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1.
West J Emerg Med ; 25(2): 275-281, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38596930

RESUMO

Space travel has transformed in the past several years. Given the burgeoning market for space tourism, in-flight medical emergencies are likely to be expected. Ultrasound is one of the few diagnostic and therapeutic modalities available for astronauts in space. However, while point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is available, there is no current standard of training for astronaut preparation. We suggest an organized and structured methodology by which astronauts should best prepare for space with the medical equipment available on board. As technology continues to evolve, the assistance of other artificial intelligence and augmented reality systems are likely to facilitate training and dynamic real-time needs during space emergencies. Summary: As space tourism continues to evolve, an organized methodology for POCUS use is advised to best prepare astronauts for space.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Medicina Aeroespacial/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Emergências , Voo Espacial/educação , Astronautas/educação
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(6)2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544032

RESUMO

In the era of expanding manned space missions, understanding the biomechanical impacts of zero gravity on human movement is pivotal. This study introduces a novel and cost-effective framework that demonstrates the application of Microsoft's Azure Kinect body tracking technology as a motion input generator for subsequent OpenSim simulations in weightlessness. Testing rotations, locomotion, coordination, and martial arts movements, we validate the results' realism under the constraints of angular and linear momentum conservation. While complex, full-body coordination tasks face limitations in a zero gravity environment, our findings suggest possible approaches to device-free exercise routines for astronauts and reveal insights into the feasibility of hand-to-hand combat in space. However, some challenges remain in distinguishing zero gravity effects in the simulations from discrepancies in the captured motion input or forward dynamics calculations, making a comprehensive validation difficult. The paper concludes by highlighting the framework's practical potential for the future of space mission planning and related research endeavors, while also providing recommendations for further refinement.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Humanos , Movimento , Astronautas , Locomoção , Exercício Físico
3.
Neurology ; 102(7): e209224, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38478846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few anecdotal cases and 1 small retrospective study during short-duration space missions suggest that headache may occur early in flight, as part of the space motion syndrome. Whether headaches may also occur at later stages of space flights is unknown. We aimed to prospectively characterize the incidence, timing, clinical features, and management of space headaches during long-duration flights. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the occurrence, characteristics, and evolution of space headaches and the effects of treatment and countermeasures during long-haul flights with onboard questionnaires and correlated them with prevailing temperature, pressure, and ambient O2 and CO2 levels, measured within the International Space Station. In addition, we analyzed retrospective headache data from a different astronaut cohort. Headache data were reported using descriptive statistics and correlation data with intraindividual logistic regression models. Astronauts were included through (inter)national aerospace organizations. RESULTS: In the prospective study, 22/24 (91.7%) astronauts (mean ± SD age: 46.6 ± 6.5 years, 95.8% male) experienced ≥1 episode of headache during a total of 3,596 space days. A total of 378 episodes were reported (median 9; range 1-128) with detailed information on 189. Phenotypically, 170/189 (89.9%) episodes were tension-type headache (TTH) and 19/189 (10.1%) were migraine. Episodes in the first week differed from those in later periods in terms of phenotype (migraine 12/51 [23.5%] vs 7/138 [5.1%]; TTH 39/51 [86.5%] vs 131/138 [94.9%]; overall p = 0.0002) and accompanying symptoms: nausea: 17.6% vs 6.9%, p = 0.05; vomiting: 9.8% vs 0.7%, p = 0.005; nasal congestion: 52.9% vs 29.7%, p = 0.004; facial edema: 41.2% vs 1.4%, p < 0.001; and duration (p = 0.001). Severity and treatments were similar: acute antiheadache medication: 55.6%; other medication: 22.4%; and alternative treatments: 41.1%. Headache occurrence was not associated with temperature or ambient pressure/levels of O2 and CO2 (all p > 0.05). In the retrospective study, 23/42 (54.8%) astronauts (43.5 ± 7.2 years, 90.5% male) reported experiencing ≥1 headache episode during mission. Nasal congestion was the most common (8/33; 24.2%) accompanying symptom. Seventeen of 42 astronauts have been previously described. DISCUSSION: Astronauts during space flights frequently experience headaches. These most often have characteristics of TTHs but sometimes have migrainous features, particularly during the first week of flight in astronauts without a history of recurrent headaches before or after the space flight.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Voo Espacial , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Astronautas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dióxido de Carbono , Estudos Prospectivos , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia
4.
ACS Synth Biol ; 13(3): 942-950, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38442491

RESUMO

Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is a rapidly maturing in vitro gene expression platform that can be used to transcribe and translate nucleic acids at the point of need, enabling on-demand synthesis of peptide-based vaccines and biotherapeutics as well as the development of diagnostic tests for environmental contaminants and infectious agents. Unlike traditional cell-based systems, CFPS platforms do not require the maintenance of living cells and can be deployed with minimal equipment; therefore, they hold promise for applications in low-resource contexts, including spaceflight. Here, we evaluate the performance of the cell-free platform BioBits aboard the International Space Station by expressing RNA-based aptamers and fluorescent proteins that can serve as biological indicators. We validate two classes of biological sensors that detect either the small-molecule DFHBI or a specific RNA sequence. Upon detection of their respective analytes, both biological sensors produce fluorescent readouts that are visually confirmed using a hand-held fluorescence viewer and imaged for quantitative analysis. Our findings provide insights into the kinetics of cell-free transcription and translation in a microgravity environment and reveal that both biosensors perform robustly in space. Our findings lay the groundwork for portable, low-cost applications ranging from point-of-care health monitoring to on-demand detection of environmental hazards in low-resource communities both on Earth and beyond.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Voo Espacial , Proteínas , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Sistema Livre de Células
5.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 95(4): 223-225, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the early days of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), medicine in support of the astronauts was led by military experts from the U.S. Air Force as well as experts from the U.S. Navy and U.S. Army. In the early years, a physician with expertise in aerospace medicine was assigned to the Space Task Group and then to NASA. One of these individuals was Dr. Stanley White, a U.S. Air Force physician. To capture more of the early space medicine pioneers, a contract was established between the National Library of Medicine and the principal investigator at the University of Cincinnati to conduct a series of interviews with these early pioneers. An interview with Dr. White took place in his home while he was in hospice care. This audiotaped interview and other written and oral histories within NASA archives and the literature were reviewed to support this work. A series of questions were prepared for the interaction with Dr. White. These questions provided further clarification on his background and contribution. Responses to questions elicited open-ended discussion. The conversation provided a historical summary of Dr. White's contribution to NASA as one of its first flight surgeons.Doarn CR. An interview with Dr. Stanley White, one of NASA's first flight surgeons. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2024; 95(4):223-225.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Voo Espacial , Cirurgiões , Humanos , Masculino , Astronautas , Estados Unidos , United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
6.
Astrobiology ; 24(3): 230-274, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507695

RESUMO

As focus for exploration of Mars transitions from current robotic explorers to development of crewed missions, it remains important to protect the integrity of scientific investigations at Mars, as well as protect the Earth's biosphere from any potential harmful effects from returned martian material. This is the discipline of planetary protection, and the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) maintains the consensus international policy and guidelines on how this is implemented. Based on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) studies that began in 2001, COSPAR adopted principles and guidelines for human missions to Mars in 2008. At that point, it was clear that to move from those qualitative provisions, a great deal of work and interaction with spacecraft designers would be necessary to generate meaningful quantitative recommendations that could embody the intent of the Outer Space Treaty (Article IX) in the design of such missions. Beginning in 2016, COSPAR then sponsored a multiyear interdisciplinary meeting series to address planetary protection "knowledge gaps" (KGs) with the intent of adapting and extending the current robotic mission-focused Planetary Protection Policy to support the design and implementation of crewed and hybrid exploration missions. This article describes the outcome of the interdisciplinary COSPAR meeting series, to describe and address these KGs, as well as identify potential paths to gap closure. It includes the background scientific basis for each topic area and knowledge updates since the meeting series ended. In particular, credible solutions for KG closure are described for the three topic areas of (1) microbial monitoring of spacecraft and crew health; (2) natural transport (and survival) of terrestrial microbial contamination at Mars, and (3) the technology and operation of spacecraft systems for contamination control. The article includes a KG data table on these topic areas, which is intended to be a point of departure for making future progress in developing an end-to-end planetary protection requirements implementation solution for a crewed mission to Mars. Overall, the workshop series has provided evidence of the feasibility of planetary protection implementation for a crewed Mars mission, given (1) the establishment of needed zoning, emission, transport, and survival parameters for terrestrial biological contamination and (2) the creation of an accepted risk-based compliance approach for adoption by spacefaring actors including national space agencies and commercial/nongovernment organizations.


Assuntos
Marte , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Exobiologia , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Astronave
7.
Astrobiology ; 24(3): 275-282, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507696

RESUMO

Maintaining an optimal leaf and stem orientation to yield a maximum photosynthetic output is accomplished by terrestrial plants using sophisticated mechanisms to balance their orientation relative to the Earth's gravity vector and the direction of sunlight. Knowledge of the signal transduction chains of both gravity and light perception and how they influence each other is essential for understanding plant development on Earth and plant cultivation in space environments. However, in situ analyses of cellular signal transduction processes in weightlessness, such as live cell imaging of signaling molecules using confocal fluorescence microscopy, require an adapted experimental setup that meets the special requirements of a microgravity environment. In addition, investigations under prolonged microgravity conditions require extensive resources, are rarely accessible, and do not allow for immediate sample preparation for the actual microscopic analysis. Therefore, supply concepts are needed that ensure both the viability of the contained plants over a longer period of time and an unhindered microscopic analysis in microgravity. Here, we present a customized supply unit specifically designed to study gravity-induced Ca2+ mobilization in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. The unit can be employed for ground-based experiments, in parabolic flights, on sounding rockets, and probably also aboard the International Space Station.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Cálcio , Fluorescência , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Astrobiology ; 24(S1): S202-S215, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38498825

RESUMO

Planetary protection is a principle in the design of interplanetary missions that aims to prevent biological cross contamination between the target body and Earth. Planetary protection policies and procedures have worked to mitigate forward contamination (from Earth) and back contamination (to Earth) since the beginning of the space age. Today, planetary protection policy is guided by international agreements, nongovernmental advisory councils, and national space agencies. The landscape of planetary protection science and policy is changing rapidly, as new technologies, crewed missions to Mars and the Moon, and even orbital settlements are being developed. Space exploration, whether specifically targeted toward questions in astrobiology or not, must consider planetary protection concerns to minimize contamination that poses a risk to both astrobiological investigations as well as Earth's biosphere. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to and overview of the history, motivations, and implementation of planetary protection in the United States.


Assuntos
Marte , Voo Espacial , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Exobiologia , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Planetas , Estados Unidos
9.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 62, 2024 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38521963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The International Space Station (ISS) stands as a testament to human achievement in space exploration. Despite its highly controlled environment, characterised by microgravity, increased CO 2 levels, and elevated solar radiation, microorganisms occupy a unique niche. These microbial inhabitants play a significant role in influencing the health and well-being of astronauts on board. One microorganism of particular interest in our study is Enterobacter bugandensis, primarily found in clinical specimens including the human gastrointestinal tract, and also reported to possess pathogenic traits, leading to a plethora of infections. RESULTS: Distinct from their Earth counterparts, ISS E. bugandensis strains have exhibited resistance mechanisms that categorise them within the ESKAPE pathogen group, a collection of pathogens recognised for their formidable resistance to antimicrobial treatments. During the 2-year Microbial Tracking 1 mission, 13 strains of multidrug-resistant E. bugandensis were isolated from various locations within the ISS. We have carried out a comprehensive study to understand the genomic intricacies of ISS-derived E. bugandensis in comparison to terrestrial strains, with a keen focus on those associated with clinical infections. We unravel the evolutionary trajectories of pivotal genes, especially those contributing to functional adaptations and potential antimicrobial resistance. A hypothesis central to our study was that the singular nature of the stresses of the space environment, distinct from any on Earth, could be driving these genomic adaptations. Extending our investigation, we meticulously mapped the prevalence and distribution of E. bugandensis across the ISS over time. This temporal analysis provided insights into the persistence, succession, and potential patterns of colonisation of E. bugandensis in space. Furthermore, by leveraging advanced analytical techniques, including metabolic modelling, we delved into the coexisting microbial communities alongside E. bugandensis in the ISS across multiple missions and spatial locations. This exploration revealed intricate microbial interactions, offering a window into the microbial ecosystem dynamics within the ISS. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive analysis illuminated not only the ways these interactions sculpt microbial diversity but also the factors that might contribute to the potential dominance and succession of E. bugandensis within the ISS environment. The implications of these findings are twofold. Firstly, they shed light on microbial behaviour, adaptation, and evolution in extreme, isolated environments. Secondly, they underscore the need for robust preventive measures, ensuring the health and safety of astronauts by mitigating risks associated with potential pathogenic threats. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Enterobacter , Microbiota , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Genômica , Microbiota/genética , Astronave
10.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2634, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528030

RESUMO

Real-time lab analysis is needed to support clinical decision making and research on human missions to the Moon and Mars. Powerful laboratory instruments, such as flow cytometers, are generally too cumbersome for spaceflight. Here, we show that scant test samples can be measured in microgravity, by a trained astronaut, using a miniature cytometry-based analyzer, the rHEALTH ONE, modified specifically for spaceflight. The base device addresses critical spaceflight requirements including minimal resource utilization and alignment-free optics for surviving rocket launch. To fully enable reduced gravity operation onboard the space station, we incorporated bubble-free fluidics, electromagnetic shielding, and gravity-independent sample introduction. We show microvolume flow cytometry from 10 µL sample drops, with data from five simultaneous channels using 10 µs bin intervals during each sample run, yielding an average of 72 million raw data points in approximately 2 min. We demonstrate the device measures each test sample repeatably, including correct identification of a sample that degraded in transit to the International Space Station. This approach can be utilized to further our understanding of spaceflight biology and provide immediate, actionable diagnostic information for management of astronaut health without the need for Earth-dependent analysis.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Humanos , Citometria de Fluxo , Lua
11.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 95(4): 214-218, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486313

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal injuries are one of the more common injuries in spaceflight. Physical assessment of an injury is essential for diagnosis and treatment. Unfortunately, when musculoskeletal injuries occur in space, the flight surgeon is limited to two-dimensional videoconferencing and, potentially, observations made by the crew medical officer. To address these limitations, we investigated the feasibility of performing physical examinations on a three-dimensional augmented reality projection using a mixed-reality headset, specifically evaluating a standard shoulder examination.METHODS: A simulated patient interaction was set up between Western University in London, Ontario, Canada, and Huntsville, AL, United States. The exam was performed by a medical student, and a healthy adult man volunteered to enable the physical exam.RESULTS: All parts of the standard shoulder physical examination according to the Bates Guide to the Physical Exam were performed with holoportation. Adaptation was required for the palpation and some special tests.DISCUSSION: All parts of the physical exam were able to be completed. The true to anatomical size of the holograms permitted improved inspection of the anatomy compared to traditional videoconferencing. Palpation was completed by instructing the patient to palpate themselves and comment on relevant findings asked by the examiner. Range of motion and special tests for specific pathologies were also able to be completed with some modifications due to the examiner not being present to provide resistance. Future work should aim to improve the graphics, physician communication, and haptic feedback during holoportation.Levschuk A, Whittal J, Trejos AL, Sirek A. Leveraging space-flown technologies to deliver healthcare with holographic physical examinations. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2024; 95(4):214-218.


Assuntos
Exame Físico , Voo Espacial , Masculino , Adulto , Humanos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Atenção à Saúde , Canadá
13.
Stem Cells Dev ; 33(5-6): 143-147, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326760

RESUMO

Over the past 15 years, there has been a significant shift in biomedical research toward a major focus on stem cell research. Although stem cells and their derivatives exhibit potential in modeling and mitigating human diseases, the ongoing objective is to enhance their utilization and translational potential. Stem cells are increasingly employed in both academic and commercial settings for a variety of in vitro and in vivo applications in regenerative medicine. Notably, accessibility to stem cell research in low-Earth orbit (LEO) has expanded, driven by the unique properties of space, such as microgravity, which cannot exactly be replicated on Earth. As private enterprises continue to grow and launch low-orbit payloads alongside government-funded spaceflight, space has evolved into a more viable destination for scientific exploration. This review underscores the potential benefits of microgravity on fundamental stem cell properties, highlighting the adaptability of cells to their environment and emphasizing physical stimuli as a key factor influencing cultured cells. Previous studies suggest that stimuli such as magnetic fields, shear stress, or gravity impact not only cell kinetics, including differentiation and proliferation, but also therapeutic effects such as cells with improved immunosuppressive capabilities or the ability to identify novel targets to refine disease treatments. With the rapid progress and sustained advocacy for space research, we propose that the advantageous properties of LEO create novel opportunities in biomanufacturing for regenerative medicine, spanning disease modeling, the development of stem cell-derived products, and biofabrication.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual , Células-Tronco , Diferenciação Celular
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7334, 2024 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409284

RESUMO

Exposure to cosmic ionizing radiation is an innate risk of the spaceflight environment that can cause DNA damage and altered cellular function. In astronauts, longitudinal monitoring of physiological systems and interactions between these systems are important to consider for mitigation strategies. In addition, assessments of sex-specific biological responses in the unique environment of spaceflight are vital to support future exploration missions that include both females and males. Here we assessed sex-specific, multi-system immune and endocrine responses to simulated cosmic radiation. For this, 24-week-old, male and female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to simplified five-ion, space-relevant galactic cosmic ray (GCRsim) radiation at 15 and 50 cGy, to simulate predicted radiation exposures that would be experienced during lunar and Martian missions, respectively. Blood and adrenal tissues were collected at 3- and 14-days post-irradiation for analysis of immune and endocrine biosignatures and pathways. Sexually dimorphic adrenal gland weights and morphology, differential total RNA expression with corresponding gene ontology, and unique immune phenotypes were altered by GCRsim. In brief, this study offers new insights into sexually dimorphic immune and endocrine kinetics following simulated cosmic radiation exposure and highlights the necessity for personalized translational approaches for astronauts during exploration missions.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Marte , Voo Espacial , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Meio Ambiente Extraterreno , Caracteres Sexuais , Radiação Ionizante , Astronautas , Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos , Imunidade
15.
Physiol Rep ; 12(4): e15938, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383049

RESUMO

With the technological advances made to expand space exploration, astronauts will spend extended amounts of time in space before returning to Earth. This situation of unloading and reloading influences human physiology, and readaptation to full weight-bearing may significantly impact astronauts' health. On Earth, similar situations can be observed in patients who are bedridden or suffer from sport-related injuries. However, our knowledge of male physiology far exceeds our knowledge of female's, which creates an important gap that needs to be addressed to understand the sex-based differences regarding musculoskeletal adaptation to unloading and reloading, necessary to preserve health of both sexes. Using a ground-based model of total unloading for 14 days and reloading at full weight-bearing for 7 days rats, we aimed to compare the musculoskeletal adaptations between males and females. Our results reveal the existence of significant differences. Indeed, males experienced bone loss both during the unloading and the reloading period while females did not. During simulated microgravity, males and females showed comparable muscle deconditioning with a significant decline in rear paw grip strength. However, after 7 days of recovery, muscle strength improved. Additionally, sex-based differences in myofiber size existing at baseline are significantly reduced or eliminated following unloading and recovery.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso , Ratos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores/fisiologia , Músculos , Ausência de Peso/efeitos adversos , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2707, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302569

RESUMO

With human space exploration back in the spotlight, recent studies have investigated the neuromuscular adjustments to simulated hypogravity running. They have examined the activity of individual muscles, whereas the central nervous system may rather activate groups of functionally related muscles, known as muscle synergies. To understand how locomotor control adjusts to simulated hypogravity, we examined the temporal (motor primitives) and spatial (motor modules) components of muscle synergies in participants running sequentially at 100%, 60%, and 100% body weight on a treadmill. Our results highlighted the paradoxical nature of simulated hypogravity running: The reduced mechanical constraints allowed for a more flexible locomotor control, which correlated with the degree of spatiotemporal adjustments. Yet, the increased temporal (shortened stance phase) and sensory (deteriorated proprioceptive feedback) constraints required wider motor primitives and a higher contribution of the hamstring muscles during the stance phase. These results are a first step towards improving astronaut training protocols.


Assuntos
Músculos Isquiossurais , Corrida , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Corrida/fisiologia , Hipogravidade , Sistema Nervoso Central , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
17.
Am J Hum Biol ; 36(3): e24048, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337152

RESUMO

To expand the human exploration footprint and reach Mars in the 2030s, we must explore how humans survive and thrive in demanding, unusual, and novel ecologies (i.e., extreme environments). In the extreme conditions encountered during human spaceflight, there is a need to understand human functioning and response in a more rigorous theoretically informed way. Current models of human performance in space-relevant environments and human space science are often operationally focused, with emphasis on acute physiological or behavioral outcomes. However, integrating current perspectives in human biology allows for a more holistic and complete understanding of how humans function over a range of time in an extreme environment. Here, we show how the use of evolution-informed frameworks (i.e., models of life history theory to organize the adaptive pressures of spaceflight and biocultural perspectives) coupled with the use of mixed-methodological toolkits can shape models that better encompass the scope of biobehavioral human adjustment to long-duration space travel and extra-terrestrial habitation. Further, we discuss how we can marry human biology perspectives with the rigorous programmatic structures developed for spaceflight to model other unknown and nascent extremes.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Biologia
18.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 176(3): 394-398, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342807

RESUMO

In order to identify changes in the blood proteome of healthy volunteers after passive tilt test carried out on day 19 of head-down bed rest, a chromato-mass-spectrometric analysis of samples of dried blood spots was carried out. It was revealed that the body's response to the tilt test was characterized by a decrease in the level of HDL and kininogen-1. After the tilt test, we observed an increase in the level of vimentin, vitamin K-dependent protein C, Wnt signaling pathway proteins, proteins involved in autophagy and adaptive immune response, focal adhesion proteins, vascular damage marker S100A8, PEDF regulator, and some proteins of the heart: cardiac actin ACTC1 and transcription factor GATA4. The obtained results lay the foundation for future research in the framework of identifying the risks of developing cardiovascular changes in astronauts after space flights.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Decúbito Inclinado com Rebaixamento da Cabeça/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4196, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38378866

RESUMO

Muscle function is compromised by gravitational unloading in space affecting overall musculoskeletal health. Astronauts perform daily exercise programmes to mitigate these effects but knowing which muscles to target would optimise effectiveness. Accurate inflight assessment to inform exercise programmes is critical due to lack of technologies suitable for spaceflight. Changes in mechanical properties indicate muscle health status and can be measured rapidly and non-invasively using novel technology. A hand-held MyotonPRO device enabled monitoring of muscle health for the first time in spaceflight (> 180 days). Greater/maintained stiffness indicated countermeasures were effective. Tissue stiffness was preserved in the majority of muscles (neck, shoulder, back, thigh) but Tibialis Anterior (foot lever muscle) stiffness decreased inflight vs. preflight (p < 0.0001; mean difference 149 N/m) in all 12 crewmembers. The calf muscles showed opposing effects, Gastrocnemius increasing in stiffness Soleus decreasing. Selective stiffness decrements indicate lack of preservation despite daily inflight countermeasures. This calls for more targeted exercises for lower leg muscles with vital roles as ankle joint stabilizers and in gait. Muscle stiffness is a digital biomarker for risk monitoring during future planetary explorations (Moon, Mars), for healthcare management in challenging environments or clinical disorders in people on Earth, to enable effective tailored exercise programmes.


Assuntos
Voo Espacial , Humanos , Astronautas , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Marcha
20.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 14(2)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38391991

RESUMO

One of the main challenges to be faced in deep space missions is to protect the health and ensure the maximum efficiency of the crew by preparing methods of prevention and in situ diagnosis. Indeed, the hostile environment causes important health problems, ranging from muscle atrophy, osteopenia, and immunological and metabolic alterations due to microgravity, to an increased risk of cancer caused by exposure to radiation. It is, therefore, necessary to provide new methods for the real-time measurement of biomarkers suitable for deepening our knowledge of the effects of space flight on the balance of the immune system and for allowing the monitoring of the astronaut's health during long-term missions. APHRODITE will enable human space exploration because it fills this void that affects both missions in LEO and future missions to the Moon and Mars. Its scientific objectives are the design, production, testing, and in-orbit demonstration of a compact, reusable, and reconfigurable system for performing the real-time analysis of oral fluid samples in manned space missions. In the frame of this project, a crew member onboard the ISS will employ APHRODITE to measure the selected target analytes, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), in oral fluid, in four (plus one additional desired session) separate experiment sessions. The paper addresses the design of the main subsystems of the analytical device and the preliminary results obtained during the first implementations of the device subsystems and testing measurements on Earth. In particular, the system design and the experiment data output of the lab-on-chip photosensors and of the front-end readout electronics are reported in detail along with preliminary chemical tests for the duplex competitive CL-immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of cortisol and DHEA-S. Different applications also on Earth are envisaged for the APHRODITE device, as it will be suitable for point-of-care testing applications (e.g., emergency medicine, bioterrorism, diagnostics in developing countries, etc.).


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Voo Espacial , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Desenho de Equipamento , Desidroepiandrosterona
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