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1.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 727, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877196

RESUMO

Many insects and other animals carry microbial endosymbionts that influence their reproduction and fitness. These relationships only persist if endosymbionts are reliably transmitted from one host generation to the next. Wolbachia are maternally transmitted endosymbionts found in most insect species, but transmission rates can vary across environments. Maternal transmission of wMel Wolbachia depends on temperature in natural Drosophila melanogaster hosts and in transinfected Aedes aegypti, where wMel is used to block pathogens that cause human disease. In D. melanogaster, wMel transmission declines in the cold as Wolbachia become less abundant in host ovaries and at the posterior pole plasm (the site of germline formation) in mature oocytes. Here, we assess how temperature affects maternal transmission and underlying patterns of Wolbachia localization across 10 Wolbachia strains diverged up to 50 million years-including strains closely related to wMel-and their natural Drosophila hosts. Many Wolbachia maintain high transmission rates across temperatures, despite highly variable (and sometimes low) levels of Wolbachia in the ovaries and at the developing germline in late-stage oocytes. Identifying strains like closely related wMel-like Wolbachia with stable transmission across variable environmental conditions may improve the efficacy of Wolbachia-based biocontrol efforts as they expand into globally diverse environments.


Assuntos
Aedes , Drosophila melanogaster , Ovário , Wolbachia , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Wolbachia/genética , Animais , Feminino , Ovário/microbiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/microbiologia , Aedes/microbiologia , Simbiose , Temperatura , Oócitos/microbiologia
2.
Trials ; 25(1): 400, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This trial is a parallel, two-arm, non-blinded cluster randomised controlled trial that is under way in Singapore, with the aim of measuring the efficacy of male Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti deployments in reducing dengue incidence in an endemic setting with all four dengue serotypes in circulation. The trial commenced in July 2022 and is expected to conclude in September 2024. The original study protocol was published in December 2022. Here, we describe amendments that have been made to the study protocol since commencement of the trial. METHODS: The key protocol amendments are (1) addition of an explicit definition of Wolbachia exposure for residents residing in intervention sites based on the duration of Wolbachia exposure at point of testing, (2) incorporation of a high-dimensional set of anthropogenic and environmental characteristics in the analysis plan to adjust for baseline risk factors of dengue transmission, and (3) addition of alternative statistical analyses for endpoints to control for post hoc imbalance in cluster-based environmental and anthropogenic characteristics. DISCUSSION: The findings from this study will provide the first experimental evidence for the efficacy of releasing male-Wolbachia infected mosquitoes to reduce dengue incidence in a cluster-randomised controlled trial. The trial will conclude in 2024 and results will be reported shortly thereafter. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT05505682. Registered on 16 August 2022. Retrospectively registered. Last updated 11 November 2023.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Mosquitos Vetores , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Wolbachia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Animais , Singapura/epidemiologia , Masculino , Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Feminino , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
3.
Curr Biol ; 34(11): R547-R549, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834030

RESUMO

The Wolbachia strain that infects the parasitoid wasp Encarsia formosa induces female-producing parthenogenesis. A new study shows that a Wolbachia-encoded gene has replaced the use of the ancestral wasp homologue that normally controls sexual reproduction, resulting in parthenogenesis.


Assuntos
Partenogênese , Vespas , Wolbachia , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Wolbachia/genética , Animais , Vespas/microbiologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Feminino , Reprodução
5.
mSystems ; 9(6): e0001224, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742876

RESUMO

In arthropod-associated microbial communities, insect-specific viruses (ISVs) are prevalent yet understudied due to limited infectivity outside their natural hosts. However, ISVs might play a crucial role in regulating mosquito populations and influencing arthropod-borne virus transmission. Some studies have indicated a core virome in mosquitoes consisting of mostly ISVs. Employing single mosquito metagenomics, we comprehensively profiled the virome of native and invasive mosquito species in Belgium. This approach allowed for accurate host species determination, prevalence assessment of viruses and Wolbachia, and the identification of novel viruses. Contrary to our expectations, no abundant core virome was observed in Culex mosquitoes from Belgium. In that regard, we caution against rigidly defining mosquito core viromes and encourage nuanced interpretations of other studies. Nonetheless, our study identified 45 viruses of which 28 were novel, enriching our understanding of the mosquito virome and ISVs. We showed that the mosquito virome in this study is species-specific and less dependent on the location where mosquitoes from the same species reside. In addition, because Wolbachia has previously been observed to influence arbovirus transmission, we report the prevalence of Wolbachia in Belgian mosquitoes and the detection of several Wolbachia mobile genetic elements. The observed prevalence ranged from 83% to 92% in members from the Culex pipiens complex.IMPORTANCECulex pipiens mosquitoes are important vectors for arboviruses like West Nile virus and Usutu virus. Virome studies on individual Culex pipiens, and on individual mosquitoes in general, have been lacking. To mitigate this, we sequenced the virome of 190 individual Culex and 8 individual Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. We report the lack of a core virome in these mosquitoes from Belgium and caution the interpretation of other studies in this light. The discovery of new viruses in this study will aid our comprehension of insect-specific viruses and the mosquito virome in general in relation to mosquito physiology and mosquito population dynamics.


Assuntos
Culex , Viroma , Wolbachia , Animais , Culex/virologia , Culex/microbiologia , Viroma/genética , Wolbachia/genética , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação , Bélgica , Especificidade da Espécie , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Vírus de Insetos/genética , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Clima
6.
Curr Biol ; 34(11): 2359-2372.e9, 2024 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692276

RESUMO

Host reproduction can be manipulated by bacterial symbionts in various ways. Parthenogenesis induction is the most effective type of reproduction manipulation by symbionts for their transmission. Insect sex is determined by regulation of doublesex (dsx) splicing through transformer2 (tra2) and transformer (tra) interaction. Although parthenogenesis induction by symbionts has been studied since the 1970s, its underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. Here we identify a Wolbachia parthenogenesis-induction feminization factor gene (piff) that targets sex-determining genes and causes female-producing parthenogenesis in the haplodiploid parasitoid Encarsia formosa. We found that Wolbachia elimination repressed expression of female-specific dsx and enhanced expression of male-specific dsx, which led to the production of wasp haploid male offspring. Furthermore, we found that E. formosa tra is truncated and non-functional, and Wolbachia has a functional tra homolog, termed piff, with an insect origin. Wolbachia PIFF can colocalize and interact with wasp TRA2. Moreover, Wolbachia piff has coordinated expression with tra2 and dsx of E. formosa. Our results demonstrate the bacterial symbiont Wolbachia has acquired an insect gene to manipulate the host sex determination cascade and induce parthenogenesis in wasps. This study reveals insect-to-bacteria horizontal gene transfer drives the evolution of animal sex determination systems, elucidating a striking mechanism of insect-microbe symbiosis.


Assuntos
Transferência Genética Horizontal , Simbiose , Vespas , Wolbachia , Animais , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Wolbachia/genética , Vespas/fisiologia , Vespas/microbiologia , Vespas/genética , Simbiose/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Partenogênese/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética
7.
J Econ Entomol ; 117(3): 733-749, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701242

RESUMO

Wolbachia pipientis is a maternally inherited intracellular bacterium that infects a wide range of arthropods. Wolbachia can have a significant impact on host biology and development, often due to its effects on reproduction. We investigated Wolbachia-mediated effects in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, which transmits Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal agent of citrus greening disease. Diaphorina citri are naturally infected with Wolbachia; therefore, investigating Wolbachia-mediated effects on D. citri fitness and CLas transmission required artificial reduction of this endosymbiont with the application of doxycycline. Doxycycline treatment of psyllids reduced Wolbachia infection by approximately 60% in both male and female D. citri. Psyllids treated with doxycycline exhibited higher CLas acquisition in both adults and nymphs as compared with negative controls. In addition, doxycycline-treated psyllids exhibited decreased fitness as measured by reduced egg and nymph production as well as adult emergence as compared with control lines without the doxycycline treatment. Our results indicate that Wolbachia benefits D. citri by improving fitness and potentially competes with CLas by interfering with phytopathogen acquisition. Targeted manipulation of endosymbionts in this phytopathogen vector may yield disease management tools.


Assuntos
Doxiciclina , Aptidão Genética , Hemípteros , Wolbachia , Animais , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Feminino , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Masculino , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Liberibacter , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Simbiose , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Citrus/microbiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732070

RESUMO

Wolbachia, a group of Gram-negative symbiotic bacteria, infects nematodes and a wide range of arthropods. Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) that causes citrus greening disease, is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). However, the interaction between wDi and D. citri remains poorly understood. In this study, we performed a pan-genome analysis using 65 wDi genomes to gain a comprehensive understanding of wDi. Based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis, we classified the wDi strains into Asia and North America strains. The ANI analysis, principal coordinates analysis (PCoA), and phylogenetic tree analysis supported that the D. citri in Florida did not originate from China. Furthermore, we found that a significant number of core genes were associated with metabolic pathways. Pathways such as thiamine metabolism, type I secretion system, biotin transport, and phospholipid transport were highly conserved across all analyzed wDi genomes. The variation analysis between Asia and North America wDi showed that there were 39,625 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 2153 indels, 10 inversions, 29 translocations, 65 duplications, 10 SV-based insertions, and 4 SV-based deletions. The SV-based insertions and deletions involved genes encoding transposase, phage tail tube protein, ankyrin repeat (ANK) protein, and group II intron-encoded protein. Pan-genome analysis of wDi contributes to our understanding of the geographical population of wDi, the origin of hosts of D. citri, and the interaction between wDi and its host, thus facilitating the development of strategies to control the insects and huanglongbing (HLB).


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Filogenia , Simbiose , Wolbachia , Wolbachia/genética , Wolbachia/classificação , Simbiose/genética , Animais , Ásia , América do Norte , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Hemípteros/genética , Dípteros/microbiologia , Dípteros/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Curr Biol ; 34(10): R490-R492, 2024 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772333

RESUMO

The causes and consequences of sex-ratio dynamics constitutes a pivotal subject in evolutionary biology1. Under conditions of evolutionary equilibrium, the male-to-female ratio tends to be approximately 1:1; however, this equilibrium is susceptible to distortion by selfish genetic elements exemplified by driving sex chromosomes and cytoplasmic elements2,3. Although previous studies have documented instances of these genetic elements distorting the sex ratio, studies specifically tracking the process with which these distorters spread within populations, leading to a transition from balanced parity to a skewed, female-biased state, are notably lacking. Herein, we present compelling evidence documenting the rapid spread of the cytoplasmic endosymbiont Wolbachia within a localized population of the pierid butterfly Eurema hecabe (Figure 1A). This spread resulted in a shift in the sex ratio from near parity to an exceedingly skewed state overwhelmingly biased toward females, reaching 93.1% within a remarkably brief period of 4 years.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Razão de Masculinidade , Simbiose , Wolbachia , Animais , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Wolbachia/genética , Borboletas/microbiologia , Borboletas/fisiologia , Borboletas/genética , Feminino , Masculino
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0301274, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776328

RESUMO

Wolbachia is a maternally inherited intracellular bacterium that is considered to be the most plentiful endosymbiont found in arthropods. It reproductively manipulates its host to increase the chances of being transmitted to the insect progeny; and it is currently used as a means of suppressing disease vector populations or controlling vector-borne diseases. Studies of the dissemination and prevalence of Wolbachia among its arthropod hosts are important for its possible use as a biological control agent. The molecular identification of Wolbachia relies on different primers sets due to Wolbachia strain variation. Here, we screened for the presence of Wolbachia in a broad range of Brachycera fly species (Diptera), collected from different regions of Iran, using nine genetic markers (wsp, ftsZ, fbpA, gatB, CoxA, gltA, GroEL dnaA, and 16s rRNA), for detecting, assessing the sensitivity of primers for detection, and phylogeny of this bacterium. The overall incidence of Wolbachia among 22 species from six families was 27.3%. The most commonly positive fly species were Pollenia sp. and Hydrotaea armipes. However, the bacterium was not found in the most medically important flies or in potential human disease vectors, including Musca domestica, Sarcophaga spp., Calliphora vicinia, Lucilia sericata, and Chrysomya albiceps. The primer sets of 16s rRNA with 53.0% and gatB with 52.0% were the most sensitive primers for detecting Wolbachia. Blast search, phylogenetic, and MLST analysis of the different locus sequences of Wolbachia show that all the six distantly related fly species likely belonging to supergroup A. Our study showed some primer sets generated false negatives in many of the samples, emphasizing the importance of using different loci in detecting Wolbachia. The study provides the groundwork for future studies of a Wolbachia-based program for control of flies.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Filogenia , Wolbachia , Wolbachia/genética , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Irã (Geográfico) , Dípteros/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11207, 2024 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38755197

RESUMO

The intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis of the Applying Wolbachia to Eliminate Dengue (AWED) trial estimated a protective efficacy of 77.1% for participants resident in areas randomised to receive releases of wMel-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, an emerging dengue preventive intervention. The limiting assumptions of ITT analyses in cluster randomised trials and the mobility of mosquitoes and humans across cluster boundaries indicate the primary analysis is likely to underestimate the full public health benefit. Using spatiotemporally-resolved data on the distribution of Wolbachia mosquitoes and on the mobility of AWED participants (n = 6306), we perform complier-restricted and per-protocol re-examinations of the efficacy of the Wolbachia intervention. Increased intervention efficacy was estimated in all analyses by the refined exposure measures. The complier-restricted analysis returned an estimated efficacy of 80.7% (95% CI 65.9, 89.0) and the per-protocol analysis estimated 82.7% (71.7, 88.4) efficacy when comparing participants with an estimated wMel exposure of ≥ 80% compared to those with <20%. These reanalyses demonstrate how human and mosquito movement can lead to underestimation of intervention effects in trials of vector interventions and indicate that the protective efficacy of Wolbachia is even higher than reported in the primary trial results.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Wolbachia , Humanos , Aedes/microbiologia , Animais , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise por Conglomerados , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Feminino
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11966, 2024 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38796552

RESUMO

Wolbachia bacteria are common endosymbionts of insects and have recently been applied for controlling arboviral vectors, especially Aedes aegypti mosquito populations. However, several medically important mosquito species in Sri Lanka were present with limited information for the Wolbachia infection status. Therefore, the screening of Wolbachia in indigenous mosquitoes is required prior to a successful application of Wolbachia-based vector control strategy. In this study, screening of 78 mosquito species collected from various parts of the country revealed that 13 species were positive for Wolbachia infection, giving ~ 17% infection frequency of Wolbachia among the Sri Lankan mosquitoes. Twelve Wolbachia-positive mosquito species were selected for downstream Wolbachia strain genotyping using Multi Locus Sequencing Type (MLST), wsp gene, and 16S rRNA gene-based approaches. Results showed that these Wolbachia strains clustered together with the present Wolbachia phylogeny of world mosquito populations with some variations. Almost 90% of the mosquito populations were infected with supergroup B while the remaining were infected with supergroup A. A new record of Wolbachia supergroup B infection in Ae. aegypti, the main vectors of dengue, was highlighted. This finding was further confirmed by real-time qPCR, revealing Wolbachia density variations between Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (p = 0.001), and between males and females (p < 0.05). The evidence of natural Wolbachia infections in Ae. aegypti populations in Sri Lanka is an extremely rare incident that has the potential to be used for arboviral vector control.


Assuntos
Aedes , Mosquitos Vetores , Filogenia , Wolbachia , Animais , Wolbachia/genética , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação , Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/virologia , Sri Lanka , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos
13.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 64, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38691215

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are a complex nuisance around the world and tropical countries bear the brunt of the burden of mosquito-borne diseases. Rwanda has had success in reducing malaria and some arboviral diseases over the last few years, but still faces challenges to elimination. By building our understanding of in situ mosquito communities in Rwanda at a disturbed, human-occupied site and at a natural, preserved site, we can build our understanding of natural mosquito microbiomes toward the goal of implementing novel microbial control methods. Here, we examined the composition of collected mosquitoes and their microbiomes at two diverse sites using Cytochrome c Oxidase I sequencing and 16S V4 high-throughput sequencing. The majority (36 of 40 species) of mosquitoes captured and characterized in this study are the first-known record of their species for Rwanda but have been characterized in other nations in East Africa. We found significant differences among mosquito genera and among species, but not between mosquito sexes or catch method. Bacteria of interest for arbovirus control, Asaia, Serratia, and Wolbachia, were found in abundance at both sites and varied greatly by species.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Culicidae , Microbiota , Wolbachia , Ruanda , Animais , Culicidae/microbiologia , Wolbachia/genética , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação , Wolbachia/classificação , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Serratia/genética , Serratia/isolamento & purificação , Serratia/classificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1330475, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716193

RESUMO

The escalating challenge of malaria control necessitates innovative approaches that extend beyond traditional control strategies. This review explores the incorporation of traditional vector control techniques with emerging Wolbachia-based interventions. Wolbachia, a naturally occurring bacteria, offers a novel approach for combatting vector-borne diseases, including malaria, by reducing the mosquitoes' ability to transmit these diseases. The study explores the rationale for this integration, presenting various case studies and pilot projects that have exhibited significant success. Employing a multi-dimensional approach that includes community mobilization, environmental modifications, and new biological methods, the paper posits that integrated efforts could mark a turning point in the struggle against malaria. Our findings indicate that incorporating Wolbachia-based strategies into existing vector management programs not only is feasible but also heightens the efficacy of malaria control initiatives in different countries especially in Pakistan. The paper concludes that continued research and international collaboration are imperative for translating these promising methods from the laboratory to the field, thereby offering a more sustainable and effective malaria control strategy.


Assuntos
Malária , Mosquitos Vetores , Wolbachia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Animais , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Paquistão
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8556, 2024 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609398

RESUMO

The invasive brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus (Araneae: Theridiidae), has spread in multiple locations around the world and, along with it, brought associated organisms such as endosymbionts. We investigated endosymbiont diversity and prevalence across putative native and invasive populations of this spider, predicting lower endosymbiont diversity across the invasive range compared to the native range. First, we characterized the microbial community in the putative native (South Africa) and invasive (Israel and the United States) ranges via high throughput 16S sequencing of 103 adult females. All specimens were dominated by reads from only 1-3 amplicon sequence variants (ASV), and most individuals were infected with an apparently uniform strain of Rhabdochlamydia. We also found Rhabdochlamydia in spider eggs, indicating that it is a maternally-inherited endosymbiont. Relatively few other ASV were detected, but included two variant Rhabdochlamydia strains and several Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and Enterobacteriaceae strains. We then diagnostically screened 118 adult female spiders from native and invasive populations specifically for Rhabdochlamydia and Wolbachia. We found Rhabdochlamydia in 86% of individuals and represented in all populations, which suggests that it is a consistent and potentially important associate of L. geometricus. Wolbachia was found at lower overall prevalence (14%) and was represented in all countries, but not all populations. In addition, we found evidence for geographic variation in endosymbiont prevalence: spiders from Israel were more likely to carry Rhabdochlamydia than those from the US and South Africa, and Wolbachia was geographically clustered in both Israel and South Africa. Characterizing endosymbiont prevalence and diversity is a first step in understanding their function inside the host and may shed light on the process of spread and population variability in cosmopolitan invasive species.


Assuntos
Animais Peçonhentos , Chlamydiales , Aranhas , Wolbachia , Humanos , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Ovos
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2021): 20240429, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628128

RESUMO

The global expansion of Aedes albopictus has stimulated the development of environmentally friendly methods aiming to control disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. Sterile male release programmes are currently being deployed worldwide, and are challenged by the availability of an efficient sex separation which can be achieved mechanically at the pupal stage and/or by artificial intelligence at the adult stage, or through genetic sexing, which allows separating males and females at an early development stage. In this study, we combined the genetic sexing strain previously established based on the linkage of dieldrin resistance to the male locus with a Wolbachia transinfected line. For this, we introduced either the wPip-I or the wPip-IV strain from Culex pipiens in an asymbiotic Wolbachia-free Ae. albopictus line. We then measured the penetrance of cytoplasmic incompatibility and life-history traits of both transinfected lines, selected the wPip-IV line and combined it with the genetic sexing strain. Population suppression experiments demonstrated a 90% reduction in population size and a 50% decrease in hatching rate. Presented results showed that such a combination has a high potential in terms of vector control but also highlighted associated fitness costs, which should be reduced before large-scale field assay.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Wolbachia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Wolbachia/genética , Inteligência Artificial , Aedes/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302328, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38683843

RESUMO

The mosquito Aedes spp. holds important relevance for human and animal health, as it serves as a vector for transmitting multiple diseases, including dengue and Zika virus. The microbiome's impact on its host's health and fitness is well known. However, most studies on mosquito microbiomes have been conducted in laboratory settings. We explored the mixed microbial communities within Aedes spp., utilizing the 16S rRNA gene for diversity analysis and shotgun metagenomics for functional genomics. Our samples, which included Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, spanned various developmental stages-eggs, larvae, and adults-gathered from five semiurban areas in Mexico. Our findings revealed a substantial diversity of 8,346 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), representing 967 bacterial genera and 126,366 annotated proteins. The host developmental stage was identified as the primary factor associated with variations in the microbiome composition. Subsequently, we searched for genes and species involved in mosquito biocontrol. Wolbachia accounted for 9.6% of the 16S gene sequences. We observed a high diversity (203 OTUs) of Wolbachia strains commonly associated with mosquitoes, such as wAlb, with a noticeable increase in abundance during the adult stages. Notably, we detected the presence of the cifA and cifB genes, which are associated with Wolbachia's cytoplasmic incompatibility, a biocontrol mechanism. Additionally, we identified 221 OTUs related to Bacillus, including strains linked to B. thuringiensis. Furthermore, we discovered multiple genes encoding insecticidal toxins, such as Cry, Mcf, Vip, and Vpp. Overall, our study contributes to the understanding of mosquito microbiome biodiversity and metabolic capabilities, which are essential for developing effective biocontrol strategies against this disease vector.


Assuntos
Aedes , Microbiota , Mosquitos Vetores , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Aedes/microbiologia , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Wolbachia/genética , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Wolbachia/isolamento & purificação , Larva/microbiologia , Metagenômica/métodos , México , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
18.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 380, 2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trombiculid mites are globally distributed, highly diverse arachnids that largely lack molecular resources such as whole mitogenomes for the elucidation of taxonomic relationships. Trombiculid larvae (chiggers) parasitise vertebrates and can transmit bacteria (Orientia spp.) responsible for scrub typhus, a zoonotic febrile illness. Orientia tsutsugamushi causes most cases of scrub typhus and is endemic to the Asia-Pacific Region, where it is transmitted by Leptotrombidium spp. chiggers. However, in Dubai, Candidatus Orientia chuto was isolated from a case of scrub typhus and is also known to circulate among rodents in Saudi Arabia and Kenya, although its vectors remain poorly defined. In addition to Orientia, chiggers are often infected with other potential pathogens or arthropod-specific endosymbionts, but their significance for trombiculid biology and public health is unclear. RESULTS: Ten chigger species were collected from rodents in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Chiggers were pooled according to species and screened for Orientia DNA by PCR. Two species (Microtrombicula muhaylensis and Pentidionis agamae) produced positive results for the htrA gene, although Ca. Orientia chuto DNA was confirmed by Sanger sequencing only in P. agamae. Metagenomic sequencing of three pools of P. agamae provided evidence for two other bacterial associates: a spirochaete and a Wolbachia symbiont. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and multi-locus sequence typing genes placed the spirochaete in a clade of micromammal-associated Borrelia spp. that are widely-distributed globally with no known vector. For the Wolbachia symbiont, a genome assembly was obtained that allowed phylogenetic localisation in a novel, divergent clade. Cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcodes for Saudi Arabian chiggers enabled comparisons with global chigger diversity, revealing several cases of discordance with classical taxonomy. Complete mitogenome assemblies were obtained for the three P. agamae pools and almost 50 SNPs were identified, despite a common geographic origin. CONCLUSIONS: P. agamae was identified as a potential vector of Ca. Orientia chuto on the Arabian Peninsula. The detection of an unusual Borrelia sp. and a divergent Wolbachia symbiont in P. agamae indicated links with chigger microbiomes in other parts of the world, while COI barcoding and mitogenomic analyses greatly extended our understanding of inter- and intraspecific relationships in trombiculid mites.


Assuntos
Borrelia , Microbiota , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Tifo por Ácaros , Trombiculidae , Wolbachia , Animais , Borrelia/genética , DNA , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Orientia , Orientia tsutsugamushi/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Roedores/genética , Arábia Saudita , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/microbiologia , Trombiculidae/genética , Trombiculidae/microbiologia , Wolbachia/genética
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD015636, 2024 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is a global health problem of high significance, with 3.9 billion people at risk of infection. The geographic expansion of dengue virus (DENV) infection has resulted in increased frequency and severity of the disease, and the number of deaths has increased in recent years. Wolbachia,an intracellular bacterial endosymbiont, has been under investigation for several years as a novel dengue-control strategy. Some dengue vectors (Aedes mosquitoes) can be transinfected with specific strains of Wolbachia, which decreases their fitness (ability to survive and mate) and their ability to reproduce, inhibiting the replication of dengue. Both laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the potential effect of Wolbachia deployments on reducing dengue transmission, and modelling studies have suggested that this may be a self-sustaining strategy for dengue prevention, although long-term effects are yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of Wolbachia-carrying Aedes speciesdeployments (specifically wMel-, wMelPop-, and wAlbB- strains of Wolbachia) for preventing dengue virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, four other databases, and two trial registries up to 24 January 2024. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs), conducted in dengue endemic or epidemic-prone settings were eligible. We sought studies that investigated the impact of Wolbachia-carrying Aedes deployments on epidemiological or entomological dengue-related outcomes, utilizing either the population replacement or population suppression strategy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane RoB 2 tool. We used odds ratios (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) as the effect measure for dichotomous outcomes. For count/rate outcomes, we planned to use the rate ratio with 95% CI as the effect measure. We used adjusted measures of effect for cRCTs. We assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: One completed cRCT met our inclusion criteria, and we identified two further ongoing cRCTs. The included trial was conducted in an urban setting in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It utilized a nested test-negative study design, whereby all participants aged three to 45 years who presented at healthcare centres with a fever were enrolled in the study provided they had resided in the study area for the previous 10 nights. The trial showed that wMel-Wolbachia infected Ae aegypti deployments probably reduce the odds of contracting virologically confirmed dengue by 77% (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.35; 1 trial, 6306 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The cluster-level prevalence of wMel Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes remained high over two years in the intervention arm of the trial, reported as 95.8% (interquartile range 91.5 to 97.8) across 27 months in clusters receiving wMel-Wolbachia Ae aegypti deployments, but there were no reliable comparative data for this outcome. Other primary outcomes were the incidence of virologically confirmed dengue, the prevalence of dengue ribonucleic acid in the mosquito population, and mosquito density, but there were no data for these outcomes. Additionally, there were no data on adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The included trial demonstrates the potential significant impact of wMel-Wolbachia-carrying Ae aegypti mosquitoes on preventing dengue infection in an endemic setting, and supports evidence reported in non-randomized and uncontrolled studies. Further trials across a greater diversity of settings are required to confirm whether these findings apply to other locations and country settings, and greater reporting of acceptability and cost are important.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Wolbachia , Animais , Humanos , Aedes/microbiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle
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