Northern Territory of Australia in February 2021, preceding the large JE outbreak in south-eastern Australia in 2022. This study reports the detection, whole genome sequencing and analysis of the virus responsible (designated JEV/Australia/NT_Tiwi Islands/2021). METHODS: Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) testing was performed on post-mortem brain specimens using a range of JE virus (JEV)-specific assays. Virus isolation from brain specimens was attempted by inoculation of mosquito and mammalian cells or embryonated chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing was undertaken using a combination of Illumina next generation sequencing methodologies, including a tiling amplicon approach. Phylogenetic and selection analyses were performed using alignments of the Tiwi Islands JEV genome and envelope (E) protein gene sequences and publicly available JEV sequences. RESULTS: Virus isolation was unsuccessful and JEV RNA was detected only by RT-qPCR assays capable of detecting all JEV genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Tiwi Islands strain is a divergent member of genotype IV (GIV) and is closely related to the 2022 Australian outbreak virus (99.8% nucleotide identity). The Australian strains share highest levels of nucleotide identity with Indonesian viruses from 2017 and 2019 (96.7-96.8%). The most recent common ancestor of this Australian-Indonesian clade was estimated to have emerged in 2007 (95% HPD range: 1998-2014). Positive selection was detected using two methods (MEME and FEL) at several sites in the E and non-structural protein genes, including a single site in the E protein (S194N) unique to the Australian GIV strains. CONCLUSION: This case represents the first detection of GIV JEV acquired in Australia, and only the second confirmed fatal human infection with a GIV JEV strain. The close phylogenetic relationship between the Tiwi Islands strain and recent Indonesian viruses is indicative of the origin of this novel GIV lineage, which we estimate has circulated in the region for several years prior to the Tiwi Islands case.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Animais , Humanos , Filogenia , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Nucleotídeos , Northern Territory , Mamíferos
19.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298768

RESUMO

In the last three decades, several flaviviruses of concern that belong to different antigenic groups have expanded geographically. This has resulted in the presence of often more than one virus from a single antigenic group in some areas, while in Europe, Africa and Australia, additionally, multiple viruses belonging to the Japanese encephalitis (JE) serogroup co-circulate. Morphological heterogeneity of flaviviruses dictates antibody recognition and affects virus neutralization, which influences infection control. The latter is further impacted by sequential infections involving diverse flaviviruses co-circulating within a region and their cross-reactivity. The ensuing complex molecular virus-host interplay leads to either cross-protection or disease enhancement; however, the molecular determinants and mechanisms driving these outcomes are unclear. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiology of four JE serocomplex viruses, parameters affecting flaviviral heterogeneity and antibody recognition, host immune responses and the current knowledge of the cross-reactivity involving JE serocomplex flaviviruses that leads to differential clinical outcomes, which may inform future preventative and therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Encefalite Japonesa , Flavivirus , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Humanos , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo)/fisiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/prevenção & controle , Reações Cruzadas , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142222

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most geographically distributed mosquito-borne flaviviruses, like Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and Zika virus (ZIKV). In this study, a library of the known and novel Glycyrrhizic acid (GL) derivatives bearing amino acid residues or their methyl/ethyl esters in the carbohydrate part were synthesized and studied as DENV inhibitors in vitro using the cytopathic effect (CPE), viral infectivity and virus yield assays with DENV1 and DENV-2 in Vero E6 and A549 cells. Among the GL conjugates tested, compound hits GL-D-ValOMe 3, GL-TyrOMe 6, GL-PheOEt 11, and GL-LysOMe 21 were discovered to have better antiviral activity than GL, with IC50 values ranging from <0.1 to 5.98 µM on the in vitro infectivity of DENV1 and DENV2 in Vero E6 and A549 cells. Compound hits 3, 6, 11, and 21 had a concentration-dependent inhibition on the virus yield in Vero E6, in which GL-D-ValOMe 3 and GL-PheOEt 11 were the most active inhibitors of DENV2 yield. Meanwhile, the time-of-addition assay indicated that conjugates GL-D-ValOMe 3 and GL-PheOEt 11 exhibited a substantial decrease in the DENV2 attachment stage. Subsequently, chimeric single-round infectious particles (SRIPs) of DENV2 C-prM-E protein/JEV replicon and DENV2 prM-E/ZIKV replicon were utilized for the DENV envelope I protein-mediated attachment assay. GL conjugates 3 and 11 significantly reduced the attachment of chimeric DENV2 C-prM-E/JEV and DENV2 prM-E/ZIKV SRIPs onto Vero E6 cells in a concentration-dependent manner but did not impede the attachment of wild-type JEV CprME/JEV and ZIKV prM-E/ZIKV SRIPs, indicating the inhibition of Compounds 3 and 11 on DENV2 E-mediated attachment. Molecular docking data revealed that Compounds 3 and 11 have hydrophobic interactions within a hydrophobic pocket among the interfaces of Domains I, II, and the stem region of the DENV2 envelope (E) protein. These results displayed that Compounds 3 and 11 were the lead compounds targeting the DENV E protein. Altogether, our findings provide new insights into the structure−activity relationship of GL derivatives conjugated with amino acid residues and can be the new fundamental basis for the search and development of novel flavivirus inhibitors based on natural compounds.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie) , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Subgrupo) , Flavivirus , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Carboidratos , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Glicirrízico/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
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