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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(7): 620, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879715

RESUMO

Climate change has exacerbated the contradiction between water scarcity and sustainable agricultural development. Assessing the crop water use efficiency and its influencing factors could provide a decision-making reference to realize Sustainable Development Goal 2. By analyzing the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of the crop water footprint, the blue water footprint, green water footprint, and grey water footprint were introduced into the super efficiency slack-based measure model to evaluate the crop water use efficiency in basins. The influence of the driving factors was examined by using the geographic detector model. The situation in the provinces along the Yellow River Basin from 2005 to 2020 was used as a verification case. The results indicated that (1) during the study period, crop water use in the basin was mainly based on the blue water footprint, accounting for approximately 55% of the total water footprint, the grey water footprint, accounting for approximately 30% of the total water footprint, and the green water footprint, accounting for the lowest proportion, at approximately 15%. (2) The crop water use efficiency exhibited a spatial distribution pattern of high values in the east and low values in the west, with obvious upstream provinces disposable income of rural residents (0.71) > population urbanization rate (0.65) > degree of agricultural mechanization (0.63) > agricultural disaster rate (0.61). Furthermore, the interaction effects between the driving factors were greater than the effects of the single factors. The study provides an important reference for understanding the changes, driving mechanisms, and impacts of crop water use efficiency in basin areas. It promotes green agricultural transformation and development to address climate change and alleviate the pressure on water resources.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Abastecimento de Água , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Irrigação Agrícola , China , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Rios/química
2.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0297251, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843245

RESUMO

The challenges posed by environmental pollution, water scarcity, and energy limitations resulting from industrialization and modernization pose significant threats to human habitats. Consequently, assessing ecological livability and delineating pathways for improvement carry considerable practical importance. Leveraging panel data encompassing 288 cities in China from 2010 to 2021, this study establishes an evaluation system for ecological livability, encompassing three dimensions: natural greenery level, residential comfort level, and environmental governance level. Subsequently, the study measures the ecological livability level and investigates the impact of "sponge city" pilots on ecological livability and their underlying mechanisms using a multi-period difference-in-differences model. Our findings underscore the substantial role of "sponge city" pilot projects in bolstering ecological livability, with robustness observed across various models and specifications. Specifically, human capital concentration and green technology innovation emerge as pivotal pathways through which "sponge city" pilots augment ecological livability. Moreover, the effectiveness of "sponge city" pilots varies across regions due to disparities in drought severity and water supply, with more pronounced effects observed in arid areas and cities facing water supply shortages. This research furnishes comprehensive theoretical and empirical underpinnings for comprehending the influence of "sponge city" pilots on ecological livability, offering valuable insights and recommendations to inform future efforts aimed at enhancing ecological livability and fostering sustainable development.


Assuntos
Cidades , China , Humanos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Abastecimento de Água , Projetos Piloto , Pilotos , Poluição Ambiental
3.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 39(6): e6110, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between drinking water sources and cognitive functioning among older adults residing in rural China. METHODS: Data were extracted from the 2008-2018 Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Drinking water sources were categorized according to whether purification measures were employed. The Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was used for cognitive functioning assessment, and the score of <24 was considered as having cognitive dysfunction. Cox regression analyses were conducted to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the effects of various drinking water sources, changes in such sources, and its interaction with exercise on cognition dysfunction. RESULTS: We included 2304 respondents aged 79.67 ± 10.02 years; of them, 1084 (44.49%) were men. Our adjusted model revealed that respondents consistently drinking tap water were 21% less likely to experience cognitive dysfunction compared with those drinking untreated water (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.70-0.90). Respondents transitioning from natural to tap water showed were 33% less likely to experience cognitive dysfunction (HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.58-0.78). Moreover, the HR (95% CI) for the interaction between drinking tap water and exercising was 0.86 (0.75-1.00) when compared with that between drinking untreated water and not exercising. All results adjusted for age, occupation, exercise, and body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged tap water consumption and switching from untreated water to tap water were associated with a decreased risk of cognitive dysfunction in older individuals. Additionally, exercising and drinking tap water was synergistically associated with the low incidence of cognitive dysfunction. These findings demonstrate the importance of prioritizing drinking water health in rural areas, indicating that purified tap water can enhance cognitive function among older adults.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Água Potável , População Rural , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , China/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Exercício Físico , Cognição/fisiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Abastecimento de Água
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1491, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection by Legionella bacteria is a risk to elderly individuals in health care facilities and should be managed by preventing bacterial proliferation in internal water systems. Norwegian legislation calls for a mandatory Legionella-specific risk assessment with the subsequent introduction of an adapted water management programme. The present study investigates adherence to legislation and guidelines on Legionella control and prevention in Norwegian nursing homes. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was distributed to Norwegian municipalities to investigate the status of Legionella specific risk assessments of internal water distribution systems and the introduction of water management programmes in nursing homes. RESULTS: A total of 55.1% (n = 228) of the participating nursing homes had performed Legionella-specific risk assessments, of which 55.3% (n = 126) stated that they had updated the risk assessment within the last year. 96.5% introduced a water management programme following a risk assessment, whereas 59.6% of the ones without a risk assessment did the same. Nursing homes with risk assessments were more likely to monitor Legionella levels than those without (61.2% vs 38.8%), to remove dead legs (44.7% vs 16.5%), and to select biocidal preventive treatment over hot water flushing (35.5% vs 4.6%). CONCLUSIONS: This study presents novel insight into Legionella control in Norway, suggesting that adherence to mandatory risk assessment in nursing homes is moderate-low. Once performed, the risk assessment seems to be advantageous as an introduction to future Legionella prevention in terms of the scope and contents of the water management programme.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Casas de Saúde , Microbiologia da Água , Noruega , Estudos Transversais , Casas de Saúde/normas , Casas de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Legionella , Medição de Risco , Legionelose/prevenção & controle , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Idoso
5.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 632, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876995

RESUMO

As water scarcity becomes the new norm in the Western United States, states such as California have increased their efforts to improve water resilience. Achieving water security under climate change, population growth, and urbanization requires an integrated multi-sectoral approach, where adaptation strategies combine supply and demand management interventions. Yet, most studies consider supply-side and demand-side management strategies separately. Water conservation efforts are mainly driven by policy requirements and publicly available data to assess the effectiveness of demand- and supply-side management policies is often hard to find and unstructured. Here we present CaRDS - the statewide California Residential water Demand and Supply open dataset. CaRDS encompasses nine years (2013-2021) of monthly water supply and demand time series for 404 water suppliers in California, USA, compiled from different open-access data sources. Access to detailed temporal and spatial water supply operations and demands at the state-level can be useful to researchers and practitioners to realize applications such as evaluating the effectiveness of water conservation policies and discovering regional differences in water resilience measures.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água , California , Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Mudança Climática
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(7): 619, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878080

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori is a microorganism that infects 60% of the population and is considered the main cause of atrophic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. Different emerging pathogens have been found in drinking water and their presence is considered to be an important public health problem. For this reason, it is necessary to carry out the validation of reliable technologies for this type of pathogens and evaluate their performance. This paper reports, for the first time, H. pylori reduction in a drinking water pilot plant of two slow sand filters (SSF). Inlet water was taken from a gravel filtration system of a rural water supply in Colombia and then inoculated with viable cells of H. pylori. By determining the Genomic Units (GU) through quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), the concentration of GU/sample was measured. In the inlet water amplification for SSF1 and SSF2 were 5.13 × 102 ± 4.48 × 102 and 6.59 × 102 ± 7.32 × 102, respectively, while for the treated water they were 7.0 ± 5.6 and 2.05 × 101 ± 2.9 × 101 GU/sample for SSF1 and SSF2, respectively. The SSF pilot plant reached up to 3 log reduction units of H. pylori; therefore, since there is not an H. pylori contamination indicator and its periodic monitoring is financially complicated, the SSF could guarantee the drinking water quality necessity that exists in rural areas and small municipalities in developing countries, where infection rates and prevalence of this pathogen are high.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Filtração , Helicobacter pylori , Microbiologia da Água , Purificação da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Filtração/métodos , Água Potável/microbiologia , Purificação da Água/métodos , Areia , Colômbia
7.
J Water Health ; 22(5): 797-810, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822460

RESUMO

Municipal water supply through truck-to-cistern systems is common in northern Canada. Household satisfaction and concerns about water services likely impact user preferences and practices. This case study explores household perspectives and challenges with regard to domestic access to water in a decentralized truck-to-cistern system. A case study was conducted in the Northern Village of Kangiqsualujjuaq, Nunavik (Quebec, Canada). A paper-based questionnaire was completed by 65 households (one quarter of the population). Many households (37%) reported not drinking tap water from the truck-to-cistern system. Chlorine taste was a frequently reported concern, with those households being significantly less likely to drink water directly from the tap (p = 0.002). Similarly, households that reported a water shortage in the previous week (i.e., no water from the tap at least once) (33%) were more likely to express dissatisfaction with delivered water quantity (rs = 0.395, p = 0.004). Interestingly, 77% of households preferred using alternative drinking water sources for drinking purposes, such as public tap at the water treatment plant, natural sources or bottled water. The study underscores the importance of considering household perspectives to mitigate the risks associated with service disruptions and the use of alternative sources for drinking purposes.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Abastecimento de Água , Água Potável/análise , Humanos , Quebeque , Características da Família , Inquéritos e Questionários , Feminino , Masculino , Veículos Automotores , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto
9.
J Water Health ; 22(5): 859-877, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822465

RESUMO

This study in Rwanda offers a comprehensive analysis of water quality, reliability, and cost-effectiveness, departing from previous research by utilizing panel data analysis for a nuanced understanding of spatiotemporal dynamics. Unlike earlier studies focusing on specific aspects, this research adopts a holistic approach, examining factors crucial for water supply, quality, and cost, thus providing an integrated view of Rwanda's water sector. By analyzing data from various sources, including the Water and Sanitation Corporation (WASAC), the study evaluates the reliability, quality, and cost-effectiveness of drinking water. It identifies cost-effective water treatment plants and studies determinants such as production cost, raw water quality, and supply between 2017 and 2022, introducing novel metrics such as performance scores and a drinking water quality index. Despite an increase in lost water, WASAC notably improves water supply, resulting in a higher water access rate by 2022. The study highlights the influence of factors such as performance scores and raw water quality on water supply and quality. It emphasizes continuous monitoring, targeted interventions, and community engagement for sustainable water service delivery. The findings provide actionable insights for policymakers, stakeholders, and practitioners, aiming to enhance water management strategies and improve water access in Rwanda.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Ruanda , Água Potável/análise , Análise Custo-Benefício , Purificação da Água/métodos , Análise de Dados , Humanos
10.
J Water Health ; 22(5): 842-858, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822464

RESUMO

The management of greywater and sanitation in South Africa's urban informal settlements is a pressing concern. This review critically examines the legal framework that governs greywater management in South Africa's informal settlements, aiming to shed light on the existing regulations, gaps, and opportunities for sustainable greywater reuse. By scrutinizing the legal framework, the review identifies gaps and challenges in the regulatory environment, including inconsistencies, lack of clarity, and limited enforcement mechanisms. It explores the potential for international best practices to inform possible amendments to the existing legal framework. This was a quantitative research design utilizing a cross sectional survey model. Questionnaires were administered electronically to a sample of 17 municipal leaders from the City of Tshwane, City of Johannesburg and Buffalo City municipalities whose responsibilities were on water management. Descriptive statistics were employed in analysis of the data. Outcomes were reviewed against the alignment or the lack thereof with the SANS 1732:201x standards. This paper underscores the critical need for a coherent and robust legal framework to support responsible greywater management in South Africa's informal settlements. The paper's insights contribute to the ongoing discourse on water governance, shedding light on the pathways toward a more equitable water future.


Assuntos
Saneamento , África do Sul , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Saneamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/legislação & jurisprudência , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cidades
11.
J Water Health ; 22(5): 905-922, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822469

RESUMO

This study addresses the heightened global reliance on point-of-use (PoU) systems driven by water quality concerns, ageing infrastructure, and urbanization. While widely used in Egypt, there is a lack of comprehensive evaluation of these systems. We assessed 10 reverse osmosis point-of-use systems, examining physicochemical, bacteriological, and protozoological aspects of tap water (inlets) and filtered water (outlets), adhering to standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Results showed significant reductions in total dissolved solids across most systems, with a decrease from 210 ± 23.6 mg/L in tap water to 21 ± 2.8 mg/L in filtered water for PoU-10. Ammonia nitrogen levels in tap water decreased from 0.05 ± 0.04 to 2.28 ± 1.47 mg/L to 0.02 ± 0.04 to 0.69 ± 0.64 mg/L in filtered water. Despite this, bacterial indicators showed no significant changes, with some systems even increasing coliform levels. Protozoological analysis identified prevalent Acanthamoeba (42.5%), less frequent Naegleria (2.5%), Vermamoeba vermiformis (5%), and potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba genotypes. Elevated bacterial indicators in filtered water of point-of-use systems, combined with essential mineral removal, indicate non-compliance with water quality standards, posing a public health concern. Further research on the long-term health implications of these filtration systems is essential.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Osmose , Purificação da Água , Egito , Purificação da Água/métodos , Água Potável/microbiologia , Água Potável/parasitologia , Qualidade da Água , Microbiologia da Água , Filtração/instrumentação , Filtração/métodos , Abastecimento de Água
12.
J Environ Manage ; 362: 121233, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833922

RESUMO

Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has emerged as a potential solution to resolve water insecurity, globally. However, integrated studies quantifying the surplus source water, suitable recharge sites and safe recharge capacity is limited. In this study, a novel methodology is presented to quantify transient injection rates in unconfined aquifers and generate MAR suitability maps based on estimated surplus water and permissible aquifer recharge capacity (PARC). Subbasin scale monthly surplus surface runoff was estimated at 75% dependability using a SWAT model. A linear regression model based on numerical solution was used to capture the aquifer response to injection and to calculate PARC values at subbasin level. The available surplus runoff and PARC values was then used to determine the suitable site and recharge rate during MAR operation. The developed methodology was applied in the semi-arid region of Lower Betwa River Basin (LBRB), India. The estimated surplus runoff was generally confined to the monsoon months of June to September and exhibited spatial heterogeneity with an average runoff rate of 5000 m3/d in 85% of the LBRB. Analysis of the PARC results revealed that thick alluvial aquifers had large permissible storage capacity and about 50% of the LBRB was capable of storing over 3500 m3/d of water. This study revealed that sufficient surplus runoff was generated in the LBRB, but it lacked the adequate safe aquifer storage capacity to conserve it. A total 65 subbasins was identified as the best suited sites for MAR which had enough surplus water and storage capacity to suffice 20% of the total water demand in the LBRB. The developed methodology was computationally efficient, could augment the field problem of determining scheduled recharge rates and could be used as a decision-making tool in artificial recharge projects.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Abastecimento de Água , Modelos Teóricos , Índia , Rios
13.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(7): 295, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856934

RESUMO

Microbial community biofilm exists in the household drinking water system and would pose threat to water quality. This paper explored biofilm formation and chlorination resistance of ten dual-species biofilms in three typical household pipes (stainless steel (SS), polypropylene random (PPR), and copper), and investigated the role of interspecific interaction. Biofilm biomass was lowest in copper pipes and highest in PPR pipes. A synergistic or neutralistic relationship between bacteria was evident in most biofilms formed in SS pipes, whereas four groups displayed a competitive relationship in biofilms formed in copper pipe. Chlorine resistance of biofilms was better in SS pipes and worse in copper pipes. It may be helped by interspecific relationships, but was more dependent on bacteria and resistance mechanisms such as more stable extracellular polymeric substance. The corrosion sites may also protect bacteria from chlorination. The findings provide useful insights for microbial control strategies in household drinking water systems.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biofilmes , Cloro , Água Potável , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloro/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Água Potável/microbiologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Microbiologia da Água , Aço Inoxidável , Polipropilenos , Abastecimento de Água , Halogenação , Corrosão , Desinfetantes/farmacologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13416, 2024 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862670

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the drinking water quality in the selected urban areas of Lahore and to comprehend the public health status by addressing the basic drinking water quality parameters. Total 50 tap water samples were collected from groundwater in the two selected areas of district Lahore i.e., Gulshan-e-Ravi (site 1) and Samanabad (site 2). Water samples were analyzed in the laboratory to elucidate physico-chemical parameters including pH, turbidity, temperature, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness, magnesium hardness, and calcium hardness. These physico-chemical parameters were used to examine the Water Quality Index (WQI) and Synthetic Pollution Index (SPI) in order to characterize the water quality. Results of th selected physico-chemical parameters were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines to determine the quality of drinking water. A GIS-based approach was used for mapping water quality, WQI, and SPI. Results of the present study revealed that the average value of temperature, pH, and DO of both study sites were within the WHO guidelines of 23.5 °C, 7.7, and 6.9 mg/L, respectively. The TDS level of site 1 was 192.56 mg/L (within WHO guidelines) and whereas, in site 2 it was found 612.84 mg/L (higher than WHO guidelines), respectively. Calcium hardness of site 1 and site 2 was observed within the range from 25.04 to 65.732 mg/L but, magnesium hardness values were higher than WHO guidelines. The major reason for poor water quality is old, worn-out water supply pipelines and improper waste disposal in the selected areas. The average WQI was found as 59.66 for site 1 and 77.30 for site 2. Results showed that the quality of the water was classified as "poor" for site 1 and "very poor " for site 2. There is a need to address the problem of poor water quality and also raise the public awareness about the quality of drinking water and its associated health impacts.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Monitoramento Ambiental , Qualidade da Água , Água Potável/análise , Água Potável/química , Paquistão , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cidades , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Água Subterrânea/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 473: 134613, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788571

RESUMO

Bacteria are pivotal to drinking water treatment and public health. However, the mechanisms of bacterial assembly and their impact on species coexistence remain largely unexplored. This study explored the assembly and succession of bacterial communities in two full-scale drinking water systems over one year. We observed a decline in bacterial biomass, diversity, and co-occurrence network complexity along the treatment processes, except for the biological activated carbon filtration stage. The conventional plant showed higher bacterial diversity than the advanced plant, despite similar bacterial concentrations and better removal efficiency. The biological activated carbon filter exhibited high phylogenetic diversity, indicating enhanced bacterial metabolic functionality for organic matter removal. Chlorination inactivated most bacteria but favored some chlorination-resistant and potentially pathogenic species, such as Burkholderia, Bosea, Brevundimonas, and Acinetobacter. Moreover, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the bacterial continuum were primarily driven by stochastic processes, explaining more than 78% of the relative importance. The advanced plant's bacterial community was less influenced by dispersal limitation and more by homogeneous selection. The stochastic process regulated bacterial diversity and influenced the complexity of the species co-occurrence network. These findings deepen our understanding of microbial ecological mechanisms and species interactions, offering insights for enhancing hygienic safety in drinking water systems.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Água Potável , Microbiologia da Água , Purificação da Água , Água Potável/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Halogenação , Filtração , Biodiversidade , Abastecimento de Água
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791734

RESUMO

The consumption of unsafe water in rural areas is a real public health problem in developing countries. This situation mainly affects children under five years of age and causes several deaths and many cases of malnutrition every year. The objective of this study was to evaluate and optimize the capacity of four local plant extracts in the potabilization of unsafe water. Thus, Moringa oleifera and Boscia senegalensis seeds, or Aloe vera and Opuntia ficus-indica mucilages were prepared in a solution and applied during a jar test as biocoagulants and bioflocculants on three raw water samples of 82.3 NTU, 549.8 NTU and 796.9 NTU. After treatment results showed that 0.9 g/L of Moringa biocoagulant or 1 g/L of Boscia biocoagulant applied with 0.4 mL of Aloe vera bioflocculant or 0.6 mL of Opuntia ficus-indica bioflocculant reduced the turbidity of each water sample to values less than 5 NTU after only 15 min of decanting. Moreover, the sanitary quality of the water treated by these different extracts showed a perfect conformity of the physicochemical and microbiological parameters with the standards of acceptability in drinking water decreed by the World Health Organization. Thus, the application of these local plant extracts has made it possible to considerably improve the quality of unsafe water in record time. Their popularization could be an alternative in the fight against malnutrition related to the consumption of unsafe water, especially in rural areas.


Assuntos
Aloe , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desnutrição , Extratos Vegetais , Purificação da Água , Extratos Vegetais/química , Humanos , Aloe/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Moringa oleifera/química , Abastecimento de Água , Opuntia/química , Água Potável/química , Moringa/química
17.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302558, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776352

RESUMO

Accurate forecasts of water demand are a crucial factor in the strategic planning and judicious use of finite water resources within a region, underpinning sustainable socio-economic development. This study aims to compare the applicability of various artificial intelligence models for long-term water demand forecasting across different water use sectors. We utilized the Tuojiang River basin in Sichuan Province as our case study, comparing the performance of five artificial intelligence models: Genetic Algorithm optimized Back Propagation Neural Network (GA-BP), Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), Gaussian Process Regression (GPR), Support Vector Regression (SVR), and Random Forest (RF). These models were employed to predict water demand in the agricultural, industrial, domestic, and ecological sectors using actual water demand data and relevant influential factors from 2005 to 2020. Model performance was evaluated based on the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), with the most effective model used for 2025 water demand projections for each sector within the study area. Our findings reveal that the GPR model demonstrated superior results in predicting water demand for the agricultural, domestic, and ecological sectors, attaining R2 values of 0.9811, 0.9338, and 0.9142 for the respective test sets. Also, the GA-BP model performed optimally in predicting industrial water demand, with an R2 of 0.8580. The identified optimal prediction model provides a useful tool for future long-term water demand forecasting, promoting sustainable water resource management.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Previsões , Rios , China , Previsões/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Abastecimento de Água , Modelos Teóricos , Algoritmos
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(6): 578, 2024 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38795160

RESUMO

Monitoring water quality and quantity is crucial to be sure that water resources are sustainably used. However, there is no monitoring system of water quantity and quality in southwestern Ethiopia, despite expansion of agricultural activities demanding water resources. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of agriculture on water quantity and quality with special emphasis on irrigation in southwestern Ethiopia. Data of water quantity was collected from four rivers and four irrigation canals during dry season of 2023. Physico-chemical water quality data was collected from 35 sites. Water quantity was calculated by estimating the water discharge of the rivers and irrigation canals. Weighted arithmetic water quality index was calculated to assess the status of the studied rivers. Principal component analysis was used to identify the relation of the sites with water quality parameters. This study revealed that the average amount of abstracted water for irrigation from the four studied rivers was 22,399 m3/day during the studied period, and the average percentage of abstracted water was 17%. Sites downstream of the irrigation site were characterized by poor water quality compared with the upstream sites. Sites surrounded by agricultural land use were correlated with chemical oxygen demand, electric conductivity, nitrate, orthophosphate, water temperature, and pH, whereas all sites surrounded by forest were positively correlated with dissolved oxygen. This study indicates that agricultural activities have a negative impact on surface water quality and quantity if not managed properly. Hence, we recommend sustainable use of water resources for the planned irrigation expansion.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Qualidade da Água , Etiópia , Rios/química , Irrigação Agrícola , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Nitratos/análise
19.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 72, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38790067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than half of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) faces limited access to safe drinking water. Unimproved water sources can pose risks to the health of entire households, particularly women and children. Despite the fact that East African countries have some of the poorest drinking water infrastructures globally, there is a lack of published data on this issue. Consequently, the objective of this study was to examine access to safe drinking water and its determinants among households in East Africa, utilizing recent nationally representative data. METHODS: This study analyzed data from recent demographic and health surveys conducted in 12 East African nations between 2011 and 2022. Data were gathered from 204,275 households. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling method was employed, with enumeration areas serving as the main sampling units and households serving as the secondary sampling units. Binary and multiple multilevel logistic regression were used to examine the relevant factors associated with the use of different sources of drinking water in the region. In binary regression and multiple regression, P values of ≤ 0.2 and < 0.05, respectively, were used to determine the statistical significance of variables in the final model. RESULTS: Approximately 72.62% (95% CI = 72.43, 72.83) of households have utilized improved sources of drinking water. Household heads aged 25-35 years (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.14), 36-45 years (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.14), and > 45 years (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.14), those with secondary/higher education (AOR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.20-1.29), and individuals in wealth index categories of poorest (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.18), poorer (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.22), middle (AOR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.27), and richer (AOR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.38) were associated with improved sources of drinking water. Additionally, female household leaders (AOR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.20, 1.26), > 30 min of time taken to access the water source (AOR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.95, 2.05), improved toilet facilities (AOR = 2.25, 95% CI = 2.19, 2.31), rural residence (AOR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.42, 0.45), high community wealth (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.13-1.51), community media exposure (AOR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.51) were associated with improved sources of drinking water, respectively. CONCLUSION: Approximately three-quarters of the population in East Africa has access to improved drinking water, although the quality of water in the region is still considered poor. It is important for relevant organizations to collaborate in order to improve the quality of drinking water, with special attention given to high-risk groups such as communities with high poverty and low literacy rates, poor households, and rural residents. Strengthening women's empowerment and increasing mass media exposure can also play a crucial role in accelerating the adoption of improved drinking water sources in East Africa.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Características da Família , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Abastecimento de Água , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , África Oriental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem , Modelos Logísticos , Adolescente , População da África Oriental
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 940: 173317, 2024 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788954

RESUMO

Seven public water systems in Minnesota, USA were analyzed from one to five times over a two-year period to assess temporal changes in the concentrations of total bacteria, Legionella spp., and Legionella pneumophila from source (i.e., raw water) through the water treatment process to the end water user. Bacterial biomass was collected by filtering large volumes of raw water (12 to 425 L, median: 38 L) or finished and tap water (27 to 1205 L, median: 448 L) using ultrafiltration membrane modules. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was then used to enumerate all bacteria (16S rRNA gene fragments), all Legionella spp. (ssrA), and Legionella pneumophila (mip). Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and L. pneumophila also were quantified in the water samples via cultivation. Median concentrations of total bacteria and Legionella spp. (ssrA) in raw water (8.5 and 4.3 log copies/L, respectively) decreased by about 2 log units during water treatment. The concentration of Legionella spp. (ssrA) in water collected from distribution systems inversely correlated with the total chlorine concentration for chloraminated systems significantly (p = 0.03). Although only 8 samples were collected from drinking water distribution systems using free chlorine as a residual disinfectant, these samples had significantly lower concentrations of Legionella spp. (ssrA) than samples collected from the chloraminated systems (p = 5 × 10-4). There was considerable incongruity between the results obtained via cultivation-independent (qPCR) and cultivation-dependent assays. Numerous samples were positive for L. pneumophila via cultivation, none of which tested positive for L. pneumophilia (mip) via qPCR. Conversely, a single sample tested positive for L. pneumophilia (mip) via qPCR, but this sample tested negative for L. pneumophilia via cultivation. Overall, the results suggest that conventional treatment is effective at reducing, but not eliminating, Legionella spp. from surface water supplies and that residual disinfection is effective at suppressing these organisms within drinking water distribution systems.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Legionella , Microbiologia da Água , Purificação da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Água Potável/microbiologia , Água Potável/química , Minnesota , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Purificação da Água/métodos
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