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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2320484121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557183

RESUMO

Ethnographic records show that wooden tools played a pivotal role in the daily lives of hunter-gatherers including food procurement tools used in hunting (e.g., spears, throwing sticks) and gathering (e.g. digging sticks, bark peelers), as well as, domestic tools (e.g., handles, vessels). However, wood rarely survives in the archeological record, especially in Pleistocene contexts and knowledge of prehistoric hunter-gatherer lifeways is strongly biased by the survivorship of more resilient materials such as lithics and bones. Consequently, very few Paleolithic sites have produced wooden artifacts and among them, the site of Schöningen stands out due to its number and variety of wooden tools. The recovery of complete wooden spears and throwing sticks at this 300,000-y-old site (MIS 9) led to a paradigm shift in the hunter vs. scavenger debate. For the first time and almost 30 y after their discovery, this study introduces the complete wooden assemblage from Schöningen 13 II-4 known as the Spear Horizon. In total, 187 wooden artifacts could be identified from the Spear Horizon demonstrating a broad spectrum of wood-working techniques, including the splitting technique. A minimum of 20 hunting weapons is now recognized and two newly identified artifact types comprise 35 tools made on split woods, which were likely used in domestic activities. Schöningen 13 II-4 represents the largest Pleistocene wooden artifact assemblage worldwide and demonstrates the key role woodworking had in human evolution. Finally, our results considerably change the interpretation of the Pleistocene lakeshore site of Schöningen.


Assuntos
Artefatos , Armas , Humanos , Osso e Ossos , Arqueologia , Madeira
2.
Science ; 384(6691): 13-14, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574124

RESUMO

Complex tools from 300,000-year-old deposit at Schöningen in Germany point to a "wood age".


Assuntos
Homem de Neandertal , Animais , Artefatos , Arqueologia , Alemanha , Madeira
3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(3): e17212, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450825

RESUMO

Heterotrophic soil microorganisms are responsible for ~50% of the carbon dioxide released by respiration from the terrestrial biosphere each year. The respiratory response of soil microbial communities to warming, and the control mechanisms, remains uncertain, yet is critical to understanding the future land carbon (C)-climate feedback. Individuals of nine species of fungi decomposing wood were exposed to 90 days of cooling to evaluate the medium-term effect of temperature on respiration. Overall, the effect of temperature on respiration increased in the medium term, with no evidence of compensation. However, the increasing effect of temperature on respiration was lost after correcting for changes in biomass. These results indicate that C loss through respiration of wood-decomposing fungi will increase beyond the direct effects of temperature on respiration, potentially promoting greater C losses from terrestrial ecosystems and a positive feedback to climate change.


Assuntos
Fungos , Temperatura , Madeira , Mudança Climática , Fungos/fisiologia , Microbiota , Solo , Madeira/microbiologia
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 254, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446240

RESUMO

Timber wood is a building material with many positive properties. However, its susceptibility to microbial degradation is a major challenge for outdoor usage. Although many wood-degrading fungal species are known, knowledge on their prevalence and diversity causing damage to exterior structural timber is still limited. Here, we sampled 46 decaying pieces of wood from outdoor constructions in the area of Hamburg, Germany; extracted their DNA; and investigated their microbial community composition by PCR amplicon sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes. In order to establish a link between the microbial community structure and environmental factors, we analysed the influence of wood species, its C and N contents, the effect of wood-soil contact, and the importance of its immediate environment (city, forest, meadow, park, respectively). We found that fungal and bacterial community composition colonising exterior timber was similar to fungi commonly found in forest deadwood. Of all basidiomycetous sequences retrieved, some, indicative for Perenniporia meridionalis, Dacrymyces capitatus, and Dacrymyces stillatus, were more frequently associated with severe wood damage. Whilst the most important environmental factor shaping fungal and bacterial community composition was the wood species, the immediate environment was important for fungal species whilst, for the occurrence of bacterial taxa, soil contact had a high impact. No influence was tangible for variation of the C or N content. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that wood colonising fungal and bacterial communities are equally responsive in their composition to wood species, but respond differently to environmental factors. KEY POINTS: • Perenniporia meridionalis and Dacrymyces are frequently associated with wood damage • Fungal community composition on timber is affected by its surrounding environment • Bacterial community composition on structural timber is affected by soil contact.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Polyporaceae , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Madeira , Solo
5.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 274, 2024 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448454

RESUMO

Forest biomass is an essential resource in relation to the green transition and its assessment is key for the sustainable management of forest resources. Here, we present a forest biomass dataset for Europe based on the best available inventory and satellite data, with a higher level of harmonisation and spatial resolution than other existing data. This database provides statistics and maps of the forest area, biomass stock and their share available for wood supply in the year 2020, and statistics on gross and net volume increment in 2010-2020, for 38 European countries. The statistics of most countries are available at a sub-national scale and are derived from National Forest Inventory data, harmonised using common reference definitions and estimation methodology, and updated to a common year using a modelling approach. For those counties without harmonised statistics, data were derived from the State of Europe's Forest 2020 Report at the national scale. The maps are coherent with the statistics and depict the spatial distribution of the forest variables at 100 m resolution.


Assuntos
Florestas , Madeira , Biomassa , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente)
6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(3): e17224, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459661

RESUMO

Wood density is a fundamental property related to tree biomechanics and hydraulic function while playing a crucial role in assessing vegetation carbon stocks by linking volumetric retrieval and a mass estimate. This study provides a high-resolution map of the global distribution of tree wood density at the 0.01° (~1 km) spatial resolution, derived from four decision trees machine learning models using a global database of 28,822 tree-level wood density measurements. An ensemble of four top-performing models combined with eight cross-validation strategies shows great consistency, providing wood density patterns with pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The global pattern shows lower wood density values in northern and northwestern Europe, Canadian forest regions and slightly higher values in Siberia forests, western United States, and southern China. In contrast, tropical regions, especially wet tropical areas, exhibit high wood density. Climatic predictors explain 49%-63% of spatial variations, followed by vegetation characteristics (25%-31%) and edaphic properties (11%-16%). Notably, leaf type (evergreen vs. deciduous) and leaf habit type (broadleaved vs. needleleaved) are the most dominant individual features among all selected predictive covariates. Wood density tends to be higher for angiosperm broadleaf trees compared to gymnosperm needleleaf trees, particularly for evergreen species. The distributions of wood density categorized by leaf types and leaf habit types have good agreement with the features observed in wood density measurements. This global map quantifying wood density distribution can help improve accurate predictions of forest carbon stocks, providing deeper insights into ecosystem functioning and carbon cycling such as forest vulnerability to hydraulic and thermal stresses in the context of future climate change.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Madeira , Canadá , Florestas , Folhas de Planta , Carbono
7.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 54(1): 34-44, 2024 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475684

RESUMO

As a representative work of materia medica in the Ming Dynasty, the plant images attached to Compendium of Materia Medica retain the results of Li Shizhen's research on the original plants of medicinal materials in another form, which truly reflects the understanding and utilization of herbs in the Ming Dynasty.Taking the image of fragrant plants in Wood section in the book as an example, the original of the plants depicted in the images is examined to reveal the level of understanding of plant knowledge and medicinal properties in the Ming dynasty.Among the 25 images contained in the woody section, 20 images accurately depict the leaves, flowers and fruits of plants, and the description of the morphological details of the plant Cephalotaxus fortunei Hook. f. proves a high level of understanding of plant morphology and medicinal properties at the time. However, the errors of a total of 5 diagrams such as Wuyao and A wei also showed limitations. By comparing the results of the image with the medicinal properties contained in the text,it is clear that the level of understanding of medicinal properties is very high in the Ming dynasty, and the understanding of the medicinal properties of some plants is even higher than the understanding of their morphology.


Assuntos
Materia Medica , Madeira , China
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6265, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490998

RESUMO

The genus Melia is known for its secondary metabolites and recently, this genus is being explored for its timber. There are vast differences among its species. For instance, Melia azedarach is reported to be invasive and while another species, M. dubia, has diverse utility with complex germination and regeneration characteristics. Researchers globally have been working on various aspects of this genus; In this study, using topic modelling and science mapping approach, we attempted to understand research facets on this genus. The literature corpus of the Web of Science database was explored using a single keyword-"Melia" which yielded 1523 publications (1946-2022) and after scrutiny metadata of 1263 publications were used in the study. Although nine individual species were cited in the publications, only three species are accepted viz., M. dubia, M. azedarach, and M. volkensii. This implies taxonomic uncertainty, with potential confusion in assigning scientific findings to particular species. Thus, a taxonomic relook on this genus is warranted for a better assessment of the economic utility in many countries. More importantly, our results indicate that the research interests have recently shifted from the secondary metabolite constituents towards growth, biomass, wood properties, germination, plantation, and green synthesis. The shift in research focus toward wood properties of Melia sp. can impact the wood demand-supply at a global scale owing to its fast growth and the possibility of cultivation over a wider geographical range.


Assuntos
Melia azedarach , Melia , Madeira , Biomassa
9.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 26(3): 485-491, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441404

RESUMO

In plant ecology, the terms growth and development are often used interchangeably. Yet these constitute two distinct processes. Plant architectural traits (e.g. number of successive forks) can estimate development stages. Here, we show the importance of including the effect of development stages to better understand size-related trait scaling relationships (i.e. between height and stem diameter). We focused on one common savanna woody species (Senegalia nigrescens) from the Greater Kruger Area, South Africa. We sampled 406 individuals that experience different exposure to herbivory, from which we collected four traits: plant height, basal stem diameter, number of successive forks (proxy for development stage), and resprouting. We analysed trait relationships (using standardized major axis regression) between height and stem diameter, accounting for the effect of ontogeny, exposure to herbivory, and resprouting. The number of successive forks affects the scaling relationship between height and stem diameter, with the slope and strength of the relationship declining in more developed individuals. Herbivory exposure and resprouting do not affect the overall height-diameter relationship. However, when height and stem diameter were regressed separately against number of successive forks, herbivory exposure and resprouting had an effect. For example, resprouting individuals allocate more biomass to both primary and secondary growth than non-resprouting plants in more disturbed conditions. We stress the need to include traits related to ontogeny so as to disentangle the effect of biomass allocation to primary and secondary growth from that of development in plant functional relationships.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Plantas , Humanos , Madeira , Biomassa , Ecologia
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 35(2): 321-329, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38523088

RESUMO

Accurate and efficient extraction of tree parameters from plantations lay foundation for estimating individual wood volume and stand stocking. In this study, we proposed a method of extracting high-precision tree parameters based on airborne LiDAR data. The main process included data pre-processing, ground filtering, individual tree segmentation, and parameter extraction. We collected high-density airborne point cloud data from the large-diameter timber of Fokienia hodginsii plantation in Guanzhuang State Forestry Farm, Shaxian County, Fujian Province, and pre-processed the point cloud data by denoising, resampling and normalization. The vegetation point clouds and ground point clouds were separated by the Cloth Simulation Filter (CSF). The former data were interpolated using the Delaunay triangulation mesh method to generate a digital surface model (DSM), while the latter data were interpolated using the Inverse Distance Weighted to generate a digital elevation model (DEM). After that, we obtained the canopy height model (CHM) through the difference operation between the two, and analyzed the CHM with varying resolutions by the watershed algorithm on the accuracy of individual tree segmentation and parameter extraction. We used the point cloud distance clustering algorithm to segment the normalized vegetation point cloud into individual trees, and analyzed the effects of different distance thresholds on the accuracy of indivi-dual tree segmentation and parameter extraction. The results showed that the watershed algorithm for extracting tree height of 0.3 m resolution CHM had highest comprehensive evaluation index of 91.1% for individual tree segmentation and superior accuracy with R2 of 0.967 and RMSE of 0.890 m. When the spacing threshold of the point cloud segmentation algorithm was the average crown diameter, the highest comprehensive evaluation index of 91.3% for individual tree segmentation, the extraction accuracy of the crown diameter was superior, with R2 of 0.937 and RMSE of 0.418 m. Tree height, crown diameter, tree density, and spatial distribution of trees were estimated. There were 5994 F. hodginsii, with an average tree height of 16.63 m and crown diameter of 3.98 m. Trees with height of 15-20 m were the most numerous (a total of 2661), followed by those between 10-15 m. This method of forest parameter extraction was useful for monitoring and managing plantations.


Assuntos
Florestas , Madeira , Simulação por Computador , Algoritmos , Agricultura Florestal/métodos
11.
Ecol Lett ; 27(3): e14408, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504459

RESUMO

Although plant-soil feedback (PSF) is being recognized as an important driver of plant recruitment, our understanding of its role in species coexistence in natural communities remains limited by the scarcity of experimental studies on multispecies assemblages. Here, we experimentally estimated PSFs affecting seedling recruitment in 10 co-occurring Mediterranean woody species. We estimated weak but significant species-specific feedback. Pairwise PSFs impose similarly strong fitness differences and stabilizing-destabilizing forces, most often impeding species coexistence. Moreover, a model of community dynamics driven exclusively by PSFs suggests that few species would coexist stably, the largest assemblage with no more than six species. Thus, PSFs alone do not suffice to explain coexistence in the studied community. A topological analysis of all subcommunities in the interaction network shows that full intransitivity (with all species involved in an intransitive loop) would be rare but it would lead to species coexistence through either stable or cyclic dynamics.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Retroalimentação , Plantas , Madeira
12.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298379, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507362

RESUMO

Nonresidential and mid- to high-rise multifamily residential structures in the United States currently use little wood per unit floor area installed, because earlier building codes lacked provisions for structural wood use in those types of buildings. However, revisions to the International Building Code allow for increased wood use in the form of mass timber, as structural and fire safety concerns have been addressed through new science-based design standards and through newly specified construction materials and measures. This study used multiple models to describe alternative futures for new construction, mass timber adoption rates, and the associated carbon benefits in higher than three-story buildings in the United States. The use of mass timber, in place of traditional constructions (i.e., structures dominated by concrete and steel), in projected new higher than three-story buildings was shown to provide combined carbon benefits (i.e., global warming mitigation benefits), including avoided embodied carbon emissions due to the substitution of non-wood alternatives and additional biogenic carbon storage in mass timber materials, of between 9.9 and 16.5 million t CO2e/yr spanning 50 years, 2020 to 2070. These carbon benefits equate to 12% to 20% of the total U.S. harvested wood products carbon storage for 2020. Future research is needed to understand how greater mass timber adoption leads to changes in forest product markets, land use, and total forest sector carbon.


Assuntos
Carbono , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Estados Unidos , Florestas , Madeira , Materiais de Construção
13.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 312, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531927

RESUMO

The Japanese sawyer beetle, Monochamus alternatus, is not only one of the most important wood boring pest itself, but also a major vector of the invasive pinewood nematode (PWN), which is the causal agent of the devastative pine wilt disease (PWD) and threats the global pine forest. Here, we present a near-complete genome of M. alternatus at the chromosome level. The assembled genome was 792.05 Mb with contig N50 length of 55.99 Mb, which is the largest N50 size among the sequenced Coleoptera insects currently. 99.57% of sequence was anchored onto ten pseudochromosomes (one X-chromosome and nine autosomes), and the final genome harbored only 13 gaps. BUSCO evaluation revealed the presence of 99.0% of complete core genes. Thus, our genome assembly represented the highest-contiguity genome assembly as well as high completeness in insects so far. We identified 20,471 protein-coding genes, of which 20,070 (98.04%) were functionally annotated. The genome assembly of M. alternatus provides a valuable resource for exploring the evolution of the symbiosis between PWN and the vector insects.


Assuntos
Besouros , Genoma de Inseto , Nematoides , Pinus , Animais , Besouros/genética , Besouros/parasitologia , Pinus/parasitologia , Madeira , Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia
14.
Mycorrhiza ; 34(1-2): 33-44, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520554

RESUMO

Although the absence of normal leaves is often considered a sign of full heterotrophy, some plants remain at least partially autotrophic despite their leafless habit. Leafless orchids with green stems and capsules probably represent a late evolutionary stage toward full mycoheterotrophy and serve as valuable models for understanding the pathways leading to this nutritional strategy. In this study, based on molecular barcoding and isotopic analysis, we explored the physiological ecology of the leafless orchid Eulophia zollingeri, which displays green coloration, particularly during its fruiting phase. Although previous studies had shown that E. zollingeri, in its adult stage, is associated with Psathyrellaceae fungi and exhibits high 13C isotope signatures similar to fully mycoheterotrophic orchids, it remained uncertain whether this symbiotic relationship is consistent throughout the orchid's entire life cycle and whether the orchid relies exclusively on mycoheterotrophy for its nutrition during the fruiting season. Our study has demonstrated that E. zollingeri maintains a specialized symbiotic relationship with Psathyrellaceae fungi throughout all life stages. However, isotopic analysis and chlorophyll data have shown that the orchid also engages in photosynthesis to meet its carbon needs, particularly during the fruiting stage. This research constitutes the first discovery of partial mycoheterotrophy in leafless orchids associated with saprotrophic non-rhizoctonia fungi.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Micorrizas , Orchidaceae , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Madeira/química , Madeira/metabolismo , Simbiose , Carbono/metabolismo , Orchidaceae/microbiologia
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 334: 122024, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553223

RESUMO

Upon tensile stress, the spiral cellulose fibrils in wood cell walls rotate like springs with decreasing microfibril angle (MFA), and the cellulose molecules elongate in the chain direction. Compression wood with high MFA and opposite wood with low MFA were comparatively studied by in-situ tensile tests combined with synchrotron radiation WAXS in the present study. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that compression wood had a higher lignin content and fewer acetyl groups. For both types of wood, the lattice spacing d004 increased and the MFA decreased gradually with the increase of tensile stress. At stresses beyond the yield point, cellulose lattice strain depended linearly on macroscopic stress, while the MFA depended linearly on macroscopic strain. The deformation mechanisms of compression wood and opposite wood are not essentially different but differ in their deformation behavior. Specifically, the contribution ratio of lattice strain and cellulose fibril reorientation to macroscopic strain was 0.25 and 0.53 for compression wood, and 0.40 and 0.33 for opposite wood, respectively. Due to the geometric effects of MFA, a greater contribution of cellulose fibril reorientation to the macroscopic deformation was detected in compression wood than in opposite wood.


Assuntos
Celulose , Pinus , Celulose/química , Madeira/metabolismo , Microfibrilas/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Parede Celular/química
16.
Mar Genomics ; 74: 101097, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485291

RESUMO

Historically famous for their negative impact on human-built marine wood structures, mollusc shipworms play a central ecological role in marine ecosystems. Their association with bacterial symbionts, providing cellulolytic and nitrogen-fixing activities, underscores their exceptional wood-eating and wood-boring behaviours, improving energy transfer and the recycling of essential nutrients locked in the wood cellulose. Importantly, from a molecular standpoint, a minute of omic resources are available from this lineage of Bivalvia. Here, we produced and assembled a transcriptome from the globally distributed naval shipworm, Teredo navalis (family Teredinidae). The transcriptome was obtained by sequencing the total RNA from five equidistant segments of the whole body of a T. navalis specimen. The quality of the produced assembly was accessed with several statistics, revealing a highly contiguous (1194 N50) and complete (over 90% BUSCO scores for Eukaryote and Metazoan databases) transcriptome, with nearly 38,000 predicted ORF, more than half being functionally annotated. Our findings pave the way to investigate the unique evolutionary biology of these highly modified bivalves and lay the foundation for an adequate gene annotation of a full genome sequence of the species.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Ecossistema , Humanos , Animais , Transcriptoma , Bivalves/genética , Evolução Biológica , Madeira , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
17.
Am Nat ; 203(4): 445-457, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38489774

RESUMO

AbstractExplaining diversity in tropical forests remains a challenge in community ecology. Theory tells us that species differences can stabilize communities by reducing competition, while species similarities can promote diversity by reducing fitness differences and thus prolonging the time to competitive exclusion. Combined, these processes may lead to clustering of species such that species are niche differentiated across clusters and share a niche within each cluster. Here, we characterize this partial niche differentiation in a tropical forest in Panama by measuring spatial clustering of woody plants and relating these clusters to local soil conditions. We find that species were spatially clustered and the clusters were associated with specific concentrations of soil nutrients, reflecting the existence of nutrient niches. Species were almost twice as likely to recruit in their own nutrient niche. A decision tree algorithm showed that local soil conditions correctly predicted the niche of the trees with up to 85% accuracy. Iron, zinc, phosphorus, manganese, and soil pH were among the best predictors of species clusters.


Assuntos
Florestas , Clima Tropical , Madeira , Ecologia , Panamá , Solo/química
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(16): 23924-23941, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430437

RESUMO

In response to the escalating concerns over antibiotics in aquatic environments, the photo-Fenton reaction has been spotlighted as a promising approach to address this issue. Herein, a novel heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst (Fe3O4/WPC) with magnetic recyclability was synthesized through a facile two-step process that included in situ growth and subsequent carbonization treatment. This catalyst was utilized to expedite the photocatalytic decomposition of ciprofloxacin (CIP) assisted by H2O2. Characterization results indicated the successful anchoring of MIL-101(Fe)-derived spindle-like Fe3O4 particles in the multi-channeled wood-converted porous carbon (WPC) scaffold. The as-synthesized hybrid photocatalysts, boasting a substantial specific surface area of 414.90 m2·g-1 and an excellent photocurrent density of 0.79 µA·cm-2, demonstrated superior photo-Fenton activity, accomplishing approximately 100% degradation of CIP within 120 min of ultraviolet-light exposure. This can be attributed to the existence of a heterojunction between Fe3O4 and WPC substrate that promotes the migration and enhances the efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Meanwhile, the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox circulation and mesoporous wood carbon in the catalyst synergistically enhance the utilization of H2O and accelerate the formation of •OH radicals, leading to heightened degradation efficiency of CIP. Experiments utilizing chemical trapping techniques have demonstrated that •OH radicals are instrumental in the CIP degradation process. Furthermore, the study on reusability indicated that the efficiency in removing CIP remained at 89.5% even through five successive cycles, indicating the structural stability and excellent recyclability of Fe3O4/WPC. This research presented a novel pathway for designing magnetically reusable MOFs/wood-derived composites as photo-Fenton catalysts for actual wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Carbono , Compostos Férricos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Compostos Férricos/química , Ciprofloxacina/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Porosidade , Madeira , Catálise
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(4): 339, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436740

RESUMO

Forests are pivotal in upholding and stabilizing ecosystem functions and services globally. Assessing changes in forest cover serves as a crucial indicator to comprehend the scope, scale, and dynamics of land use and land cover alterations on regional and global scales. This study evaluates the forest cover changes between 2005 and 2021, pinpointing the key drivers of forest land changes within the Senan district in Ethiopia's Amhara region. The analysis incorporated Landsat satellite images from 2005, 2011, and 2021, supplemented by field surveys using questionnaire data. Results reveal a shift: forest cover declined from 13.6% (2005) to 11.2% (2011) but rose to 15.4% by 2021, averaging a 12.9% annual change. Several crucial factors were identified as contributors to this forest cover change. These include expanding agricultural land, population growth, urbanization, and using wood as a fuel source. Poverty, exacerbated by population growth, climate change impacts, and a scarcity of food resources, directly linked to a shortage of farmlands, emerged as significant drivers of forest cover change. In light of these findings, an in-depth analysis of land use and land cover dynamics should be conducted, particularly at the expense of forest lands. Moreover, implementing sustainable management practices by developing strategies for intensive agriculture and fostering environmentally friendly non-farm income-generating activities is essential. This study provides reference material to policymakers and land-use planners setting sustainable development goals, advocating for balanced economic growth and environmental conservation to foster a harmonious relationship between humans and forests.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Etiópia , Florestas , Madeira
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 264(Pt 2): 130718, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460651

RESUMO

Chinese quince fruits (Chaenomeles sinensis) contain substantial amounts of lignin; however, the exact structure of lignin remains to be investigated. In this study, milled wood lignins (Milled wood lignin (MWL)-1, MWL-2, MWL-3, MWL-4, MWL-5, and MWL-6) were extracted from fruits harvested once a month from May to October 2019 to investigate their structural evolution during fruit growth. The samples were characterized via High-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric (TGA), pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and NMR (2D-heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) and 31P). The MWL samples in all fruit growth stages were GS-type lignin and lignin core undergoing minimal alterations during fruit development. The predominant linkage in the lignin structure was ß-O-4', followed by ß-ß' and ß-5'. Galactose and glucose were the main monosaccharides associated with MWL. In MWL-6, the lignin exhibited the highest homogeneity and thermal stability. As the fruit matured, a gradual increase in the ß-O-4' proportion and the ratio of S/G was observed. The results provide comprehensive characterization of the cell wall lignin of quince fruit as it matures. This study could inspire innovative applications of quince fruit lignin and provide the optimal harvest time for lignin utilization.


Assuntos
Lignina , Rosaceae , Lignina/química , Frutas/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Rosaceae/química , Madeira/química , China
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