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1.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 247, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ampelopsideae J. Wen & Z.L. Nie is a small-sized tribe of Vitaceae Juss., including ca. 47 species from four genera showing a disjunct distribution worldwide across all the continents except Antarctica. There are numerous species from the tribe that are commonly used as medicinal plants with immune-modulating, antimicrobial, and anti-hypertensive properties. The tribe is usually recognized into three clades, i.e., Ampelopsis Michx., Nekemias Raf., and the Southern Hemisphere clade. However, the relationships of the three clades differ greatly between the nuclear and the plastid topologies. There has been limited exploration of the chloroplast phylogenetic relationships within Ampelopsideae, and studies on the chloroplast genome structure of this tribe are only available for a few individuals. In this study, we aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of plastid genomes of the tribe, including their genome structure and evolutionary insights. RESULTS: We sequenced, assembled, and annotated plastid genomes of 36 species from the tribe and related taxa in the family. Three main clades were recognized within Ampelopsideae, corresponding to Ampelopsis, Nekemias, and the Southern Hemisphere lineage, respectively, and all with 100% bootstrap supports. The genome sequences and content of the tribe are highly conserved. However, comparative analyses suggested that the plastomes of Nekemias demonstrate a contraction in the large single copy region and an expansion in the inverted repeat region, and possess a high number of forward and palindromic repeat sequences distinct from both Ampelopsis and the Southern Hemisphere taxa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlighted plastome variations in genome length, expansion or contraction of the inverted repeat region, codon usage bias, and repeat sequences, are corresponding to the three lineages of the tribe, which probably faced with different environmental selection pressures and evolutionary history. This study provides valuable insights into understanding the evolutionary patterns of plastid genomes within the Ampelopsideae of Vitaceae.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Genomas de Plastídeos , Vitaceae , Humanos , Filogenia , Regiões Antárticas
2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 333: 121922, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494202

RESUMO

A novel acidic glucuronogalactomannan (STHP-5) was isolated from the aboveground part of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg with a molecular weight of 3.225 × 105 kDa. Analysis of chain conformation showed STHP-5 was approximately a random coil chain. STHP-5 was composed mainly of galactose, mannose, and glucuronic acid. Linkages of glycosides were measured via methylation analysis and verified by NMR. In vitro, STHP-5 induced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and secretion of IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells, indicating STHP-5 had stimulatory activity on macrophages. STHP-5 was proven to function as a TLR4 agonist by inducing the secretion of secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) in HEK-Blue™-hTLR4 cells. The TLR4 activation capacity was quantitatively measured via EC50, and it showed purified polysaccharides had stronger effects (lower EC50) on activating TLR4 compared with crude polysaccharides. In conclusion, our findings suggest STHP-5 may be a novel immunomodulator.


Assuntos
Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Vitaceae , Animais , Camundongos , Vitaceae/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Macrófagos , Células RAW 264.7
3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 133, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethyl acetate extracts from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum (Sanyeqing) (EFT), a member of the Vitaceae plant family, have been shown to exhibit efficacy against a variety of cancers. In this light, our current study seeks to examine the mechanism of efficacy between EFT extracts and human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. METHODS: The chemical components of EFT were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cytotoxicity of EFT on PANC-1 cells was measured using an MTT assay. In order to investigate EFT induction of cell cycle arrest, changes in cell-cycle distribution were monitored by flow cytometry. Wound healing and transwell assays were employed to investigate whether migration and invasion of PANC-1 cells were inhibited by EFT. Relative protein expression was detected using Western blot. RESULTS: GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of EFT revealed that the majority of constituents were organic acids and their corresponding esters. EFT exhibits measurable cytotoxicity and inhibition of PANC-1 invasion. Growth inhibition was primarily attributed to downregulation of CDK2 which induces cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. Inhibition of metastasis is achieved through downregulation of mesenchymal-associated genes/activators, including ZEB1, N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Fibronectin. Meanwhile, the expression of E-cadherin was significantly increased by EFT treatment. Furthermore, downregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were observed. CONCLUSION: Treatment of PANC-1 with EFT demonstrated measurable cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, EFT evoked S phase arrest while inhibiting the migration and invasion of PANC-1 cells. Additionally, EFT inhibited the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and MMPs expression in PANC-1 cells. This study serves to confirm the strong therapeutic potential of EFT while identifying the mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Vitaceae , Humanos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fase S , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaceae/química
4.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(2): e1011845, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315720

RESUMO

Leaves are often described in language that evokes a single shape. However, embedded in that descriptor is a multitude of latent shapes arising from evolutionary, developmental, environmental, and other effects. These confounded effects manifest at distinct developmental time points and evolve at different tempos. Here, revisiting datasets comprised of thousands of leaves of vining grapevine (Vitaceae) and maracuyá (Passifloraceae) species, we apply a technique from the mathematical field of topological data analysis to comparatively visualize the structure of heteroblastic and ontogenetic effects on leaf shape in each group. Consistent with a morphologically closer relationship, members of the grapevine dataset possess strong core heteroblasty and ontogenetic programs with little deviation between species. Remarkably, we found that most members of the maracuyá family also share core heteroblasty and ontogenetic programs despite dramatic species-to-species leaf shape differences. This conservation was not initially detected using traditional analyses such as principal component analysis or linear discriminant analysis. We also identify two morphotypes of maracuyá that deviate from the core structure, suggesting the evolution of new developmental properties in this phylogenetically distinct sub-group. Our findings illustrate how topological data analysis can be used to disentangle previously confounded developmental and evolutionary effects to visualize latent shapes and hidden relationships, even ones embedded in complex, high-dimensional datasets.


Assuntos
Passifloraceae , Vitaceae , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Dados
5.
Am J Bot ; 111(1): e16267, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38059662

RESUMO

PREMISE: Rafflesia are rare holoparasitic plants. In the Philippines, all but one species are found only on single islands. This study aimed to better understand the factors contributing to this distributional pattern. Specifically, we sought to determine whether narrow environmental tolerances of host and/or parasite species might explain their island endemicity. METHODS: We used Maxent species distribution modeling to identify areas with suitable habitat for R. lagascae, R. lobata, and R. speciosa and their Tetrastigma host species. These analyses were carried out for current climate conditions and two future climate change scenarios. RESULTS: Although species distribution models indicated suitable environmental conditions for the Tetrastigma host species in many parts of the Philippines, considerably fewer areas were inferred to have suitable conditions for the three Rafflesia species. Some of these areas are on islands from which they have not been reported. All three species will face significant threats as a result of climate change. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that limited inter-island dispersibility and/or specific environmental requirements are likely responsible for the current pattern of island endemicity of the three Rafflesia species, rather than environmental requirements of their Tetrastigma host species.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Vitaceae , Animais , Filipinas , Vitaceae/parasitologia , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema
6.
J Econ Entomol ; 116(6): 2207-2211, 2023 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931223

RESUMO

As Lycorma delicatula (White) continues to spread across the United States, more winegrapes are potentially susceptible to damage from this pest. Lycorma delicatula, spotted lanternfly, is primarily associated with Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, a tree from its native range that is now globally distributed. While L. delicatula is a known pest of cultivated Vitis spp. in South Korea, its relationship with the specific grape species grown in the United States is unclear. This study assessed L. delicatula survivorship and development on 5 Vitis species, including 2 winegrape V. vinifera L. varieties, 'Pinot Noir' and 'Chardonnay', Concord grape, Vitis labrusca L., River grape, Vitis riparia Michx., and muscadine grape, Vitis rotundifolia Michx. var. 'Carlos'. A diet of A. altissima served as a positive control. Lycorma delicatula provided with a diet of V. riparia or V. vinifera 'Pinot Noir' yielded the highest survivorship and fastest rates of development among grape diets and were statistically equivalent to those provided with A. altissima. Vitis rotundifolia did not support L. delicatula growth past the third-instar life stage, indicating this species is a poor host for the early development of this pest. Our results indicate that both V. riparia and V. vinifera are favorable hosts for L. delicatula and may provide the means for this insect to invade and establish in new regions.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Vitaceae , Vitis , Estados Unidos , Animais , Sobrevivência
7.
BMC Biol ; 21(1): 209, 2023 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37807051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Explaining contrasting patterns of distribution between related species is crucial for understanding the dynamics of biodiversity. Despite instances where hybridization and whole genome duplication (WGD) can yield detrimental outcomes, a role in facilitating the expansion of distribution range has been proposed. The Vitaceae genus Causonis exhibits great variations in species' distribution ranges, with most species in the derived lineages having a much wider range than those in the early-diverged lineages. Hybridization and WGD events have been suggested to occur in Causonis based on evidence of phylogenetic discordance. The genus, therefore, provides us with an opportunity to for explore different hybridization and polyploidization modes in lineages with contrasting species' distribution ranges. However, the evolutionary history of Causonis incorporating potential hybridization and WGD events remains to be explored. RESULTS: With plastid and nuclear data from dense sampling, this study resolved the phylogenetic relationships within Causonis and revealed significant cyto-nuclear discordance. Nuclear gene tree conflicts were detected across the genus, especially in the japonica-corniculata clade, which were mainly attributed to gene flow. This study also inferred the allopolyploid origin of the core Causonis species, which promoted the accumulation of stress-related genes. Causonis was estimated to have originated in continental Asia in the early Eocene, and experienced glaciation in the early Oligocene, shortly after the divergence of the early-divergent lineages. The japonica-corniculata clade mainly diversified in the Miocene, followed by temperature declines that may have facilitated secondary contact. Species distribution modeling based on current climate change predicted that the widespread C. japonica tends to be more invasive, while the endemic C. ciliifera may be at risk of extinction. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents Causonis, a genus with complex reticulate evolutionary history, as a model of how hybridization and WGD modes differ in lineages of contrasting species' geographic ranges. It is important to consider specific evolutionary histories and genetic properties of the focal species within conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Vitaceae , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , Hibridização Genética
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 253(Pt 7): 127463, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37852397

RESUMO

Variations in the structure and activities of polysaccharides from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg fermented by Sanghuangporus sanghuang fungi were investigated. Compare with the unfermented polysaccharide (THDP2), the major monosaccharide composition and molecular weight of polysaccharide after fermentation (F-THDP2) altered dramatically, which caused galactose-induced conversion from glucose and one-third of molecular weight. F-THDP2 had a molecular weight of 1.23 × 104 Da. Moreover, the glycosidic linkage of F-THDP2 varied significantly, a 1, 2-linked α-d-Galp and 1, 2-linked α-d-Manp backbone was established in F-THDP2, which differed from that of 1, 4-linked α-d-Glcp and 1, 4-linked ß-d-Galp in THDP2. In addition, F-THDP2 showed a more flexible chain conformation than that of THDP2 in aqueous solution. Strikingly, F-THDP2 exhibited superior inhibitory effects on HeLa cells via Fas/FasL-mediated Caspase-3 signaling pathways than that of the original polysaccharide. These variations in both structure and biological activities indicated that fermentation-mediated modification by Sanghuangporus sanghuang might a promising novel method for the effective conversion of starch and other polysaccharides from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg into highly bioactive biomacromolecules, which could be developed as a potential technology for use in the food industry.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos , Vitaceae , Humanos , Células HeLa , Fermentação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Vitaceae/química
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 317: 116788, 2023 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37343650

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Vine tea is a popular folk tea that has been consumed in China for more than 1200 years. It is often used in ethnic medicine by ethnic groups in southwest China with at least 35 aliases in 10 provinces. In coastal areas, vine tea is mostly used to treat heatstroke, aphtha, aphonia, toothache, etc. In contrast, in the southwest inland regions, vine tea is mostly used to clear away heat and toxic materials, antiphlogosis and relieving sore-throat, lowering blood pressure and lipid levels, and alleviating fatigue. Three main species have been used as the source of vine tea, Nekemias grossedentata, Nekemias cantonensis and Nekemias megalophylla. Among them, the leaves of Nekemias grossedentata were considered as new food resource in complicance with regulations, according to the Food Safety Standards published by the Monitoring and Evaluation Department of the National Health and Family Planning Commission in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: At present, the comprehensively summary of Materia Medica on the history and source of vine tea is currently unavailable. The current article summed up the Materia Medica, species origin and pharmacological effects of all 3 major species used in vine tea to fill the knowledge gaps. We also aim to provide a reference for future research on historical textual, resource development and medicinal utilization of vine tea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adhering to the literature screening methodology outlined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), this review encompasses 148 scholarly research papers from three database, paper ancient books, local chronicles and folklore through field investigations. We then comprehensively summarized and discussed research progresses in scientific and application studies of vine tea. RESULTS: The historical records indicated that vine tea could have been used as early as Southern and Northern Dynasties (AC 420-589). Nekemias grossedentata, Nekemias cantonensis and Nekemias megalophylla, were used to considered as vine tea in the ethnic medicine. The main phytochemicals found in three plants are flavonoids, polyphenols and terpenoids, among which dihydromyricetin (DHM) is the most important and most studied active substance. The key words "Ampelopsis grossedentata" (Synonym of Nekemias grossedentata) and "dihydromyricetin/DHM" showed the highest frequency over the last 27 year based on the research trend analysis. And the ethnopharmacology studies drawn the main activities of vine tea are antioxidant, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and anti-atherosclerosis activities. CONCLUSIONS: This review systematically summarized and discussed vine tea from the following five aspects, history, genetic relationship, phytochemistry, research trend and ethnopharmacology. Vine tea has a long historical usage in Chinese ethnic medicine. Its outstanding therapeutic efficacies have attracted extensive attention in other places in the world at present. Nekemias cantonensis and Nekemias megalophylla are quite similar to Nekemias grossedentata in terms of many aspects. However, the current research has a narrow focus on mainly Nekemias grossedentata and DHM. We propose that future studies could be carried out to determine the synergistic effect of multi-components and multi-targets of vine tea including all 3 species to provide valuable knowledge.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Vitaceae , Etnofarmacologia/métodos , Flavonoides/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Chá , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
10.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 186: 107866, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37354923

RESUMO

A set of newly designed Vitaceae baits targeting 1013 genes was employed to explore phylogenetic relationships among North American Vitis. Eurasian Vitis taxa including Vitis vinifera were found to be nested within North American Vitis subgenus Vitis. North American Vitis subgenus Vitis can be placed into nine main groups: the Monticola group, the Occidentales group, the Californica group, the Vinifera group (introduced from Eurasia), the Mustangensis group, the Palmata group, the Aestivalis group, the Labrusca group, and the Cinerea group. Strong cytonuclear discordances were detected in North American Vitis, with many species non-monophyletic in the plastid phylogeny, while monophyletic in the nuclear phylogeny. The phylogenomic analyses support recognizing four distinct species in the Vitis cinerea complex in North America: V. cinerea, V. baileyana, V. berlandieri, and V. simpsonii. Such treatment will better serve the conservation of wild Vitis diversity in North America. Yet the evolutionary history of Vitis is highly complex, with the concordance analyses indicating conflicting signals across the phylogeny. Cytonuclear discordances and Analyses using the Species Networks applying Quartets (SNaQ) method support extensive hybridizations in North American Vitis. The results further indicate that plastid genomes alone are insufficient for resolving the evolutionary history of plant groups that have undergone rampant hybridization, like the case in North American Vitis. Nuclear gene data are essential for species delimitation, identification and reconstructing evolutionary relationships; therefore, they are imperative for plant phylogenomic studies.


Assuntos
Vitaceae , Vitis , Filogenia , Vitis/genética , Vitaceae/genética , Evolução Biológica , América do Norte
11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 229: 115375, 2023 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37030030

RESUMO

Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg (TH) is one of the new eight Genuine Medicinal Materials of Zhejiang. It has extensive biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and analgesic activities, etc. In this study, the chemical components of TH were systematically investigated by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). Based on the MS spectrum, 39 compounds in TH extracts including 14 flavonoids, 10 fatty acids, 5 polyphenols and phenolic acids, 4 terpenes and other compounds were detected and tentatively identified. TH samples were treated under different drying methods (vacuum freeze drying, hot air drying, natural drying, light drying and vacuum drying). Besides, the effect of different drying methods on the content of 10 main chemical constituents in TH extracts including catechin, rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and so on was also investigated by targeting metabolomics method with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) assisted by multivariate statistical analysis. Large differences were observed between vacuum drying and vacuum freeze drying with remarkable content changes. The contents of rutin, proanthocyanidin B1 and catechin were the most different among the various drying methods. The systematic identification of chemical constituents is helpful for the further medicinal development and application of TH. The effects of drying methods on the content of TH components were studied, which provided experimental data for the processing, storage and quality control of TH.


Assuntos
Catequina , Vitaceae , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Flavonoides/química , Rutina , Vitaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
12.
Molecules ; 28(7)2023 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37049789

RESUMO

Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg. (T. hemsleyanum) is an economically and medicinally valuable species within the genus Tetrastigma. However, the material basis of its pharmacological action and the biomarkers associated with its anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects are still unclear. Additionally, the T. hemsleyanum industry cannot grow because there is a lack of a scientific, universal, and measurable quality control system. This study aimed to explore the chemical basis quality markers related to the anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects of T. hemsleyanum to establish an effective quality evaluation method. UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE fingerprint profiles of T. hemsleyanum from different origins were established. Pharmacodynamic studies used HepG2 and HuH-7 cells and LPS-induced RAW264.7 to evaluate the anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects of the active ingredients. The spectrum-effect relationships between UPLC fingerprints and anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated using PCA and PLSR statistical methods. Moreover, docking analysis was performed to identify specific active biomarkers with molecular targets associated with cancer and inflammation. Chlorogenic acid, quinic acid, catechin, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, apigenin-8-C-glucoside, and linolenic acid were associated with anticancer activity, while chlorogenic acid, quercetin, quinic acid, kaempferol 3-rutinoside, rutinum, apigenin-8-C-glucoside, and linolenic acid were associated with anti-inflammatory activity. The spectrum-effect relationship of T. hemsleyanum was successfully established, and the biomarkers for anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects were preliminary confirmed. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the elucidation of the substance basis of T. hemsleyanum and lay the foundation for its rapid identification, quality control, industrial research, and utilization.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Vitaceae , Humanos , Quempferóis , Apigenina , Ácido Clorogênico , Ácido Quínico , Ácido alfa-Linolênico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Vitaceae/química , Glucosídeos
13.
Molecules ; 28(6)2023 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36985658

RESUMO

The flavonoids in Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg (T. hemsleyanum) have high medicinal value. However, because of slow growth and harsh ecological environments, T. hemsleyanum is currently an endangered species. In light of this, we present a detailed hairy root induction procedure as a promising alternative to true roots with medicinal value. The percentage of explants induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes (A. rhizogenes) to produce hairy roots out of the total number of explants infected (induction rate 1) was 95.83 ± 7.22%, and the proportion of hairy roots that contained Rol B fragments among all the hairy roots with or without Rol B fragments (positive rate) was 96.57 ± 1.72%. The transformation was further confirmed by the expression of the GUS protein. A high-productive hairy root line was screened for the comparative profiling of six flavonoids with true roots using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, neochlorogenic acid, luteolin-6-C-glucoside, and orientin were 692.63 ± 127.24, 163.34 ± 31.86, 45.95 ± 3.46, 209.68 ± 6.03, and 56.82 ± 4.75 µg/g dry weight (DW) of 30-day-old hairy roots, respectively, which were higher than those of 3-year-old true roots. Hairy roots have stronger antioxidant activity than true roots. Overall, the hairy roots of T. hemsleyanum could serve as promising alternative sources for the production of flavonoids with medicinal uses.


Assuntos
Catequina , Vitaceae , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo
14.
Plant J ; 114(4): 805-823, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36864731

RESUMO

Here, we present a high-quality chromosome-scale genome assembly (2.19 Gb) and annotation of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum, a perennial herbaceous liana native to subtropical China with diverse medicinal applications. Approximately 73% of the genome was comprised of transposable elements (TEs), of which long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) were a predominant group (69% of the genome). The genome size increase of T. hemsleyanum (relative to Vitis species) was mostly due to the proliferation of LTR-RTs. Of the different modes of gene duplication identified, transposed duplication (TRD) and dispersed duplication (DSD) were the predominant ones. Genes, particularly those involved in the phenylpropanoid-flavonoid (PF) pathway and those associated with therapeutic properties and environmental stress resistance, were significantly amplified through recent tandem duplications. We dated the divergence of two intraspecific lineages in Southwest (SW) versus Central-South-East (CSE) China to the late Miocene (approximately 5.2 million years ago). Of those, the former showed more upregulated genes and metabolites. Based on resequencing data of 38 individuals representing both lineages, we identified various candidate genes related to 'response to stimulus' and 'biosynthetic process', including ThFLS11, which is putatively involved in flavonoid accumulation. Overall, this study provides abundant genomic resources for future evolutionary, ecological, and functional genomics studies in T. hemsleyanum and related species.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Vitaceae , Vitaceae/genética , Genômica , Cromossomos , Evolução Molecular
15.
New Phytol ; 238(2): 888-903, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305244

RESUMO

Hybridization caused by frequent environmental changes can lead both to species diversification (speciation) and to speciation reversal (despeciation), but the latter has rarely been demonstrated. Parthenocissus, a genus with its trifoliolate lineage in the Himalayan-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) region showing perplexing phylogenetic relationships, provides an opportunity for investigating speciation dynamics based on integrated evidence. We investigated phylogenetic discordance and reticulate evolution in Parthenocissus based on rigorous analyses of plastome and transcriptome data. We focused on reticulations in the trifoliolate lineage in the HHM region using a population-level genome resequencing dataset, incorporating evidence from morphology, distribution, and elevation. Comprehensive analyses confirmed multiple introgressions within Parthenocissus in a robust temporal-spatial framework. Around the HHM region, at least three hybridization hot spots were identified, one of which showed evidence of ongoing speciation reversal. We present a solid case study using an integrative methodological approach to investigate reticulate evolutionary history and its underlying mechanisms in plants. It demonstrates an example of speciation reversal through frequent hybridizations in the HHM region, which provides new perspectives on speciation dynamics in mountainous areas with strong topographic and environmental heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Vitaceae , Filogenia , Plantas , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Chem Biodivers ; 20(1): e202200678, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36480444

RESUMO

Purification through repeated column chromatography over silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 of the ethanol extract of the stems of Cissus aralioides (Baker) Planch. resulted in the isolation of a new ceramide, aralioidamide A (1), along with five known compounds (2-6). Their structures were determined by the extensive analyses of their spectroscopic (1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric data, and comparison with those reported in the literature. Aralioidamide A (1) displayed weak antibacterial activity (MIC=256 µg/mL) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri and was inactive (MIC>256 µg/mL) against the tested fungi.


Assuntos
Cissus , Vitaceae , Cissus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ceramidas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19682, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456651

RESUMO

Flower colour change may represent an 'honest signal' for pollinators, denoting flowers with good conditions for rewards and pollination. All previously reported flower colour changes are unidirectional, except for an incomplete case in one Fabaceae species. In this study, we discovered a very rare example of complete oscillating flower colour change associated with sexual phase changes in Causonis japonica (Vitaceae). More specifically, flower discs of C. japonica exhibit an orange colour in the initial male phase then soon fade into pink with desorption of the stamens. Several hours later in the daytime of the same or the following day, with stigma maturation and style elongation, the orange flower disc colour is recovered before fading into pink again. Importantly, we found that the colour change is caused by the accumulation and the degradation of carotenoids. Moreover, nectar secretion was roughly correlated with the abovementioned colour changes. This is the first example of an apparent oscillating colour change mediated by carotenoid content alteration in flowers.


Assuntos
Vitaceae , Cor , Polinização , Flores , Estigma Social , Carotenoides
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1009530, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389762

RESUMO

Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with high medicinal value, and antitumor, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory biological activities. However, while several studies have focused on flavonoids in Tetrastigma hemsleyanum tubers, there are few studies on the enhanced immune effect of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum polysaccharides (THP). In this study, we evaluated the antitumor effect of THP in a lung tumor model and explored the mechanism of antitumor activity through intestinal flora. In addition, a cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppression model was used to declare the immunomodulatory effect of THP in the immunosuppressive state induced by antitumor drugs. The results showed that THP increased the content of ileum secreted immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and cecum short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and improved microbial community diversity, regulating the relative abundance of dominant microbiota flora from the phylum level to the genus level, and recovering the intestinal microflora disorder caused by tumors. Additionally, THP can increase the organ indices and improve immune organ atrophy. THP can upregulate routine blood counts and stimulate the production of the serum cytokines. THP also promoted the macrophage phagocytic index, NK-cell activation, and complement and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) levels. The detection of Splenic lymphocyte proliferation and T lymphocyte subsets also sideways reflects that THP can restore CTX-induced immune inhibition in mice. In conclusion, this study suggests that THP can effectively achieve the enhanced antitumor effects, regulate gut microbiota and improve the immunosuppression induced by antitumor drugs. Therefore, THP can enhance the immune capacity and provide novel immunomodulatory and antineoplastic adjuvant agents.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Vitaceae , Camundongos , Animais , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Imunidade , Imunomodulação
19.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 35(4): 1055-1066, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36008902

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the spectrum-effect relationships between high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and anti-inflammatory effects of Tetrastigma planicaule(Hook.)Gagnep. Chemical fingerprints of ten batches of Tetrastigma planicaule from various sources were obtained by HPLC. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by a model of ear swelling in mice caused by xylene and a model of cotton pellet granuloma. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) results showed that all the samples were clustered into four categories, which was basically consistent with the principal component analysis (PCA) results. The results of the joint grey relational analysis (GRA) and partial least squares regression analysis (PLSR) showed that peaks 1, 2 and 12 were positively correlated with the anti-acute inflammatory effect (ear swelling) in mice, and peaks 3, 5, 6 and 11 were positively correlated with the anti-chronic inflammatory effect (cotton pellet granuloma) in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of Tetrastigma planicaule is the result of the synergistic effect of multiple components, which provides a basis for further exploring the anti-inflammatory substances and quality evaluation of the herb.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Vitaceae , 1-Butanol , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Camundongos , Análise de Componente Principal
20.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 620, 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36028808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tetrastigma hemsleyanum is a valuable traditional Chinese medicinal plant widely distributed in the subtropical areas of China. It belongs to the Cayratieae tribe, family Vitaceae, and exhibited significant anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. However, obvious differences were observed on the quality of T. hemsleyanum root from different regions, requiring the discrimination strategy for the geographical origins. RESULT: This study characterized five complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of T. hemsleynum samples from different regions, and conducted a comparative analysis with other representing species from family Vitaceae to reveal the structural variations, informative markers and phylogenetic relationships. The sequenced cp genomes of T. hemsleyanum exhibited a conserved quadripartite structure with full length ranging from 160,124 bp of Jiangxi Province to 160,618 bp of Zhejiang Province. We identified 112 unique genes (80 protein-coding, 28 tRNA and 4 rRNA genes) in the cp genomes of T. hemsleyanum with highly similar gene order, content and structure. The IR contraction/expansion events occurred on the junctions of ycf1, rps19 and rpl2 genes with different degrees, causing the differences of genome sizes in T. hemsleyanum and Vitaceae plants. The number of SSR markers discovered in T. hemsleyanum was 56-57, exhibiting multiple differences among the five geographic groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on conserved cp genome proteins strongly grouped the five T. hemsleyanum species into one clade, showing a sister relationship with T. planicaule. Comparative analysis of the cp genomes from T. hemsleyanum and Vitaceae revealed five highly variable spacers, including 4 intergenic regions and one protein-coding gene (ycf1). Furthermore, five mutational hotspots were observed among T. hemsleyanum cp genomes from different regions, providing data for designing DNA barcodes trnL and trnN. The combination of molecular markers of trnL and trnN clustered the T. hemsleyanum samples from different regions into four groups, thus successfully separating specimens of Sichuan and Zhejiang from other areas. CONCLUSION: Our study obtained the chloroplast genomes of T. hemsleyanum from different regions, and provided a potential molecular tracing tool for determining the geographical origins of T. hemsleyanum, as well as important insights into the molecular identification approach and and phylogeny in Tetrastigma genus and Vitaceae family.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Vitaceae , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia
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