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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(15): 8595-8605, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591744

RESUMO

The nutritional composition of the diet significantly impacts the overall growth and development of weaned piglets. The current study aimed to explore the effects and underlying mechanisms of dietary tryptophan consumption on muscle fiber type transformation during the weaning period. Thirty weaned piglets with an average body weight of 6.12 ± 0.16 kg were randomly divided into control (CON, 0.14% Trp diet) and high Trp (HT, 0.35% Trp) groups and maintained on the respective diet for 28 days. The HT group of weaned piglets exhibited highly significant improvements in growth performance and an increased proportion of fast muscle fibers. Transcriptome sequencing revealed the potential contribution of differentially expressed circular RNAs toward the transformation of myofiber types in piglets and toward the regulation of expression of related genes by targeting the microRNAs, miR-34c and miR-182, to further regulate myofiber transformation. In addition, 145 DE circRNAs were identified as potentially protein-encoding, with the encoded proteins associated with a myofiber type transformation. In conclusion, the current study greatly advances and refines our current understanding of the regulatory networks associated with piglet muscle development and myofiber type transformation and also contributes to the optimization of piglet diet formulation.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Triptofano , Animais , Suínos/genética , Triptofano/metabolismo , Desmame , RNA Circular/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta/veterinária , MicroRNAs/genética
2.
Crit Care Sci ; 36: e20240158en, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597482

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of biomarkers with successful ventilatory weaning in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: An observational, retrospective, and single-center study was conducted between March 2020 and April 2021. C-reactive protein, total lymphocytes, and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were evaluated during attrition and extubation, and the variation in these biomarker values was measured. The primary outcome was successful extubation. ROC curves were drawn to find the best cutoff points for the biomarkers based on sensitivity and specificity. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 2,377 patients admitted to the intensive care unit, 458 were included in the analysis, 356 in the Successful Weaning Group and 102 in the Failure Group. The cutoff points found from the ROC curves were -62.4% for C-reactive protein, +45.7% for total lymphocytes, and -32.9% for neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. These points were significantly associated with greater extubation success. In the multivariate analysis, only C-reactive protein variation remained statistically significant (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.51 - 4.5; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this study, a decrease in C-reactive protein levels was associated with successful extubation in COVID-19 patients. Total lymphocytes and the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio did not maintain the association after multivariate analysis. However, a decrease in C-reactive protein levels should not be used as a sole variable to identify COVID-19 patients suitable for weaning; as in our study, the area under the ROC curve demonstrated poor accuracy in discriminating extubation outcomes, with low sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desmame do Respirador , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Proteína C-Reativa , Desmame , Biomarcadores
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7657, 2024 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561353

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to assess the impact of non-encapsulated, air-dried microencapsulated, and lyophilized microencapsulated probiotics in indigenous cattle calves (Bos indicus). Twenty-four (5-7 days old) indigenous cattle calves were selected and assigned into four groups, with six calves in each as follows: control (CON), fed milk and basal diet alone, and treatment groups supplemented with non-encapsulated (NEC), air-dried microencapsulated (AEC) and lyophilized microencapsulated (LEC) probiotic L. reuteri SW23 at 108 CFU/head/day in skim milk as a carrier provided for 60 days. The animals were divided into four groups, adopting a complete randomized design, and the effects were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Probiotics supplementation increased (p < 0.05) body weight gain (kg), average daily gain, and structural growth measurements in calves of all treatment groups. Dry matter intake (g/d), feed conversion efficiency, and fecal counts of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria were also increased in the treatment groups compared to CON. The fecal consistency index was highest in CON (0.70 ± 0.03), followed by NEC (0.68 ± 0.01), AEC (0.66 ± 0.02), and LEC (0.65 ± 0.02). Fecal pH and ammonia levels were reduced (p < 0.05) in the probiotic-fed groups compared to CON, with a concomitant increase in fecal lactate, acetate, and propionate levels. In addition, cell-mediated and humoral immunity were significantly increased in supplemented groups as compared to CON. Thus, it can be concluded that supplementation of the probiotics in microencapsulated/non-encapsulated forms to neonatal calves had a variety of positive effects on their health, including better performance, improved gut health, and a lower fecal consistency index. Moreover, among all supplemented groups, the lyophilized microencapsulated group outperformed air-dried microencapsulated and non-microencapsulated groups in terms of ADG, DMI, and gut health.


Assuntos
Limosilactobacillus reuteri , Probióticos , Animais , Bovinos , Ração Animal/análise , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Láctico , Probióticos/farmacologia , Desmame
4.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 15: e5, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563206

RESUMO

Early supplementation with oregano essential oil (EO) in milk replacer (MR) may improve growth, immune responses, the microbiota and the metabolome in dairy calves during pre-weaning and in adulthood. Sixteen female dairy calves (3 days of age) were divided in two groups (n = 8/group): the control group (no EO) and the EO group (0.23 ml of EO in MR during 45 days). After weaning, calves were kept in a feedlot and fed ad libitum. The animals were weighed, and blood and faecal samples were collected on days 3 (T0), 45 (T1) and 370 (T2) to measure the biochemical profile and characterise peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs; CD4+, CD8+, CD14+, CD21+ and WC1+), the metabolome and microbiota composition. The EO group only had greater average daily weight gain during the suckling (EO supplementation) period (P = 0.030). The EO group showed higher average CD14+ population (monocytes) values, a lower abundance of Ruminococcaceae UCG-014, Faecalibacterium, Blautia and Alloprevotella and increased abundances of Allistipes and Akkermansia. The modification of some metabolites in plasma, such as butyric acid, 3-indole-propionic acid and succinic acid, particularly at T1, are consistent with intestinal microbiota changes. The data suggest that early EO supplementation increases feed efficiency only during the suckling period with notable changes in the microbiota and plasma metabolome; however, not all of these changes can be considered desirable from a gut health point of view. Additional research studies is required to demonstrate that EOs are a viable natural alternative to antibiotics for improving calf growth performance and health.


Assuntos
Dieta , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Leite , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Ração Animal/análise , Desmame , Aumento de Peso , Metaboloma , Suplementos Nutricionais , Peso Corporal
5.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 37(1): 2337711, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes after buprenorphine wean compared to patients maintained on buprenorphine throughout pregnancy. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of pregnant patients with opioid use disorder enrolled in a multidisciplinary treatment program between 2015 and 2022. All patients were offered Medications to treat Opioid Use Disorder (MOUD) primarily with buprenorphine. Patients had at least 2 prenatal visits and negative urine drug tests (UDT) prior to weaning. The experimental group underwent a buprenorphine wean greater than 20% of their baseline dose. The control group was maintained on buprenorphine throughout the pregnancy. Relapse was defined as patient reported use or positive UDT during weekly assessments. Mass spectrophotometer was used for detection of drugs in samples. Fisher's exact tests were used to compare outcomes in weaned and control groups. RESULTS: 334 of 456 (73%) patients were treated with buprenorphine during pregnancy, with 39 in the experimental group and 295 in the control group. The mean dose for buprenorphine was similar between the groups (wean: 10.6 mg ± 5.6 vs. control: 10.3 mg ± 4.6, p = 0.76) but was significantly lower at delivery (wean: 4.4 ± 4.6 mg vs. control: 13.0 ± 4.7, p < 0.0001). Mean gestational age at initiation of the buprenorphine wean was 22.7 weeks. 10 of 39 (26%) who weaned were able to completely discontinue buprenorphine prior to delivery. Demographic data was similar between the groups, including overdose history. Overdose history at time of enrollment had a higher trend in the non-weaning group. neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) treatment was significantly lower in the wean group (23 vs. 47%, p = 0.006), as was highest Finnegan score (9.6 ± 4.5 vs. 12.3 ± 4.0, p = 0.0003). Birthweight percentile was significantly higher in the wean group (44.3 ± 29.9 vs. 34.8 ± 24.4, p = 0.03). Gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, and complications (HTN, DM, preterm labor, or short cervix) at delivery did not significantly differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: Despite counseling to stay on buprenorphine, there are patients who desire to wean. The NOWS rate in the weaned cohort was significantly lower than the controls with no observed increase in maternal or neonatal morbidity. There were no maternal overdoses or deaths during the pregnancy. Larger studies are needed to evaluate this approach.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos , Desmame , Peso ao Nascer , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(3): 114, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561441

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the costs of using banana peel (BP) and sweet potato vine (SPV) in rabbit diets. BP and SPV were chosen to replace maize and alfalfa hay, because, in addition to the ingredients having similar nutritional characteristics, they are among the most expensive ingredients in rabbit diets. Data were obtained through a biological assay carried out in the Cuniculture Laboratory of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Fifty New Zealand white rabbits, weaned at 35 days of age, were fed during the growth phase (35 to 84 days) with increasing levels of BP and SPV, replacing maize and alfalfa hay (T0, T25, T50, T75 and T100% replacement). A diet containing 100% replacement (T100) had the lowest cost per kilogram, which was R$ 1.18/kg, while the controlled diet was 57% more expensive, costing R$ 2.08/kg. The total operating cost to produce a rabbit with control treatment was R$10.93/head and at T100, it was R$6.51/head. The animal income for a live rabbit was R$ 24.08 and R$ 23.95 in treatments T0 and T100, respectively. Regarding the gain margin per animal (GMA), in TO it was R$ 13.16 while in T100 it was R$ 17.44, therefore the GMA was 32.55% higher when using the T100 diet. In conclusion, it is more economical and feasible to feed rabbits with diets containing 100% BP and SPV, replacing maize and alfalfa hay.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Musa , Coelhos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Zea mays , Desmame , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
7.
Georgian Med News ; (346): 128-131, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501635

RESUMO

Weaning is an organized process of introduction of appropriate food at the accurate time in addition to the mother's milk to deliver essential nourishment to the baby and the infants should be breastfed completely through the early six months of life. Aim of the study - Assessment of the Mothers' awareness (knowledge, attitude, and practice) and to determine possible factors affecting it. A total sample of 112 mothers enrolled in the present study, from which data was collected including demographic characteristics of the child and mother with feeding history. Knowledge and practice assessment regarding the weaning process. Appropriate time of introduction of complementary feeds was started in 41.1% of the children. 69.6% weaned their children suddenly cessed. Factors influencing complementary and weaning knowledge were the mother's education and occupation and source of information and practice was poorly achieved, and the factors were the mother's age and type of family. The approval for WHO recommendations on complementary and weaning practices was not optimum. It is consequently a significant point to change the interventions at joining the hole between these practices in urban locations and WHO endorsements.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mães , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Desmame , Atitude
8.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 83: 127420, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38432121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) poisoning posing a crucial health risk, especially among children, causing devastating damage not only to brain development, but also to kidney function. Thus, an urgent need persists to identify highly effective, safe, and low-toxicity drugs for the treatment of Pb poisoning. The present study focused on exploring the protective effects of Se on Pb-induced nephrotoxicity in weaning rats and human renal tubular epithelial cells, and investigated the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Forty weaning rats were randomly divided into four groups in vivo: control, Pb-exposed, Pb+Se and Se. Serum creatinine (Cr), urea nitrogen (BUN) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were performed to evaluate renal function. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in the kidney tissue were determined. In vitro experiments were performed using human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). The cytotoxicity of Pb and Se was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inverted fluorescence microscope was used to investigate cell morphological changes and the fluorescence intensity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The oxidative stress parameters were measured by a multi-detection reader. Nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor (NRF2) signaling pathways were measured by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in HK-2 cells. RESULTS: We found that Se alleviated Pb-induced kidney injury by relieving oxidative stress and reducing the inflammatory index. Se significantly increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), whereas it decreased the excessive release of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the kidneys of weaning rats and HK-2 cells. Additionally, Se enhanced the antioxidant defense systems via activating the NRF2 transcription factor, thereby promoting the to downstream expression of heme oxygenase 1. Furthermore, genes encoding glutamate-cysteine ligase synthetase catalytic (GCLC), glutamate-cysteine ligase synthetase modifier (GCLM) and NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), downstream targets of NRF2, formed a positive feedback loop with NRF2 during oxidative stress responses. The MTT assay results revealed a significant decrease in cell viability with Se treatment, and the cytoprotective role of Se was blocked upon knockdown of NRF2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA). MDA activity results also showed that NRF2 knockdown inhibited the NRF2-dependent transcriptional activity of Se. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that Se ameliorated Pb-induced nephrotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress both in vivo and in vitro. The molecular mechanism underlying Se's action in Pb-induced kidney injury is related to the activation of the NRF2 transcription factor and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, ultimately suppressing ROS accumulation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Selênio , Criança , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Selênio/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/farmacologia , Desmame , Estresse Oxidativo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais , Rim/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(3): 110, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517584

RESUMO

The hypothesis was tested that the performance of lactating ewes is affected by the supplementation level and pasture management. Two supplementation levels (0.5 and 1.0% of body weight, BW) and two pasture managements (mowed and non-mowed) were tested. Forty adult ewes (2 years old) with an average weight at lambing of 62.97 ± 7.0 kg (day 0) and an average the body condition score of 2.5 points (day 0) were evaluated. Verminosis was monitored with periodic deworming. The number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) of ewes at lambing was used as a covariate for performance assessments. Ewes lost an average of 7.5 kg over the 90 days post-partum (12% BW). The weaning rate was 53%. The body condition of the ewes was influenced by the post-partum period. The ewes mobilized their body reserves in the first 30 days of lactation. Mowing management negatively affected the nutritive value of the forage. Supplementation with 0.5% BW was sufficient for nutritional management post-partum. Pasture management (mowed vs. not mowed) cannot prevent post-partum weight loss. Supplementation levels and pasture management altered the morphological and chemical components of the pasture.


Assuntos
Lactação , Óvulo , Ovinos , Animais , Feminino , Período Pós-Parto , Desmame , Suplementos Nutricionais
10.
Animal ; 18(3): 101102, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430665

RESUMO

Microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tracts is an important factor affecting the variation in feed efficiency in ruminants. Several studies have investigated the composition of the ruminal and fecal microbiotas, as well as their impacts on feed efficiency and digestion. In addition, next-generation DNA sequencing techniques have allowed us to gain a better understanding of such microbiomes. In this study, the beef cattle microbiome data were analyzed using both a multivariate and a univariate approach and the results were compared. Moreover, a statistical procedure to classify calves in two groups with extreme Residual Feed Intake (RFI) values, using their microbiota profile, was developed. Both fecal and ruminal samples were collected from 63 Angus steers at two different time points for evaluation of their microbiomes: at the beginning and at the end of the feedlot. An additional fecal sample was collected at weaning. A total of 149 and 119 bacterial families (BFs) were retrieved from the ruminal and fecal samples, respectively. A Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) was used to investigate whether BFs were able to distinguish between rumen and fecal samples. A sub-sample of 28 steers was divided in two groups based on their feed efficiency status: positive or negative for RFI. Fecal samples collected at weaning were used to assign the positive and negative RFI animals to their corresponding groups using both Stepwise Discriminant Analysis and CDA. Results revealed that CDA was able to distinguish between rumen and fecal samples. Peptostreptococcaceae was the family most associated with the fecal samples, whereas Prevotellaceae the most associated with the ruminal samples. The CDA using 19 BFs selected from the stepwise was able to correctly assign all animals to the proper RFI groups (negative or positive). Rhizobiaceae was the family most associated with negative RFI, whereas Comamonadacea was the family most linked with positive RFI. The results from this study showed that the multivariate approach can be used to improve microbiome data analysis, as well as to predict feed efficiency in beef cattle using information derived from the fecal microbiome.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fezes/microbiologia , Desmame , Trato Gastrointestinal , Bactérias/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Rúmen/microbiologia
11.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459921

RESUMO

Calf management and health are essential for setting up the foundation of a productive cow. The objectives of this study were to estimate the impact of preweaning practices on milk production parameters while accounting for an animal's genetic potential in New Brunswick, Canada. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 220 heifer calves from eight herds born in 2014-2015. Preweaning practices and health data were recorded by producers and reviewed by the herd veterinarian for each calf. The herd veterinarian also visited the farms to collect serum samples from calves and frozen colostrum samples. The production outcomes assessed were milk, protein and fat yields, standardized to 305 d for the first lactation (L1) and a combined group of lactations two and three (L2 + 3). The genomic potential was determined as genomic parent averages (GPA) for the associated production parameters. Analysis was performed with multivariable linear (L1) and linear mixed (L2 + 3) regression models. In L1, for every 1.0 kg increase in weaning weight, milk, protein, and fat yield increased by 25.5, 0.82, and 1.01 kg, respectively (P < 0.006). Colostrum feeding time (CFT) positively impacted L1 milk and protein production, with feeding between 1-2 h of life producing the greatest estimates of 626 kg of milk and 18.2 kg of protein yield (P < 0.007), compared to earlier or later CFT. Fat yield production was decreased by 80.5 kg (P < 0.006) in L1 when evaluating animals that developed a preweaning disease and were not treated with antibiotics compared to healthy untreated animals. Impacts on L2 + 3 were similar across all production outcomes, with a positive interaction effect of CFT and weaning weight. Compared to CFT < 1 h, the later CFT groups of 1-2 h and > 2 h produced greater yield outcomes of 68.2 to 72.6 kg for milk (P < 0.006), 2.06 to 2.15 kg for protein (P < 0.005), and 1.8 to 1.9 kg for fat (P < 0.045) for every 1 kg increase of weaning weight, respectively. The fit of all models was significantly improved with the inclusion of GPA. These results indicate that colostrum management and preweaning health measures impacted production parameters as adults. The inclusion of GPA significantly improved the accuracy of the models, indicating that this can be an important parameter to include in future studies.


The impact of calf management and health events have been predominately investigated during the preweaning period. However, calfhood events could also impact the animal's health and productivity as an adult. Results from this study indicate that colostrum feeding time and weaning weight were associated with production outcomes (milk, protein, and fat yields) across the first three lactations, and disease and antibiotic treatment can be detrimental to fat yield in the first lactation. By including genetic potential in the assessment of preweaning colostrum practices and health measures on production outcomes, we can more precisely identify areas to optimize calf management.


Assuntos
Colostro , Indústria de Laticínios , Humanos , Gravidez , Bovinos , Animais , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Leite/metabolismo , Lactação , Desmame
12.
Environ Pollut ; 347: 123632, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460594

RESUMO

Polystyrene nanoplastic(PS-NP) can originate from sources such as plastic waste and industrial wastewater and have been shown to have deleterious effects on abnormal neurobehaviors. However, evidence regarding the health impacts, biological mechanisms, and treatment strategies underlying developmental exposure to low dose PS-NP is still lacking. This study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by administering low doses of PS-NP(50 and 100 µg/L) to weaning rats for 4 consecutive weeks. Behavioral and morphological experiments were performed to evaluate hippocampal damage, and transcriptomics and Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin with hight-throughput sequencing(ATAC) analyses were conducted to identify potential key targets. Additionally, Connectivity Map(CMap) database, Limited proteolysis-mass spectrometry(LiP-SMap), and molecular-protein docking were used to examine potential phytochemicals with therapeutic effects on key targets. The results indicated that developmental exposure to PS-NP can induce hippocampal impairment and aberrant neurobehaviors in adulthood. Multi-omics analyses consistently showed that apoptosis-related signaling pathways were sensitive to PS-NP exposure, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 3(Mapk3) was identified as the core gene by the gene network, which was further validated in vitro experiments. The CMap database provided a series of phytochemicals that might regulate Mapk3 expression, and trihydroxy-phenolacetone(THP) was found to have directly binding sites with Mapk3 through LiP-SMap and molecular docking analysis. Furthermore, THP administration could significantly alleviate apoptosis induced by PS-NP exposure in primary hippocampal cells through down-regulation of Mapk3. These findings suggested that developmental exposure to PS-NP has adverse effects on cognitive function and that THP can alleviate these effects by directly binding to Mapk3.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Poliestirenos , Ratos , Animais , Poliestirenos/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Desmame , Nanopartículas/química , Cognição
13.
Clin Rheumatol ; 43(5): 1723-1733, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare outcomes of a short and long weaning strategy of anti-tumor necrosis factor (aTNF) in our prospective juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: JIA patients on subcutaneous adalimumab with at least 6 months of follow-up were recruited (May 2010-Jan 2022). Once clinical remission on medication (CRM) was achieved, adalimumab was weaned according to two protocols-short (every 4-weekly for 6 months and stopped) and long (extending dosing interval by 2 weeks for three cycles until 12-weekly intervals and thereafter stopped) protocols. Outcomes assessed were flare rates, time to flare, and predictors. RESULTS: Of 110 JIA patients, 77 (83% male, 78% Chinese; 82% enthesitis-related arthritis) underwent aTNF weaning with 53% on short and 47% on long weaning protocol. The total flare rate during and after stopping aTNF was not different between the two groups. The time to flare after stopping aTNF was not different (p = 0.639). Positive anti-nuclear antibody increased flare risk during weaning in long weaning group (OR 7.0, 95%CI: 1.2-40.8). Positive HLA-B27 (OR 6.5, 95%CI: 1.1-30.4) increased flare risks after stopping aTNF. CONCLUSION: Duration of weaning aTNF may not minimize flare rate or delay time to flare after stopping treatment in JIA patients. Recapture rates for inactive disease at 6 months remained high for patients who flared after weaning or discontinuing medication.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Juvenil , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Artrite Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Desmame , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Acta Vet Scand ; 66(1): 13, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Piglets are born with limited stores of iron, and with an increasing number of live-born piglets, there may be a risk that the sows cannot provide enough iron to their offspring. The iron content in soil may not meet the demands of today's piglet, born and reared in an outdoor setting. The study aimed to describe the blood haemoglobin (Hb) levels in pigs reared outdoors and to determine whether piglets have higher Hb levels at weaning when an iron supplement is administered intramuscularly at three days of age, as compared to pigs not given an iron supplement. The seasonal variation in Hb-levels was also to be investigated. The Hb concentration was analysed with a HemoCue 201 + Hb photometer. RESULTS: In total 56 litters (399 piglets) were included in the study and sampled at three days of age, while 378 piglets were sampled at weaning. The mean Hb level at three days of age was 91 g/L (48-154 g/L). In total 47% of the piglets had Hb levels < 90 g/L at three days of age. The mean Hb level at weaning was 127 g/L (76-176 g/L), with a lower level (122 g/L) in the group given the iron supplement than in the group not given an iron supplement (132 g/L). Only 1% of the piglets had Hb levels lower than 90 g/L at weaning. Results indicative of a seasonal effect on Hb levels at three days of age was demonstrated. Piglets born in spring had significantly lower Hb levels, and piglets born in autumn had significantly higher Hb levels. No seasonal effect could be demonstrated for Hb levels at day 33. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the natural uptake from the environment was sufficient, but that there was a seasonal effect on the Hb levels at three days of age. This indicates that there might be a need for different routines regarding iron supplementation in outdoor reared piglets depending on the climate and season.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas , Ferro , Animais , Suínos , Feminino , Desmame , Estações do Ano , Fazendas , Suécia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Lactação
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(2): 99, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467996

RESUMO

Feeding low-quality forage (LQF) has been evaluated in mature ruminants and results show that it has been improved nitrogen utilization efficiency. The present study evaluated the interaction effect of feeding wheat straw as LQF (0 and 7.5%, DM basis) and starter protein level (20 vs. 24%, DM basis) on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and microbial protein synthesis in Holstein dairy calves raised under moderate heat stress condition. Forty-eight 3-day old dairy calves (averaging 40.6 kg) were assigned in four experimental treatments as follow; 1) no LQF with 20% CP (NLQF-20CP), 2) no LQF with 24% CP (NLQF-24CP), 3) 7.5% LQF with 20% CP (LQF-20CP) and 4) 7.5% LQF and 24% CP (LQF-24CP). The calves were weaned on d 53 of age but the experiment extended until d 73 of age. Feeding LQF increased starter intake, average daily gain (tendency), ruminal acetate concentration, and improved fecal score of calves. The average daily gains before and after weaning were positively influenced with greater starter protein content. Hence, weaning and final BWs were improved when calves received greater CP content. In addition, greater starter CP content increased total ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration. With respect to the interaction effect between LQF feeding and starter protein content, the lower nitrogen excretion through urine was obtained for LQF-20CP diet among experimental treatments. The results of the current study showed that feeding LQF improved ruminal fermentation pattern and improved growth performance through increased starter intake. In addition, greater starter protein content is advisable during pre-weaning period for calves raised under mild heat stress condition. In conclusion, based on the results found in the current study, it can be suggested that feeding LQF for calves under heat stress condition can improve nitrogen utilization when dietary protein content is low. This can be opportunity to formulate starter diets with greater nitrogen utilization efficiency which is critical for accelerated growth programs at early stages of growth for young calves while calves raised under hot season condition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Rúmen , Animais , Bovinos , Peso Corporal , Fermentação , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Desmame , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Purinas/metabolismo
16.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447056

RESUMO

Progeny born to primiparous sows (gilt progeny; GP) have lower birth, weaning and slaughter weights than sow progeny (SP). GP also have reduced gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, as evidenced by lower organ weights. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to quantify changes in GIT barrier function that occur in birth and weaning, representing two major challenges to the young piglet. The effects of parity (GP vs. SP) in GIT barrier integrity function were quantified at four timepoints: birth (~0 h), 24 h after birth (24 h), 1-d preweaning (PrW), and 1-d postweaning (PoW) in commercially reared piglets. Due to inherent differences between newborn and weanling pigs, the results were analyzed in two cohorts, birth (0 vs. 24 h, n = 31) and weaning (PrW vs. PoW, n = 40). Samples of the stomach, jejunum, ileum, and colon were excised after euthanasia and barrier integrity was quantified by measuring transepithelial resistance (TER), macromolecular permeability, the abundance of inflammatory proteins (IL-8, IL-1ß, and TNF-α) and tight junction proteins (claudin-2 and -3). Papp was characterized using a dual tracer approach comprising 4 KDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FD4) and 150 kDa tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (T150)-labeled dextrans. Characteristic effects of the initiation of feeding and weaning were observed on the GIT with the initiation of feeding, such as increasing TER and reducing Papp at 24 h, consistent with mucosal growth (P = 0.058) This was accompanied by increased cytokine abundance as evidenced by elevations in TNF-α and IL-1ß. However, GP had increased IL-8 abundance (P = 0.011 and 0.063 for jejunum and ileum respectively) at birth than 24 h overall. In the weaning cohort, jejunal and ileal permeability to FD4 was higher in GP (P = 0.05 and 0.022, respectively) while only higher ileal T150 was observed in GP (P = 0.032). Ileal claudin-2 abundance tended to be higher in SP overall (P = 0.063), but GP ileal claudin-2 expression was upregulated weaning while no change was observed in SP (P = 0.043). Finally, other than a higher jejunal TNF-α abundance observed in SP (P = 0.016), no other effect of parity was observed on inflammatory markers in the weaning cohort. The results from this study indicate that the GIT of GP have poorer adaptation to early life events, with the response to weaning, being more challenging which is likely to contribute to poorer postweaning growth.


The progeny of primiparous sows (gilt progeny; GP) have poorer lifetime growth performance in comparison to progeny from multiparous sows (sow progeny; SP). Previous research suggests that there is an underlying biological basis for reduced growth performance which is attributed to differences in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) barrier development during early life. This study aimed to clarify the timeframes of when these differences are in effect by investigating GIT development during two major events of a piglet's life: birth and weaning. To do this, GIT tissue was collected from GP and SP at four time points; birth, 24 h after birth, 1-d preweaning, and 1-d postweaning and assessed for functional development. The main findings from this study indicate there are early signs of variation in GIT development within the first 24 h of life between GP and SP, and that these differences increase through the preweaning period, with GP entering weaning with poorer GIT development and function. Possible explanations for the reduced GI development may be reduced maternal nutrition during the suckling period.


Assuntos
Claudina-2 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Humanos , Gravidez , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Desmame , Interleucina-8 , Sus scrofa , Jejuno , Biomarcadores , Lactação
17.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 263: 107440, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38452579

RESUMO

Increasing piglet weaning age while maintaining the reproductive efficiency of the breeding herd depends on the ability to stimulate sows to ovulate during lactation without reducing subsequent pregnancy rates and litter sizes. The aim of this study was to determine if a reduction in piglet suckling load, either prior to or immediately after mating in lactation, altered ovarian follicle development and increased embryo survival to day 30 of gestation. Fifty-nine multiparous Large White x Landrace sows were allocated to one of three treatments; litter size maintained at 11 piglets (control); litter size reduced to seven piglets on day 18 of lactation (split wean (SW)); or litter size reduced to seven piglets at expression of lactation oestrus (oestrus split wean (OES SW)). The percentage of sows that expressed lactation oestrus did not differ between treatments (79.7 %; P > 0.05) and split weaning had minimal effects on ovarian follicle development. Pregnancy rates were higher for SW and OES SW sows, compared to control sows. Embryo survival to day 30 of gestation was higher for SW sows (73.7 %) compared with control (56.4 %) and OES SW sows (49.5 %; P < 0.05). In summary, weaning a portion of the litter prior to mating in lactation improved pregnancy rates and embryo survival.


Assuntos
Lactação , Reprodução , Gravidez , Animais , Feminino , Suínos , Desmame , Taxa de Gravidez , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Paridade
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474015

RESUMO

Food allergy (FA) affects approximately 6-8% of children worldwide causing a significant impact on the quality of life of children and their families. In past years, the possible role of weaning in the development of FA has been studied. According to recent studies, this is still controversial and influenced by several factors, such as the type of food, the age at food introduction and family history. In this narrative review, we aimed to collect the most recent evidence about weaning and its role in FA development, organizing the gathered data based on both the type of study and the food. As shown in most of the studies included in this review, early food introduction did not show a potential protective role against FA development, and we conclude that further evidence is needed from future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Humanos , Desmame , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Alimentos , Alérgenos
19.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474864

RESUMO

According to WHO, "complementary feeding (CF) is the process starting when breast milk alone or infant formula alone is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of infants, and therefore, other foods and liquids are needed, along with breast human milk or a breastmilk substitute". CF is one of the most important "critical and sensitive periods" in human life: indeed, timing and approaches to solid foods introduction in an infant's nutrition are of utmost importance as potential epigenetic factors from infancy to adulthood. CF is also deeply influenced by each country and single-family traditions, culture, and beliefs. The aim of our narrative review is to analyze traditional CF practices, including innovative and alternative ones that emerged in the last decades, such as baby-led weaning or plant-based weaning, and to evaluate their effects on the risk of developing non-communicable diseases. Moreover, we will discuss pitfalls and misunderstandings that pediatricians frequently have to face when dealing with complementary feeding. Health care professionals must not have prejudices against parents' wishes or traditions about CF; rather, they should support and educate them in case of any alternative CF choice, always pursuing the infant's adequate growth, neuro- and taste development, and the achievement of correct eating behavior as the primary goal.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Alimentos Infantis , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Desmame , Comportamento Alimentar , Fórmulas Infantis , Leite Humano
20.
Gut Microbes ; 16(1): 2323220, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439579

RESUMO

The mechanisms of how host-microbe mutualistic relationships are established at weaning contingently upon B-cell surveillance remain inadequately elucidated. We found that CD138+ plasmacyte (PC)-mediated promotion of IgA response regulates the symbiosis between Bacteroides uniformis (B. uniformis) and the host during the weaning period. The IgA-skewed response of CD138+ PCs is essential for B. uniformis to occupy a defined gut luminal niche, thereby fostering stable colonization. Furthermore, B. uniformis within the natural gut niche was perturbed in the absence of IgA, resulting in exacerbated gut inflammation in IgA-deficient mice and weaned piglets. Thus, we propose that the priming and maintenance of intestinal IgA response from CD138+ PCs are required for host-microbial symbiosis, whereas the perturbation of which would enhance inflammation in weaning process.


Assuntos
Bacteroides , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Suínos , Animais , Camundongos , Desmame , Inflamação , Imunoglobulina A
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