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1.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 56(1): 20-27, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454585

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex neuropsychiatric pathophysiology with an unmet need for safe, effective, and sustainable therapeutic modalities. Thus, the present study evaluated the effects of Withaniasomnifera (WS, Ashwagandha) on an experimental model of PTSD in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats (200-250 g) were used and time-dependent sensitization (TDS) was used as the experimental model of PTSD. Standardized WS root extract (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. for 15 days) was administered with TDS and their effects were observed on neurobehavioral (anxiety) and brain cytokines, corticosterone, and oxidative stress markers. RESULTS: Exposure to TDS resulted in anxiogenic behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, i.e., reductions in open arm entries and open arm time, as compared to the control group. Pretreatment with WS extract (100 and 300 mg/kg × 14 days) attenuated the TDS-induced anxiogenic activity in a dose-related manner, and these WS effects were comparable to those seen after the comparator drug fluoxetine (10 mg/kg). Assay of brain homogenates showed that TDS also resulted in elevations in brain interleukin-6 and reduction in corticosterone levels in both the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), which were reversed after WS pretreatments. Further, WS pretreatment also reversed the TDS-induced changes in brain oxidative stress markers, namely elevated malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione levels in both the hippocampus and PFC. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that WS could have potential as a therapeutic agent for treating PTSD by attenuating anxiogenesis, neuroimmune axis activation, and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Withania , Ratos , Animais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos Wistar , Corticosterona , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
2.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 91(2): e13816, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38414306

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Reproductive performance of animals gets affected by nutritional restrictions which act as potential stressors leading to hormonal imbalance and testicular inflammation, the major causes of infertility. Withania somnifera (WS), well-known traditional medicinal plant, has been used as antistress and infertility treatment. Therefore, the present study looks into the ameliorative effects of WS on the reproductive and immune system of male Coturnix coturnix japonica in stressed conditions like water and food restriction focussing on the modulation in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). METHOD OF STUDY: Biochemical estimations for oxidative stress, histological alterations, immuno-fluorescent localization of ERα, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-4, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in testicular cells were performed. RESULTS: Nutritional restriction declines endogenous estradiol, ERα in testicular cells while it elevates corticosterone leading to oxidative stress in testis thereby reducing fertility by decrease in sperm. Results indicate significant reversal in all the parameters after the administration of WS by improving testicular cell morphology, increased superoxide and catalase activity thus reducing oxidative stress. WS increases spermatogenesis and enhances expression of ERα in testicular cells in quail. Further, WS increases IL-4, decreases IL-1ß and IFN-γ expression in testis, thereby improving immune profile contrary to stressed conditions. CONCLUSION: WS stimulates HPG-axis even after stress resulting in increased endogenous estradiol which stimulates the expression of ERα in testis; increases sperm count and immunity thereby improving the reproductive performance. WS may be the best therapy against nutritional-restriction stress induced reproductive toxicity by reducing oxidative stress mediated inflammatory response via increased testicular expression of ERα in quail.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Withania , Masculino , Animais , Testículo/metabolismo , Coturnix/metabolismo , Withania/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fertilidade , Estradiol/metabolismo , Infertilidade/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo
3.
Phytother Res ; 38(3): 1695-1714, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38318763

RESUMO

Withania somnifera, the plant named Indian ginseng, Ashwagandha, or winter cherry, has been used since ancient times to cure various health ailments. Withania somnifera is rich in constituents belonging to chemical classes like alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and withanolides. Several chemotypes were identified based on their phytochemical composition and credited for their multiple bioactivities. Besides, exhibiting neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, adaptogenic, anti-stress, bone health, plant has shown promising anti-cancer properties. Several withanolides have been reported to play a crucial role in cancer; they target cancer cells by different mechanisms such as modulating the expression of tumor suppressor genes, apoptosis, telomerase expression, and regulating cell signaling pathway. Though, many treatments are available for cancer; however, to date, no assured reliable cure for cancer is made available. Additionally, synthetic drugs may lead to development of resistance in time; therefore, focus on new and natural drugs for cancer therapeutics may prove a longtime effective alternative. This current report is a comprehensive combined analysis upto 2023 with articles focused on bio-activities of plant Withania somnifera from various sources, including national and international government sources. This review focuses on understanding of various mechanisms and pathways to inhibit uncontrolled cell growth by W. somnifera bioactives, as reported in literature. This review provides a recent updated status of the W. somnifera on pharmacological properties in general and anti-cancer in particular and may provide a guiding resource for researchers associated with natural product-based cancer research and healthcare management.


Assuntos
Withania , Vitanolídeos , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Withania/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108419, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377888

RESUMO

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), is one of the most reputed Indian medicinal plants, having immense pharmacological activities due to the occurrence of withanolides. The withanolides are biosynthesized through triterpenoid biosynthetic pathway with the involvement of WsCAS leading to cyclization of 2, 3 oxidosqualene, which is a key metabolite to further diversify to a myriad of phytochemicals. In contrast to the available reports on the studies of WsCAS in withanolide biosynthesis, its involvement in phytosterol biosynthesis needs investigation. Present work deals with the understanding of role of WsCAS triterpenoid synthase gene in the regulation of biosynthesis of phytosterols & withanolides. Docking studies of WsCAS protein revealed Conserved amino acids, DCATE motif, and QW motif which are involved in efficient substrate binding, structure stabilization, and catalytic activity. Overexpression/silencing of WsCAS leading to increment/decline of phytosterols confers its stringent regulation in phytosterols biosynthesis. Differential regulation of WsCAS on the metabolic flux towards phytosterols and withanolide biosynthesis was observed under abiotic stress conditions. The preferential channelization of 2, 3 oxidosqualene towards withanolides and/or phytosterols occurred under heat/salt stress and cold/water stress, respectively. Stigmasterol and ß-sitosterol showed major contribution in high/low temperature and salt stress, and campesterol in water stress management. Overexpression of WsCAS in Arabidopsis thaliana led to the increment in phytosterols in general. Thus, the WsCAS plays important regulatory role in the biosynthetic pathway of phytosterols and withanolides under abiotic stress conditions.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis , Esqualeno/análogos & derivados , Triterpenos , Withania , Vitanolídeos , Vitanolídeos/metabolismo , Esteróis , Withania/genética , Withania/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Desidratação , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 208: 108440, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38412705

RESUMO

Due to low amounts of withanolides produced in some plants and high demand for various applications, their biotechnological production is widely researched. The effects of two explant types (i.e., leaf and stem from the in vitro seedlings of three genotypes of Withania somnifera) and four Rhizobium strains (i.e., LBA 9402, A4, ATCC 15834, and C58C1) to improve hairy root formation efficiency was studied. Furthermore, the combined effects of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on withaferin A production after 48 h exposure time was examined. Four hairy roots having the maximum percentage of induced roots and mean number of induced roots to analyze their growth kinetics and identified G3/ATCC/LEAF culture having the maximum specific growth rate (µ = 0.036 day-1) and growth index (GI = 9.18), and the shortest doubling time (Td = 18.82 day) were selected. After 48 h exposure of G3/ATCC/LEAF culture to different elicitation conditions, maximum amounts of withaferin A were produced in samples co-treated with 0.5 mM ß-CD + 100 µM MeJA (9.57 mg/g DW) and 5.0 mM ß-CD + 100 µM MeJA (17.45 mg/g DW). These outcomes represented a 6.8-fold and 12.5-fold increase, respectively, compared to the control. Similarly, combined ß-CD/MeJA elicitation increased gene expression levels of HMGR, SQS, SMT-1, and SDS/CYP710A involved in withanolides biosynthetic pathway, of which just SMT-1 had significant correlation with withaferin A production. These results demonstrated the superiority of G1-leaf explant and ATCC 15834 for hairy root induction, and revealed synergistic effect of MeJA and ß-CD on withaferin A production.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Ciclopentanos , Oxilipinas , Withania , Vitanolídeos , beta-Ciclodextrinas , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Vitanolídeos/metabolismo , Withania/genética , Withania/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , beta-Ciclodextrinas/farmacologia
7.
Nutrients ; 16(1)2024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38201986

RESUMO

The investigation focused on the impact of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) extract (WSE) on age-related mechanisms affecting skeletal muscle sarcopenia-related muscle atrophy in aged mice. Beyond evaluating muscular aspects, the study explored chronic low-grade inflammation, muscle regeneration, and mitochondrial biogenesis. WSE administration, in comparison to the control group, demonstrated no significant differences in body weight, diet, or water intake, affirming its safety profile. Notably, WSE exhibited a propensity to reduce epidermal and abdominal fat while significantly increasing muscle mass at a dosage of 200 mg/kg. The muscle-to-fat ratio, adjusted for body weight, increased across all treatment groups. WSE administration led to a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1ß, mitigating inflammation-associated muscle atrophy. In a 12-month-old mouse model equivalent to a 50-year-old human, WSE effectively preserved muscle strength, stabilized grip strength, and increased muscle tissue weight. Positive effects were observed in running performance and endurance. Mechanistically, WSE balanced muscle protein synthesis/degradation, promoted fiber differentiation, and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis through the IGF-1/Akt/mTOR pathway. This study provides compelling evidence for the anti-sarcopenic effects of WSE, positioning it as a promising candidate for preventing sarcopenia pending further clinical validation.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Sarcopenia , Withania , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/prevenção & controle , Etanol , Inflamação , Peso Corporal
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 323: 117699, 2024 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38185262

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, known as Ashwagandha, has long been used in traditional medicine in Ayurveda, India, a representative adaptogen. The main active constituents of W. somnifera are withanolides, and the root is often used as a medicine with a wide range of pharmacological activities, which can be used to treat insomnia, neurasthenia, diabetes mellitus and skin cancer. AIM OF THE STUDY: Whole-component qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on W. somnifera. We explored the ameliorative effect of the adaptogen representative plant W. somnifera on the senescence events of MGO-injured fibroblasts and its action mechanism and verified the hypotheses that WS can inhibit the accumulation of AGEs and regulate the dynamic balance among the components of the ECM by modulating the expression of integrin ß1 receptor; as a result, WS maintains cellular behavioural and biological functions in a normal range and retards the aging of skin from the cellular level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the components of WS were first qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by HPLC fingerprinting and LC-MS detection. Second, a model of MGO-induced injury of CML-overexpressing fibroblasts was established. ELISA was used to detect CML expression and the synthesis of key extracellular matrix ECM protein components COL1, FN1, LM5 and TNC synthesis; CCK-8 was used to detect cell viability; EDU was used to detect cell proliferation capacity; fluorescence was used to detect cell adhesion capacity; and migration assay were used to detect cell migration capacity; qRT-PCR was used to detect the regulatory pathway TGF-ß1 and MMP-2, MMP-9 in ECMs; immunofluorescence was used to detect the expression of ITGB1; and WB was used to detect the expression of COL1, FN1, LM5, Tnc, TGF-ß1, MMP-2, MMP-9 and ITGB1. RESULTS: In total, 27 active ingredients were analysed from WS, which mainly consisted of withanolide components, such as withaferin A and withanolide A. Based on the model of MGO-induced fibroblast senescence injury, WS significantly inhibited CML synthesis. By up-regulating the expression of integrin ß1, it upregulated the expression of the TGF-ß1 gene, which is closely related to the generation of ECMs, downregulated the expression of the MMP-2 and MMP-9 genes, which are closely related to the degradation of ECMs, maintained the dynamic balance of the four types of ECMs, and improved cell viability as well as proliferation, migration and adhesion abilities. CONCLUSIONS: WS can prevent cellular behavioural dysfunction and delay skin ageing by reducing the accumulation of CML, upregulating the expression of the ITGB1 receptor, maintaining the normal function of ECM-integrin receptor interaction and preventing an imbalance between the production and degradation of protein components of ECMs. The findings reported in this study suggest that WS as a CML inhibitor can modulate ECM-integrin homeostasis and has great potential in the field of aging retardation.


Assuntos
Withania , Vitanolídeos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Withania/metabolismo , Integrina beta1/genética , Integrina beta1/metabolismo , Óxido de Magnésio/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Integrinas/metabolismo , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Vitanolídeos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química
9.
Cell Transplant ; 33: 9636897241226573, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258793

RESUMO

Acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) is the major contributor of nonrelapse mortality in alloHSCT. It is associated with an inflammatory immune response manifesting as cytokine storm with ensuing damage to target organs such as liver, gut, and skin. Prevention of aGvHD while retaining the beneficial graft versus leukemia (GvL) effect remains a major challenge. Withania somnifera extract (WSE) is known for its anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory, and anticancer properties, which are appealing in the context of aGvHD. Herein, we demonstrated that prophylactic and therapeutic use of WSE in experimental model of alloHSCT mitigates aGvHD-associated morbidity and mortality. In the prophylaxis study, a dose of 75 mg/kg of WSE offered greatest protection against death due to aGvHD (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.15 [0.03-0.68], P ≤ .01), whereas 250 mg/kg was most effective for the treatment of aGvHD (HR = 0.16 [0.05-0.5], P ≤ .01). WSE treatment protected liver, gut, and skin from damage by inhibiting cytokine storm and lymphocytic infiltration to aGvHD target organs. In addition, WSE did not compromise the GvL effect, as alloHSCT with or without WSE did not allow the leukemic A20 cells to grow. In fact, WSE showed marginal antileukemic effect in vivo. WSE is currently under clinical investigation for the prevention and treatment of aGvHD.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Leucemia , Withania , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237655

RESUMO

The present study explores growth potential of two medicinal herbs, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha or 'A') and Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari or 'S') after their dietary inclusion in fish, Channa punctatus (13.5 ± 2 g; 11.5 ± 1 cm). Three hundred well-acclimatized fish were distributed into 10 groups- C (Control), S1 (1% S), S2 (2% S), S3 (3% S), A1 (1% A), A2 (2% A), A3 (3% A), AS1 (1% A and S), AS2 (2% A and S), and AS3 (3% A and S), each having 10 specimens. Fish were fed with these diets for 60 days. The study was performed in triplicate. Growth indices- weight gain (WG), specific growth rate percentage (SGR%), feed intake (FI), and condition factor (CF), after 30 and 60 days, were found significantly (p < 0.05) up-regulated in all the groups, except S1, when compared to the C. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in final body weight (FBW) was noticed in all the groups, except S1, after 60 days. Relative to the control group, activities of lipase and amylase in the gut tissue were elevated in all groups, at both sampling times, with the exception of lipase in S1 at 60 days, and amylase in S1 at day 30 and day 60 and S2 at day 60. The mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) was also found to be significantly (p < 0.05) up-regulated with the highest fold changes recorded in AS3 for myoD (3.93 ± 0.91); myoG (6.71 ± 0.30); myf5 (4.40 ± 0.33); MRF4 (4.94 ± 0.21) in comparison to the C.


Assuntos
60455 , Fatores de Regulação Miogênica , Withania , Animais , Withania/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Peixes , Amilases , Lipase , Ração Animal/análise
11.
Phytother Res ; 38(2): 1104-1158, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38176694

RESUMO

Natural products have played a significant role throughout history in the prevention and treatment of numerous diseases, particularly cancers. As a natural product primarily derived from various medicinal plants in the Withania genus, withanolides have been shown in several studies to exhibit potential activities in cancer treatment. Consequently, understanding the molecular mechanism of withanolides could herald the discovery of new anticancer agents. Withanolides have been studied widely, especially in the last 20 years, and attracted the attention of numerous researchers. Currently, over 1200 withanolides have been classified, with approximately a quarter of them having been reported in the literature to be able to modulate the survival and death of cancer cells through multiple avenues. To what extent, though, has the anticancer effects of these compounds been studied? How far are they from being developed into clinical drugs? What are their potential, characteristic features, and challenges? In this review, we elaborate on the current knowledge of natural compounds belonging to this class and provide an overview of their natural sources, anticancer activity, mechanism of action, molecular targets, and implications for anticancer drug research. In addition, direct targets and clinical research to guide the design and implementation of future preclinical and clinical studies to accelerate the application of withanolides have been highlighted.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Plantas Medicinais , Withania , Vitanolídeos , Humanos , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Vitanolídeos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 23: 15347354231223499, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38281118

RESUMO

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has gained worldwide popularity for a multitude of health benefits inclusive of cancer-preventive and curative effects. Despite numerous research data supporting the benefits of this wonder herb, the actual use of ashwagandha for cancer treatment in clinics is limited. The primary reason for this is the inconsistent therapeutic outcome due to highly variable composition and constitution of active ingredients in the plant extract impacting ashwagandha's pharmacology. We investigate here an engineered yield: an ashwagandha extract (Oncowithanib) that has a unique and fixed portion of active ingredients to achieve consistent and effective therapeutic activity. Using the MCF7 cell line, Oncowithanib was studied for its anti-neoplastic efficacy and drug targets associated with cell cycle regulation, translation machinery, and cell survival and apoptosis. Results demonstrate a dose-dependent decline in Oncowithanib-treated MCF7 cell viability and reduced colony-forming ability. Treated cells showed increased cell death as evidenced by enhancement of Caspase 3 enzyme activity and decreased expressions of cell proliferation markers such as Ki67 and Aurora Kinase A. Oncowithanib treatment was also found to be associated with expressional suppression of key cellular kinases such as RSK1, Akt1, and mTOR in MCF7 cells. Our findings indicate that Oncowithanib decreases MCF7 cell survival and propagation, and sheds light on common drug targets that might be good candidates for the development of cancer therapeutics. Further in-depth investigations are required to fully explore the potency and pharmacology of this novel extract. This study also highlights the importance of the standardization of herbal extracts to get consistent therapeutic activity for the disease indication.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Withania , Vitanolídeos , Humanos , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Vitanolídeos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Withania/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinogênese , Transformação Celular Neoplásica
13.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 42(1): 528-549, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37087726

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance episodes in malaria increased from 3.9% to 20% from 2015 to 2019. Synchronizing the clinical manifestation in chronological sequence led to a unique impression on glucose demand (increased up to 100-fold) by the parasite-infected RBCs. Hence, restriction in the glucose uptake to parasite-infected RBCs could be an alternative approach to conquer the global burden of malaria to a greater extent. A C28 steroidal lactone Withaferin A (WS-3) isolated from Withania somnifera leave extract shows better thermodynamically stable interactions with the glucose transporters (GLUT-1 and PfHT) to standard drugs metformin and lopinavir. MD simulations for a trajectory period of 100 ns reflect stable interactions with the interactive amino acid residues such as Pro141, Gln161, Gln282, Gln283, Trp388, Phe389, and Phe40, Asn48, Phe85, His168, Gln169, Asn311 which potentiating inhibitory activity of WS-3 against GLUT-1 and PfHT respectively. WS-3 was non-hemotoxic (%hemolysis <5%) for a high concentration of up to 1 mg/ml in the physiological milieu. However, the %hemolysis significantly increased up to 30.55 ± 0.929% in a parasitophorous simulated environment (pH 5.0). Increased hemolysis of WS-3 could be due to the production of ROS in an acidic environment. Further, the inhibitory activity of WS-3 against both glucose transporters was supported with flow cytometry-based analysis of parasite-infected RBCs. Results show that WS-3 has low mean fluorescence intensities for both target proteins compared to conventional drugs, suggesting a potential sugar transporter inhibitor against GLUT-1 and PfHT for managing malaria. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Assuntos
Malária , Withania , Withania/química , Hemólise , Citometria de Fluxo , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo
14.
J Am Nutr Assoc ; 43(2): 115-130, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37410676

RESUMO

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, abundant in the Indian subcontinent as Ashwagandha or winter cherry, is a herb of unprecedented therapeutic value. The number of ailments for which crude Ashwagandha extract can be used as a preventive or curative is practically limitless; and this explains why its use has been in vogue in ancient Ayurveda since at-least about four thousand years. The therapeutic potential of Ashwagandha mainly owes from its reservoir of alkaloids (isopelletierine, anaferine), steroidal lactones (withanolides) and saponins with an extra acyl group (sitoindoside VII and VIII). Withaferin A is an exceptionally potent withanolide which is found in high concentrations in W. somnifera plant extracts. The high reactivity of Withaferin A owes to the presence of a C-28 ergostane network with multiple sites of unsaturation and differential oxygenation. It interacts with the effectors of multiple signaling pathways involved in inflammatory response, oxidative stress response, cell cycle regulation and synaptic transmission and has been found to be significantly effective in inducing programmed cell death in cancer cells, restoring cognitive health, managing diabetes, alleviating metabolic disorders, and rejuvenating the overall body homeostasis. Additionally, recent studies suggest that Withaferin A (WA) has the potential to prevent viral endocytosis by sequestering TMPRSS2, the host transmembrane protease, without altering ACE-2 expression. The scope of performing subtle structural modifications in this multi-ring compound is believed to further expand its pharmacotherapeutic horizon. Very recently, a novel, heavy metal and pesticide free formulation of Ashwagandha whole herb extract, with a significant amount of WA, termed W-ferinAmax Ashwagandha, has been developed. The present review attempts to fathom the present and future of this wonder molecule with comprehensive discussion on its therapeutic potential, safety and toxicity.Key teaching pointsWithania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a medicinal plant with versatile therapeutic values.The therapeutic potential of the plant owes to the presence of withanolides such as Withaferin A.Withaferin A is a C-28 ergostane based triterpenoid with multiple reactive sites of therapeutic potential.It is effective against a broad spectrum of ailments including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, inflammatory and oxidative stress disorders and it also promotes cardiovascular and sexual health.W-ferinAmax Ashwagandha, is a heavy metal and pesticide free Ashwagandha whole herb extract based formulation with significant amount of Withaferin A.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Withania , Vitanolídeos , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Withania/química , Lactonas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esteroides/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 322: 117603, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38122911

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal; (Solanaceae), commonly known as Ashwagandha, is one of the most significant medicinal herbs in 'Ayurveda', a traditional Indian medicine used for centuries with evidence in scriptures. Ashwagandha was mentioned in old Ayurvedic medical literature such as Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita for improving weight and strength, with multiple citations for internal and exterior usage in emaciation and nourishing the body. Ethnopharmacological evidence revealed that it was used to relieve inflammation, reduce abdominal swelling, as a mild purgative, and treat swollen glands. The root was regarded as a tonic, aphrodisiac, and emmenagogue in the Unani tradition of the Indian medicinal system. Further, Ashwagandha has been also described as an Ayurvedic medicinal plant in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India extending informed therapeutic usage and formulations. Despite the widespread ethnopharmacological usage of Ashwagandha, clinical pharmacokinetic parameters are lacking in the literature; hence, the findings of this study will be relevant for calculating doses for future clinical evaluations of Ashwagandha root extract. AIM: This study aimed to develop a validated and highly sensitive bioanalytical method for quantifying withanosides and withanolides of the Ashwagandha root extract in human plasma to explore its bioaccessibility. Further to apply a developed method to perform pharmacokinetics of standardized Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal root extract (WSE; AgeVel®/Witholytin®) capsules in healthy human volunteers. METHODS: A sensitive, reliable, and specific ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of five major withanosides and withanolides (withanoside IV, withanoside V, withanolide A, withaferin A, and 12-deoxy-withastramonolide) in human plasma. Further for the study, eighteen healthy male volunteers (18-45 years) were enrolled in a non-randomized, open-label, single period, single treatment, clinical pharmacokinetic study and given a single dose (500 mg) of WSE (AgeVel®/Witholytin®) capsules containing not less than 7.5 mg of total withanolides under fasting condition. Later, pharmacokinetic profiles were assessed using the plasma concentration of each bioactive constituent Vs. time data. RESULTS: For all five constituents, the bioanalytical method demonstrated high selectivity, specificity, and linearity. There was no carryover, and no matrix effect was observed. Furthermore, the inter-day and intra-day precision and accuracy results fulfilled the acceptance criteria. Upon oral administration of WSE capsules, Cmax was found to be 0.639 ± 0.211, 2.926 ± 1.317, 2.833 ± 0.981, and 5.498 ± 1.986 ng/mL for withanoside IV, withanolide A, withaferin A, and 12-deoxy-withastramonolide with Tmax of 1.639 ± 0.993, 1.361 ± 0.850, 0.903 ± 0.273, and 1.375 ± 0.510 h respectively. Further, withanoside V was also detected in plasma; but its concentration was found below LLOQ. CONCLUSION: The novel and first-time developed bioanalytical method was successfully applied for the quantification of five bio-active constituents in human volunteers following administration of WSE capsules, indicating that withanosides and withanolides were rapidly absorbed from the stomach, have high oral bioavailability, and an optimum half-life to produce significant pharmacological activity. Further, AgeVel®/Witholytin® was found safe and well tolerated after oral administration, with no adverse reaction observed at a 500 mg dose.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Withania , Vitanolídeos , Humanos , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Withania/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
Acta Chim Slov ; 70(4): 533-544, 2023 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38124638

RESUMO

Extraction of bioactive compounds from Withania somnifera roots was studied using sodium acetate-glycerol deep eutectic solvent (DES) and two techniques ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and heat-assisted extraction (HAE) under response surface methodology (RSM). For UAE and HAE, total phenolic content (TPC, mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight (mg GAE g-1 DW)), total flavonoid content (TFC, mg rutin equivalents g-1 DW (mg RE g-1 DW)), radical scavenging activity (RSA, mg AAE (ascorbic acid equivalents) g-1 DW), and iron chelating activity (ICA, mg EDTAE (ethylenediaminetetraacetate equivalents) g-1 DW%) were 6.51, 6.08, 12.56, and 3.57, respectively, and 3.33, 3.98. 6.57 and 2.48, respectively. For UAE, the optimal conditions were a DES concentration of 50 %, temperature of 60 °C, and time of 20 min, and for HAE, a DES concentration of 60 %, temperature of 60 °C, and time of 75 min. The discovered models were strongly supported by the validation experiments. UAE was more efficient and less time-consuming for extracting phytoconstituents of the W. somnifera than HAE.


Assuntos
Temperatura Alta , Withania , Antioxidantes , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Extratos Vegetais , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Compostos de Ferro/química
17.
Nutrients ; 15(24)2023 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38140274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Withania somnifera (WS), a popular medicinal plant of the Solanaceae family, contains active ingredients with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-stress activities. However, its precise mechanisms of action and optimal use as a supplement are not yet fully understood. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the impact of WS supplementation on cortisol levels in stressed humans by analyzing clinical trials conducted prior to May 2023. METHODS: The assessment was carried out following the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) by exploring the databases of EMBASE, PubMed, Google Scholar, CENTRAL, and Scopus. RESULTS: Of the 4788 articles identified, only 9 studies met the selection criteria. The selected studies varied in terms of design, results, formulations, dosages, and treatment duration (30-112 days), and involved subjects with varying degrees of stress. WS supplementation decreases cortisol secretion with no significant adverse effects. Nonetheless, none of the studies evaluated the potential impact of cortisol reduction on adrenal function and long-term effects. CONCLUSIONS: Brief-term supplementation with WS appears to have a stress-reducing effect in stressed individuals. However, since the long-term effects of WS supplementation are not yet fully understood, WS supplements should be used under medical supervision.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Withania , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Hidrocortisona , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(22)2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38003702

RESUMO

Withania somnifera, also known as Ashwagandha, has been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. Due to the wide range of its activities, there has been interest in its possible beneficial effects on the human body. It is proved that, among others, Ashwagandha has anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and hypolipidemic properties. Particularly interesting are its properties reported in the field of psychiatry and neurology: in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, depression, bipolar disorder, insomnia, anxiety disorders and many others. The aim of this review is to find and summarize the effect that Ashwagandha root extract has on the endocrine system and hormones. The multitude of active substances and the wide hormonal problems faced by modern society sparked our interest in the topic of Ashwagandha's impact on this system. In this work, we also attempted to draw conclusions as to whether W. somnifera can help normalize the functions of the human endocrine system in the future. The search mainly included research published in the years 2010-2023. The results of the research show that Ashwagandha can have a positive effect on the functioning of the endocrine system, including improving the secretory function of the thyroid gland, normalizing adrenal activity, and multidirectional improvement on functioning of the reproductive system. The main mechanism of action in the latter appears to be based on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as a decrease in cortisol levels and an increase in hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in men were found, which results in stress level reduction and improvement in fertility. In turn, other studies prove that active substances from W. somnifera, acting on the body, cause an increase in the secretion of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) by the thyroid gland and a subsequent decrease in the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in accordance with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. In light of these findings, it is clear that Ashwagandha holds significant promise as a natural remedy for various health concerns, especially those related to the endocrine system. Future research may provide new insights into its mechanisms of action and expand its applications in both traditional and modern medicine. The safety and toxicity of Ashwagandha also remain important issues, which may affect its potential use in specific patient groups.


Assuntos
Withania , Masculino , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Glândula Tireoide , Hormônio Luteinizante
19.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 18(20): 1361-1382, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37800462

RESUMO

Background: Impaired inflammation and vascularization are common reasons for delayed diabetic wound healing. Nanoparticles (NPs)-in-nanofibers composites can manage diabetic wounds. A multifunctional scaffold was developed based on tadalafil (TDF)-loaded NPs incorporated into polyvinyl alcohol/Withania somnifera extract nanofibers. Materials & methods: TDF-loaded NPs were prepared and fully characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties. Extract of ashwagandha was prepared and a blend composed of TDF-loaded NPs, herbal extract and polyvinyl alcohol was used to prepare the whole composite. Results: The whole composite exhibited improved wound closure in a diabetic rat model in terms of reduced inflammation and enhanced angiogenesis. Conclusion: Results suggest that this multifunctional composite could serve as a promising diabetic wound dressing.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nanofibras , Nanopartículas , Withania , Ratos , Animais , Cicatrização , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Tadalafila , Nanofibras/química , Úlcera/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/química
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(11): 1363, 2023 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37874418

RESUMO

Withania coagulans is a valuable medicinal plant with high demand, but its wild growth and local usage pose a threat to its natural habitat. This study aims to understand the plant's growth, anatomy, and physiology in different environmental conditions to aid in conservation and re-vegetation efforts. Fifteen differently adapted populations of Withania coagulans were collected from diverse ecological regions, viz., (i) along the roadside, (ii) hilly areas, (iii) barren land, and (iv) wasteland to unravel the adaptive mechanisms that are responsible for their ecological success across heterogenic environments of Punjab, Pakistan. The roadside populations had high values of photosynthetic pigments, total soluble proteins, root endodermis thickness, stem and leaf cortical thickness, and its cell area. The populations growing in hilly areas showed better growth performance such as vigorous growth and biomass production. Additionally, there was enhanced accumulation of organic osmolytes (glycine betaine and proline), chlorophyll content (chl a/b), and enlarged epidermal cells, cortical cells, vascular bundles, metaxylem vessels, and phloem region in roots. In case of stem area, epidermal thickness, cortical thickness, vascular bundle, and pith area showed improved growth. However, the barren land population showed significant increase in carotenoid contents, vascular bundle area, and metaxylem area in roots, and xylem vessels and phloem area in stems and leaves. The wasteland population surpassed the rest of the populations in having greater root dry weight, higher shoot ionic contents, increased root area, thick cortical, and vascular bundle area in roots. Likewise, cortical thickness and its cell area, and pith area in stems, whereas large vascular bundles, phloem region, and high stomatal density were recorded in leaves. Subsequently, natural populations showed the utmost behavior related to tissue organization and physiology in response to varied environmental conditions that would increase the distribution and survival of species.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Withania , Animais , Withania/metabolismo , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Clorofila/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
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