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1.
Vertex ; 35(163, ene.-mar.): 18-31, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619999

RESUMO

Introducción: El propósito de esta investigación es investigar la posible relación existente entre la situación de calle y la patología mental en una población de mujeres alojadas en un Centro de Inclusión Social de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Podría existir un sesgo clínico que caracteriza la situación de calle como consecuencia de un padecimiento psíquico. Metodología: Se estudió durante 10 meses (enero 2022 a octubre 2022) a un grupo de mujeres entre 18 y 65 años de edad, asistidas socialmente en el Centro de Inclusión Social para mujeres solas o con hijos menores de edad "Azucena Villaflor" de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, quienes a su vez consultan o hayan consultado en el pasado por su salud mental en forma previa o posterior a su situación de calle. Se practicó un estudio cuantitativo observacional, descriptivo y transversal, relevando datos primarios mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas, complementado la investigación con un enfoque cualitativo utilizando el método narrativo mediante entrevistas en profundidad. Conclusión: No existe una relación unicausal entre tener un padecimiento mental y estar en situación calle; la búsqueda laboral, forma de reingreso al sistema productivo, es sumamente dificultosa, por el mercado mismo, no por el estado psíquico de las usuarias. No obstante, la búsqueda infructuosa genera situaciones de frustración que dado el contexto de vulnerabilidad en el que se encuentran pueden llevar a las consultas en salud mental.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Vulnerabilidade Social , Humanos , Feminino , Argentina , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 982, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social vulnerability can influence in the development of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents (CRF). For this reason, the objective of our study was to evaluate the presence of CRF in adolescents, according to social vulnerability. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with 517 adolescents of both sexes, from 10 to 19 years of age, classified into 2 groups by social vulnerability, according to socioeconomic characteristics collected by means of questionnaires, where adolescents who did not have access to drinking water, sewage network, and adequate per capita income were classified as vulnerable. Anthropometric, biochemical, and blood pressure data were evaluated. Level of physical activity was assessed by an adapted questionnaire, and food intake was assessed by a 3-day food record. Independent T, Mann-Whitney, and χ2 tests were used, according to the scale of measurement of the variables, on the statistical program SPSS, version 25, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Adolescents had median age of 14 (11 to 15) years; 58.4% were female; 32.4% were overweight, and 52.4% were physically inactive in leisure. Mean consumption of ultra-processed food was observed to account for 45.0% of calorie intake. Adolescents classified as vulnerable had lower weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and neck circumference when compared to non-vulnerable adolescents. Both groups had cholesterol concentrations above the normal level. Non-vulnerable adolescents had higher triglyceride concentrations, higher alcohol consumption, and lower fiber intake compared to vulnerable adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with social vulnerability are less likely to have cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais , Vulnerabilidade Social , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas
3.
J Am Coll Surg ; 238(4): 693-706, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Race and socioeconomic status incompletely identify patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) at the highest risk for screening, treatment, and mortality disparities. Social vulnerability index (SVI) was designed to delineate neighborhoods requiring greater support after external health stressors, summarizing socioeconomic, household, and transportation barriers by census tract. SVI is implicated in lower cancer center use and increased complications after colectomy, but its influence on long-term prognosis is unknown. Herein, we characterized relationships between SVI and CRC survival. STUDY DESIGN: Patients undergoing resection of stage I to IV CRC from January 2010 to May 2023 within an academic health system were identified. Clinicopathologic characteristics were abstracted using institutional National Cancer Database and NSQIP. Addresses from electronic health records were geocoded to SVI. Overall survival and cancer-specific survival were compared using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods. RESULTS: A total of 872 patients were identified, comprising 573 (66%) patients with colon tumor and 299 (34%) with rectal tumor. Patients in the top SVI quartile (32%) were more likely to be Black (41% vs 13%, p < 0.001), carry less private insurance (39% vs 48%, p = 0.02), and experience greater comorbidity (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III: 86% vs 71%, p < 0.001), without significant differences by acuity, stage, or CRC therapy. In multivariable analysis, high SVI remained associated with higher all-cause (hazard ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.96, p < 0.01) and cancer-specific survival mortality (hazard ratio 1.71, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.67, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: High SVI was independently associated with poorer prognosis after CRC resection beyond the perioperative period. Acknowledging needs for multi-institutional evaluation and elaborating causal mechanisms, neighborhood-level vulnerability may inform targeted outreach in CRC care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Humanos , Sobrevivência , Vulnerabilidade Social , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 5(3): e214-e226, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432249

RESUMO

Both frailty (reduced physiological reserve) and social vulnerability (scarcity of adequate social connections, support, or interaction) become more common as people age and are associated with adverse consequences. Analyses of the relationships between these constructs can be limited by the wide range of measures used to assess them. In this systematic review, we synthesised 130 observational studies assessing the association between frailty and social vulnerability, the bidirectional longitudinal relationships between constructs, and their joint associations with adverse health outcomes. Frailty, across assessment type, was associated with increased loneliness and social isolation, perceived inadequacy of social support, and reduced social participation. Each of these social vulnerability components was also associated with more rapid progression of frailty and lower odds of improvement compared with the absence of that social vulnerability component (eg, more rapid frailty progression in people with social isolation vs those who were not socially isolated). Combinations of frailty and social vulnerability were associated with increased mortality, decline in physical function, and cognitive impairment. Clinical and public health measures targeting frailty or social vulnerability should, therefore, account for both frailty and social vulnerability.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Fragilidade , Humanos , Vulnerabilidade Social , Solidão , Saúde Pública
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 73(12): 248-254, 2024 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547025

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) remains a public health priority in the United States because of its association with complex health needs, reduced life expectancy, lifelong disabilities, and high cost of care. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to calculate the crude and race-specific birth prevalence for SCD using state newborn screening program records during 2016-2020 from 11 Sickle Cell Data Collection program states. The percentage distribution of birth mother residence within Social Vulnerability Index quartiles was derived. Among 3,305 newborns with confirmed SCD (including 57% with homozygous hemoglobin S or sickle ß-null thalassemia across 11 states, 90% of whom were Black or African American [Black], and 4% of whom were Hispanic or Latino), the crude SCD birth prevalence was 4.83 per 10,000 (one in every 2,070) live births and 28.54 per 10,000 (one in every 350) non-Hispanic Black newborns. Approximately two thirds (67%) of mothers of newborns with SCD lived in counties with high or very high levels of social vulnerability; most mothers lived in counties with high or very high levels of vulnerability for racial and ethnic minority status (89%) and housing type and transportation (64%) themes. These findings can guide public health, health care systems, and community program planning and implementation that address social determinants of health for infants with SCD. Implementation of tailored interventions, including increasing access to transportation, improving housing, and advancing equity in high vulnerability areas, could facilitate care and improve health outcomes for children with SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Etnicidade , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Vulnerabilidade Social , Grupos Minoritários , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico
7.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0299956, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457447

RESUMO

Extreme precipitation usually cause grievous losses&casualties, which varies greatly under different scenarios. This paper took Henan province as an example, it innovatively constructed three different extreme precipitation scenarios and built indicators system of social vulnerability from exposure, sensitivity and resilience based on MOVE framework. Social Vulnerability Indexs(SoVI) were then calculated by mathematical models under three different reoccurrence intervals. The results show that SoVI was low in the west and high in the north. High SoVI areas expanded to the middle and south as recurrence intervals increased. SoVI in each area of Henan province increased along with the recurrence intervals at different growth rates. The larger the recurrence interval was, the faster the SoVI increased. The results indicate SoVI is greatly affected by disaster levels, which need to be incorporated into social vulnerability. This study provides not only a new thought for social vulnerability assessment, but also a reference for the policymakers to formulate related risk management policies.


Assuntos
Desastres , Vulnerabilidade Social , China , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
8.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 125, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Highlighted by the rise of COVID-19, climate change, and conflict, socially vulnerable populations are least resilient to disaster. In infectious disease management, mathematical models are a commonly used tool. Researchers should include social vulnerability in models to strengthen their utility in reflecting real-world dynamics. We conducted a scoping review to evaluate how researchers have incorporated social vulnerability into infectious disease mathematical models. METHODS: The methodology followed the Joanna Briggs Institute and updated Arksey and O'Malley frameworks, verified by the PRISMA-ScR checklist. PubMed, Clarivate Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO Africa Wide Information, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for peer-reviewed published articles. Screening and extracting data were done by two independent researchers. RESULTS: Of 4075 results, 89 articles were identified. Two-thirds of articles used a compartmental model (n = 58, 65.2%), with a quarter using agent-based models (n = 24, 27.0%). Overall, routine indicators, namely age and sex, were among the most frequently used measures (n = 42, 12.3%; n = 22, 6.4%, respectively). Only one measure related to culture and social behaviour (0.3%). For compartmental models, researchers commonly constructed distinct models for each level of a social vulnerability measure and included new parameters or influenced standard parameters in model equations (n = 30, 51.7%). For all agent-based models, characteristics were assigned to hosts (n = 24, 100.0%), with most models including age, contact behaviour, and/or sex (n = 18, 75.0%; n = 14, 53.3%; n = 10, 41.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance of equitable and effective infectious disease management, there is potential to further the field. Our findings demonstrate that social vulnerability is not considered holistically. There is a focus on incorporating routine demographic indicators but important cultural and social behaviours that impact health outcomes are excluded. It is crucial to develop models that foreground social vulnerability to not only design more equitable interventions, but also to develop more effective infectious disease control and elimination strategies. Furthermore, this study revealed the lack of transparency around data sources, inconsistent reporting, lack of collaboration with local experts, and limited studies focused on modelling cultural indicators. These challenges are priorities for future research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Vulnerabilidade Social , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Modelos Teóricos
9.
Age Ageing ; 53(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369628

RESUMO

We investigated the relationship between individual-level social vulnerability and place of death during the infectious disease emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic in Massachusetts. Our research represents a unique contribution by matching individual-level death certificates with COVID-19 test data to analyse differences in distributions of place of death.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Vulnerabilidade Social , Massachusetts/epidemiologia
10.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 48: 100623, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38355253

RESUMO

This study compares two social vulnerability indices, the U.S. CDC SVI and SoVI (the Social Vulnerability Index developed at the Hazards Vulnerability & Resilience Institute at the University of South Carolina), on their ability to predict the risk of COVID-19 cases and deaths. We utilize COVID-19 cases and deaths data for the state of Indiana from the Regenstrief Institute in Indianapolis, Indiana, from March 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021. We then aggregate the COVID-19 data to the census tract level, obtain the input variables, domains (components), and composite measures of both CDC SVI and SoVI data to create a Bayesian spatial-temporal ecological regression model. We compare the resulting spatial-temporal patterns and relative risk (RR) of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19 cases) and associated death. Results show there are discernable spatial-temporal patterns for SARS-CoV-2 infections and deaths with the largest contiguous hotspot for SARS-CoV-2 infections found in the southwest of the Indianapolis metropolitan area. We also observed one large contiguous hotspot for deaths that stretches across Indiana from the Cincinnati area in the southeast to just east and north of Terre Haute (southeast to west central). The spatial-temporal Bayesian model shows that a 1-percentile increase in CDC SVI was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 6 % (RR = 1.06, 95 %CI = 1.04 -1.08). Whereas a 1-percentile increase in SoVI was significantly predicted to increase the risk of COVID-19 death by 45 % (RR = 1.45, 95 %CI =1.38 - 1.53). Domain-specific variables related to socioeconomic status, age, and race/ethnicity were shown to increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections and deaths. There were notable differences in the relative risk estimates for SARS-CoV-2 infections and deaths when each of the two indices were incorporated in the model. Observed differences between the two social vulnerability indices and infection and death are likely due to alternative methodologies of formation and differences in input variables. The findings add to the growing literature on the relationship between social vulnerability and COVID-19 and further the development of COVID-19-specific vulnerability indices by illustrating the utility of local spatial-temporal analysis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vulnerabilidade Social , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Incidência , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Frailty Aging ; 13(1): 50-56, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social vulnerability interacts with frailty and influences individuals' health status. Although frailty and social vulnerability are highly predictive of adverse outcomes, their relationship with self-perceived health(SPH) has been less investigated. METHODS: Data are from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing(TILDA), a population-based longitudinal study of ageing. We included 4,222 participants aged ≥50 years (age 61.4±8.5 years;women 56%) from Wave 1 (2009-2011) followed over three longitudinal waves (2012,2014-2015,2016). Participants responded to single questions with five response options to rate their 1)physical health, 2)mental health, and 3)health compared to peers. 30-item Frailty (FI) and Social Vulnerability (SVI) indices were calculated using standardised methods. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to establish the association between FI and SVI cross-sectionally and longitudinally over 6 years. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, SVI (mean:0.40±0.08; range:0.14-0.81) and FI (mean: 0.13±0.08; range:0.10-0.58) were modestly correlated (r=0.256), and independently associated with poor physical health (SVI: OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.15-1.78; FI: OR 3.16, 95%CI 2.54-3.93), poor mental health (SVI: OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.17-2.35; FI: OR 3.64, 95%CI 2.53-5.24), and poor health compared to peers (SVI: OR 1.41,95%CI 1.06-1.89; FI: OR 3.86, 95%CI 2.9-5.14). Longitudinally, FI and SVI were independently and positively associated with poor physical health (SVI: ß 1.08, 95%CI 0.76-1.39; FI: ß 1.97, 95%CI 1.58-2.36), poor mental health (SVI: ß 1.18, 95%CI 0.86-1.5; FI: ß 1.58, 95%CI 1.2-1.97), and poor overall health compared to peers (SVI: ß 0.78, 95%CI 0.89-1.33; FI: ß 1.74, 95%CI 0.47-1.1). CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of community-dwelling older adults, frailty and social vulnerability were associated with poor SPH and with risk of SPH decline over six years.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Estudos Longitudinais , Vulnerabilidade Social , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 410, 2024 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with high social vulnerability index (SVI) have poorer outcomes with COVID-19. Masking reduces transmission of COVID-19 among children, but how SVI plays a role in masking behavior is unknown. We aimed to measure the association of SVI with masking adherence among children during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a multi-site, prospective syndromic surveillance study among children aged 2 - 17 years in the Southeastern United States by daily electronic surveys which solicited symptoms of COVID-19-like illness, infection with or exposure to SARS-CoV-2, masking habits, and any receipt of COVID-19 vaccines. Parents/guardians submitted surveys for their children; adolescents 13 years and older could opt to submit their own surveys. Multivariable and univariate linear models were used to measure the associations of different predictors such as SVI with masking adherence. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred sixty-one children from 6 states and 55 counties predominately from North and South Carolina were included in the analysis. Most children in the cohort were 5 - 11 years old, non-Hispanic White, from urban counties, and with low-moderate SVI. Overall masking adherence decreased over time, and older children had higher masking adherence throughout the study period compared with younger children. Children who resided in urban counties had greater masking adherence throughout the study period than those who resided in suburban or rural counties. Masking adherence was higher among children with both low and medium SVI than those with high SVI. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being at risk for more severe outcomes with COVID-19, children with high SVI had lower levels of masking adherence compared to those with low SVI. Our findings highlight opportunities for improved and targeted messaging in these vulnerable communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Pré-Escolar , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Vulnerabilidade Social
13.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 38(2): 51-60, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381948

RESUMO

In 2012, the Federal Drug Administration approved daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention in adults. Longer acting injectable PrEP (LA PrEP) has been approved and other formulations are in development. A successful LA PrEP rollout requires examining potential facilitators and barriers to PrEP uptake. Given that transgender and gender expansive (TGE) individuals experience more social vulnerability and higher levels of medical mistrust compared to other populations, examining the role of these two factors in LA PrEP uptake is important. This study, PrEP for ALL, is a community-based participatory research project in Texas that engaged TGE community members and organizational partners through a community advisory board. In total, 482 TGE individuals were recruited and responded to all relevant questions in an online survey, including their intentions to use three formulations: a monthly oral pill, a bimonthly intramuscular injection, and an annual subdermal implant. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the influence of social vulnerability and medical mistrust on intention to use each LA PrEP formulation adjusting for other relevant factors. Findings suggest that individuals with higher levels of social vulnerability had greater intentions to use the monthly oral pill (ß = 0.12, p = 0.009), the bimonthly intramuscular injection (ß = 0.18, p < 0.001), and annual subdermal implant (ß = 0.17, p < 0.001), whereas medical mistrust reduced intentions to use the bimonthly intramuscular injection (ß = -0.18, p < 0.001) and annual subdermal implant (ß = -0.11, p = 0.021). Improvements in gender-affirming clinical care are needed along with LA PrEP formulations that allow for greater autonomy and reduced clinical contact. Clinical Trial Registration number: NCT05044286.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Intenção , Vulnerabilidade Social , Confiança , Feminino
14.
Pancreas ; 53(4): e317-e322, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine differences in Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) scores among minorities (African-Americans and Hispanics) with acute pancreatitis (AP) compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) with AP. The secondary objectives were to determine differences in diet, sulfidogenic bacteria gene copy numbers (gcn) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels between the 2 groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with AP were enrolled during hospitalization (n = 54). Patient residential addresses were geocoded, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's SVI scores were appended. Dietary intake and serum H2S levels were determined. Microbial DNAs were isolated from stool, and gcn of sulfidogenic bacteria were determined. RESULTS: Minorities had higher SVI scores compared with NHWs ( P = 0.006). They also had lower consumption of beneficial nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids [stearidonic ( P = 0.019), and eicosapentaenoic acid ( P = 0.042)], vitamin D ( P = 0.025), and protein from seafood ( P = 0.031). Lastly, minorities had higher pan-dissimilatory sulfite reductase A ( pan-dsrA ) gcn ( P = 0.033) but no significant differences in H2S levels ( P = 0.226). CONCLUSION: Minorities with AP have higher SVI compared with NHWs with AP. Higher SVI scores, lower consumption of beneficial nutrients, and increased gcn of pan-dsrA in minorities with AP suggest that neighborhood vulnerability could be contributing to AP inequities.


Assuntos
Minorias Étnicas e Raciais , Pancreatite , Humanos , Doença Aguda , Vulnerabilidade Social , Dieta
15.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 31(5): 3302-3313, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior works have studied the impact of social determinants on various cancers but there is limited analysis on eye-orbit cancers. Current literature tends to focus on socioeconomic status and race, with sparse analysis of interdisciplinary contributions. We examined social determinants as measured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), quantifying eye and orbit melanoma disparities across the United States. METHODS: A retrospective review of 15,157 patients diagnosed with eye-orbit cancers in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 1975 to 2017 was performed, extracting 6139 ocular melanomas. SVI scores were abstracted and matched to SEER patient data, with scores generated by weighted averages per population density of county's census tracts. Primary outcome was months survived, while secondary outcomes were advanced staging, high grading, and primary surgery receipt. RESULTS: With increased total SVI score, indicating more vulnerability, we observed significant decreases of 23.1% in months survival for melanoma histology (p < 0.001) and 19.6-39.7% by primary site. Increasing total SVI showed increased odds of higher grading (odds ratio [OR] 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.43) and decreased odds of surgical intervention (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.92-0.96). Of the four themes, higher magnitude contributions were observed with socioeconomic status (26.0%) and housing transportation (14.4%), while lesser magnitude contributions were observed with minority language status (13.5%) and household composition (9.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing social vulnerability, as measured by the CDC SVI and its subscores, displayed significant detrimental trends in prognostic and treatment factors for adult eye-orbit melanoma. Subscores quantified which social determinants contributed most to disparities. This lays groundwork for providers to target the highest-impact social determinant for non-clinical factors in patient care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Oculares , Melanoma , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Melanoma/terapia , Vulnerabilidade Social , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Oculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Oculares/terapia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S.
16.
Cancer Med ; 13(3): e7007, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38400688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hispanics and American Indians (AI) have high kidney cancer incidence and mortality rates in Arizona. This study assessed: (1) whether racial and ethnic minority patients and patients from neighborhoods with high social vulnerability index (SVI) experience a longer time to surgery after clinical diagnosis, and (2) whether time to surgery, race and ethnicity, and SVI are associated with upstaging to pT3/pT4, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). METHODS: Arizona Cancer Registry (2009-2018) kidney and renal pelvis cases (n = 4592) were analyzed using logistic regression models to assess longer time to surgery and upstaging. Cox-regression hazard models were used to test DFS and OS. RESULTS: Hispanic and AI patients with T1 tumors had a longer time to surgery than non-Hispanic White patients (median time of 56, 55, and 45 days, respectively). Living in neighborhoods with high (≥75) overall SVI increased odds of a longer time to surgery for cT1a (OR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.02-2.31) and cT2 (OR 2.32, 95% CI: 1.13-4.73). Race and ethnicity were not associated with time to surgery. Among cT1a patients, a longer time to surgery increased odds of upstaging to pT3/pT4 (OR 1.95, 95% CI: 0.99-3.84). A longer time to surgery was associated with PFS (HR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.17-1.99) and OS (HR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.26-2.11). Among patients with cT2 tumor, living in high SVI neighborhoods was associated with worse OS (HR 1.66, 95% CI: 1.07-2.57). CONCLUSIONS: High social vulnerability was associated with increased time to surgery and poor survival after surgery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Humanos , Etnicidade , Arizona/epidemiologia , Vulnerabilidade Social , Grupos Minoritários , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Rim
17.
J Environ Manage ; 354: 120266, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350275

RESUMO

Managers need to trace social impacts and vulnerability caused by environmental change all the way to its driving forces to target key system components for intervention. However, most available scientific evidence deals with either the ecological impacts of direct drivers or the value of ecosystem benefits to people. Our matrix-based tool combines these types of evidence to make environmental management problems traceable through a structured yet flexible procedure. The tool consists of a series of matrices that sequentially link direct drivers of environmental change, landscapes, ecological conditions, benefits to people, and stakeholder types. Qualitative matrices result from the integration and synthesis of available evidence from literature reviews, and where data is scarce, these are used to elicit quantitative scores from expert opinion. Expert scoring of links and multiplication of matrices allow for estimating the impacts of each driver of environmental change on each stakeholder type and using this information as input to assess stakeholders' vulnerability through impact-influence diagrams. Applying the tool to the Argentine Gran Chaco, a globally threatened ecoregion, yielded a transparent and reliable picture of this data-scarce place, with important management implications. Tracing stakeholder impacts back to direct drivers confirmed that further encroachment of cleared areas around indigenous lands will increase the vulnerability of this social group. Also, assessing confidence levels for every social-ecological link suggested that incentivizing peasant farmers to restore natural forage supply represents a management opportunity to reverse degradation. Our tool makes interdisciplinary frameworks of linked ecological and social systems operational so managers can use the best available knowledge of a place and account for uncertainty to make environmental management decisions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Vulnerabilidade Social , Humanos , Meio Ambiente , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
18.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 295: 210-214, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although social vulnerability has been correlated to adverse obstetrical outcomes, its definition as well as its correlation to mode of delivery vary between different studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between maternal social vulnerabilities and cesarean section with the inclusion of a wide range of social vulnerability characteristics. STUDY DESIGN: The current study is a retrospective single center cohort study in a tertiary care maternity unit between January 2020 and December 2021. All women who delivered after 24 gestational weeks were included. Multiple component analysis (MCA) grouped vulnerability characteristics in three independent vulnerability axes, named after their clinical relevance as administrative, psychological, and dependency axis. Multiple logistic regression was performed, controlling for obstetrical, medical factors as well as the Robson classification. RESULTS: In total, 7707 patients were identified. After adjustment for the aforementioned factors, a statistically significant association was shown between administrative vulnerability index and cesarean section before labor or during labor respectively (aOR 1.48 [1.23 - 1.78] and aOR 1.46 [OR 1.23 - 1.73]). In contrast, no significant correlation was found for the psychological vulnerability index (aOR 1.09 [0.86 - 1.38] and aOR 0.99 [0.78 - 1.25]) or the dependency vulnerability index (aOR 0.98 [0.76 - 1.26] and aOR 0.85 [0.64 - 1.12]). CONCLUSIONS: The current study provides new insight into the correlation between social vulnerabilities and the risk of cesarean section. It demonstrates that administrative vulnerability is an independent risk factor of cesarean delivery. These patients should be identified and offered an adapted pregnancy monitoring in order to reduce cesarean section rates.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Vulnerabilidade Social , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 639, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38424507

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Access to childcare is an understudied social determinant of health (SDOH). Our health system established a childcare facility for patients to address childcare barriers to healthcare. Recognizing that social risk factors often co-exist, we sought to understand intersecting social risk factors among patients with childcare needs who utilized and did not utilize the childcare facility and identify residual unmet social needs alongside childcare needs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of patients who enrolled in the childcare facility from November 2020 to October 2022 to compare parameters of the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) associated with the census tract extracted from electronic medical record (EMR) data among utilizers and non-utilizers of the facility. Overall SVI and segmentation into four themes of vulnerability (socioeconomic status, household characteristics, racial/ethnic minority status, and housing type/transportation) were compared across utilizers and utilizers. Number of 90th percentile indicators were also compared to assess extreme levels of vulnerability. A sample of utilizers additionally received a patient-reported social needs screening questionnaire administered at the childcare facility. RESULTS: Among 400 enrollees in the childcare facility, 70% utilized childcare services and 30% did not. Utilizers and non-utilizers were demographically similar, though utilizers were more likely to speak Spanish (34%) compared to non-utilizers (22%). Mean SVI was similar among utilizers and non-utilizers, but the mean number of 90th percentile indicators were higher for non-utilizers compared to utilizers (4.3 ± 2.7 vs 3.7 ± 2.7, p = 0.03), primarily driven by differences in the housing type/transportation theme (p = 0.01). Non-utilizers had a lower rate of healthcare utilization compared to utilizers (p = 0.02). Among utilizers who received patient-reported screening, 84% had one unmet social need identified, of whom 62% agreed for additional assistance. Among social work referrals, 44% were linked to social workers in their medical clinics, while 56% were supported by social work integrated in the childcare facility. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of SDOH approximated by SVI showed actionable differences, potentially transportation barriers, among patients with childcare needs who utilized a health system-integrated childcare facility and patients who did not utilize services. Furthermore, residual unmet social needs among patients who utilized the facility demonstrate the multifactorial nature of social risk factors experienced by patients with childcare needs and opportunities to address intersecting social needs within an integrated intervention. Intersecting social needs require holistic examination and multifaceted interventions.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Vulnerabilidade Social , Cuidado da Criança , Grupos Minoritários
20.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 31(5): 3222-3232, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38361094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted health care delivery, including cancer screening practices. This study sought to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening relative to social vulnerability. METHODS: Using the Medicare Standard Analytic File, individuals 65 years old or older who were eligible for guideline-concordant CRC screening between 2019 and 2021 were identified. These data were merged with the Center for Disease Control Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) dataset. Changes in county-level monthly screening volumes relative to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020) and easing of restrictions (March 2021) were assessed relative to SVI. RESULTS: Among 10,503,180 individuals continuously enrolled in Medicare with no prior diagnosis of CRC, 1,362,457 (12.97%) underwent CRC screening between 2019 and 2021. With the COVID-19 pandemic, CRC screening decreased markedly across the United States (median monthly screening: pre-pandemic [n = 76,444] vs pandemic era [n = 60,826]; median Δn = 15,618; p < 0.001). The 1-year post-pandemic overall CRC screening utilization generally rebounded to pre-COVID-19 levels (monthly median screening volumes: pandemic era [n = 60,826] vs post-pandemic [n = 74,170]; median Δn = 13,344; p < 0.001). Individuals residing in counties with the highest SVI experienced a larger decline in CRC screening odds than individuals residing in low-SVI counties (reference, low SVI: pre-pandemic high SVI [OR, 0.85] vs pandemic high SVI [OR, 0.81] vs post-pandemic high SVI [OR, 0.85]; all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a decrease in CRC screening volumes. Patients who resided in high social vulnerability areas experienced the greatest pandemic-related decline.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Humanos , Idoso , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Etnicidade , Medicare , Pandemias , Vulnerabilidade Social
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