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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 273(Pt 2): 133156, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878932

RESUMO

The environmental benefits of utilizing protease as a biocatalyst for wool shrink-resist finishing have been widely recognized. However, the efficacy of individual protease treatment is unsatisfactory due to its incapability towards the outermost cuticle layer of wool fibers that contains hydrophobic fatty acids. In order to weaken the structural integrity of the highly cross-linked scales and promote the enzymatic anti-felting, sodium sulfite and tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) were employed in combination with papain, respectively, aiming at obtaining a low shrinkage without unacceptable fiber damages. Based on the synergistic effect of papain and TCEP, the edges of wool scales were slightly destroyed by the reduction of disulfide bonds, accompanied by enzymatic hydrolysis of the keratin component. Through the controlled reduction and hydrolysis of wool scales, satisfactory anti-felting result was achieved without causing severe damage to the fiber interiors. In the presence of 0.25 g/L TCEP and 25 U/mL papain, the area shrinkage of wool fabric decreased to approximately 6 %, with a low strength loss of less than 8 %. Meanwhile, the dyeing behavior of the wool fabric under low-temperature conditions was dramatically improved, leading to decreased energy consumption during production. The present work provides an alternative for eco-friendly finishing of wool fabrics, which can be applied commercially.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos , Papaína , , Papaína/química , Animais , Lã/química , Dissulfetos/química , Substâncias Redutoras/química , Sulfitos/química , Sulfitos/farmacologia , Fosfinas/química , Fibra de Lã , Hidrólise , Têxteis
2.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 641, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38937677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Alpine Merino is a new breed of fine-wool sheep adapted to the cold and arid climate of the plateau in the world. It has been popularized in Northwest China due to its superior adaptability as well as excellent production performance. Those traits related to body weight, wool yield, and wool fiber characteristics, which are economically essential traits in Alpine Merino sheep, are controlled by QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci). Therefore, the identification of QTL and genetic markers for these key economic traits is a critical step in establishing a MAS (Marker-Assisted Selection) breeding program. RESULTS: In this study, we constructed the high-density genetic linkage map of Alpine Merino sheep by sequencing 110 F1 generation individuals using WGR (Whole Genome Resequencing) technology. 14,942 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) were identified and genotyped. The map spanned 2,697.86 cM, with an average genetic marker interval of 1.44 cM. A total of 1,871 high-quality SNP markers were distributed across 27 linkage groups, with an average of 69 markers per LG (Linkage Group). Among them, the smallest genetic distance is 19.62 cM for LG2, while the largest is 237.19 cM for LG19. The average genetic distance between markers in LGs ranged from 0.24 cM (LG2) to 3.57 cM (LG17). The marker density in the LGs ranged from LG14 (39 markers) to LG1 (150 markers). CONCLUSIONS: The first genetic map of Alpine Merino sheep we constructed included 14,942 SNPs, while 46 QTLs associated with body weight, wool yield and wool fiber traits were identified, laying the foundation for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding. Notably, there were QTL intervals for overlapping traits on LG4 and LG8, providing potential opportunities for multi-trait co-breeding and further theoretical support for selection and breeding of ultra-fine and meaty Alpine Merino sheep.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Lã/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/genética , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Fenótipo , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Genótipo
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(6)2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38927617

RESUMO

Keratins are the main structural protein components of wool fibres, and variation in them and their genes (KRTs) is thought to influence wool structure and characteristics. The PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism technique has been used previously to investigate genetic variation in selected coding and intron regions of the type II sheep keratin gene KRT81, but no variation was identified. In this study, we used the same technique to explore the 5' untranslated region of KRT81 and detected three sequence variants (A, B and C) that contain four single nucleotide polymorphisms. Among the 389 Merino × Southdown cross sheep investigated, variant B was linked to a reduction in clean fleece weight, while C was associated with an increase in both greasy fleece weight and clean fleece weight. No discernible effects on staple length or mean-fibre-diameter-related traits were observed. These findings suggest that variation in ovine KRT81 might influence wool growth by changing the density of wool follicles in the skin, the density of individual fibres, or the area of the skin producing fibre, as opposed to changing the rate of extrusion of fibres or their diameter.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fibra de Lã , , Animais , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lã/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Queratinas Tipo II/genética , Queratinas Tipo II/metabolismo , Queratinas/genética , Queratinas/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(6)2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38927731

RESUMO

The native Spanish Merino breed was the founder of all the other Merino and Merino-derived breeds worldwide. Despite the fact that this breed was created and improved to produce the highest quality fine wool, the global wool market crisis led to the wholescale crossing of most of the herds with breeds for meat purposes. Nevertheless, there are still some purebred animals with a high potential for producing quality wool. The objective of this study was to characterize the current wool quality of the breed and identify genes associated with these parameters. To achieve this, over 12,800 records from the most representative animals of the breed (registered in the herd book) were analyzed using the Australian OFDA 2000 system, for parameters such as fiber diameter (FD), standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), fibers over 15 microns (>15%), staple length (SL), and comfort factor (CRV). Additionally, animals with the most extreme FD values were whole-genome sequenced using NGS. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) determined the association of 74 variants with the different traits studied, which were located in 70 different genes. Of these genes, EDN2, COL18A1, and LRP1B, associated with fibers over 15%, and FGF12 and ADAM17, associated with SL, play a key role in hair follicle growth and development. Our study reveals the great potential for recovering this breed for fine wool production, and identifies five candidate genes whose understanding may aid in that selection process.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , , Animais , Ovinos/genética , Lã/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamento , Fibra de Lã , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fenótipo , Genômica/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
5.
Cells ; 13(11)2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38891117

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) plays key roles in promoting the transition from the anagen to catagen during the hair follicle cycle. The sheep serves as an excellent model for studying hair growth and is frequently utilized in various research processes related to human skin diseases. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate four FGF5-edited Dorper sheep and only low levels of FGF5 were detected in the edited sheep. The density of fine wool in GE sheep was markedly increased, and the proportion of fine wool with a diameter of 14.4-20.0 µm was significantly higher. The proliferation signal in the skin of gene-edited (GE) sheep was stronger than in wild-type (WT) sheep. FGF5 editing decreased cortisol concentration in the skin, further activated the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and regulated the expression of Wnt signaling pathways containing Wnt agonists (Rspondins, Rspos) and antagonists (Notum) in hair regeneration. We suggest that FGF5 not only mediates the activation of antioxidant pathways by cortisol, which constitutes a highly coordinated microenvironment in hair follicle cells, but also influences key signals of the Wnt pathway to regulate secondary hair follicle (SHF) development. Overall, our findings here demonstrate that FGF5 plays a significant role in regulating SHF growth in sheep and potentially serves as a molecular marker of fine wool growth in sheep breeding.


Assuntos
Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Glutationa Peroxidase , Folículo Piloso , Via de Sinalização Wnt , , Animais , Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Ovinos , Lã/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Edição de Genes , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 273(Pt 1): 133066, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866294

RESUMO

To counteract the increasing severity of water pollution and purify water sources, wastewater treatment materials are essential. In particular, it is necessary to improve the bonding strength between the adsorption material and the substrate in a long-term humid environment, and resist the invasion of microorganisms to prolong the service life. In this study, an amyloid-like aggregation method of lysozyme catalyzed by microbial transglutaminase (mTGase). Lysozyme self-assembles into an amyloid-like phase-transited lysozyme (PTL) in the presence of a reducing agent. Simultaneously, mTGase catalyzes acyl transfer reactions within lysozyme molecules or between lysozyme and keratin molecules, and driving PTL assembly on the wool fiber (TG-PTL@wool). This process enhances the grafting amount and fastness of PTL on the wool. Moreover, the tensile strength of wool fabric increased to 523 N. TG-PTL@wool achieves a 97.32 % removal rate of heavy metals, maintaining a removal rate of over 95 % after 5 cycles. TG-PTL@wool has excellent antibacterial property (99 %), and it remains above 90 % after 50 times of circulating washing. This study proved that mTGase can enhance the amyloid aggregation of lysozyme and enhance the bonding strength between PTL coating and substrate. Moreover, TG-PTL@wool provides a sustainable, efficient and cleaner solution for removing heavy metals from water.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Muramidase , Águas Residuárias , Metais Pesados/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Animais , Muramidase/química , Muramidase/isolamento & purificação , Muramidase/metabolismo , Transglutaminases/química , Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Transglutaminases/isolamento & purificação , Lã/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas/química , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Amiloidogênicas/metabolismo , Fibra de Lã , Agregados Proteicos , Amiloide/química
7.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 606, 2024 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38886664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gangba sheep as a famous breed of Tibetan sheep, its wool color is mainly white and black. Gangba wool is economically important as a high-quality raw material for Tibetan blankets and Tibetan serge. However, relatively few studies have been conducted on the wool color of Tibetan sheep. RESULTS: To fill this research gap, this study conducted an in-depth analysis of two populations of Gangba sheep (black and white wool color) using whole genome resequencing to identify genetic variation associated with wool color. Utilizing PCA, Genetic Admixture, and N-J Tree analyses, the present study revealed a consistent genetic relationship and structure between black and white wool colored Gangba sheep populations, which is consistent with their breed history. Analysis of selection signatures using multiple methods (FST, π ratio, Tajima's D), 370 candidate genes were screened in the black wool group (GBB vs GBW); among them, MC1R, MLPH, SPIRE2, RAB17, SMARCA4, IRF4, CAV1, USP7, TP53, MYO6, MITF, MC2R, TET2, NF1, JAK1, GABRR1 genes are mainly associated with melanin synthesis, melanin delivery, and distribution. The enrichment results of the candidate genes identified 35 GO entries and 19 KEGG pathways associated with the formation of the black phenotype. 311 candidate genes were screened in the white wool group (GBW vs GBB); among them, REST, POU2F1, ADCY10, CCNB1, EP300, BRD4, GLI3, and SDHA genes were mainly associated with interfering with the differentiation of neural crest cells into melanocytes, affecting the proliferation of melanocytes, and inhibiting melanin synthesis. 31 GO entries and 22 KEGG pathways were associated with the formation of the white phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides important information for understanding the genetic mechanism of wool color in Gangba, and provides genetic knowledge for improving and optimizing the wool color of Tibetan sheep. Genetic improvement and selective breeding to produce wool of specific colors can meet the demand for a diversity of wool products in the Tibetan wool textile market.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , , Animais , Ovinos/genética , Seleção Genética , Pigmentação/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
8.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 14(5)2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785714

RESUMO

Cashmere and wool are both natural animal fibers used in the textile industry, but cashmere is of superior quality, is rarer, and more precious. It is therefore important to distinguish the two fibers accurately and effectively. However, challenges due to their similar appearance, morphology, and physical and chemical properties remain. Herein, a terahertz electromagnetic inductive transparency (EIT) metasurface biosensor is introduced for qualitative and quantitative identification of cashmere and wool. The periodic unit structure of the metasurface consists of four rotationally symmetric resonators and two cross-arranged metal secants to form toroidal dipoles and electric dipoles, respectively, so that its effective sensing area can be greatly improved by 1075% compared to the traditional dipole mode, and the sensitivity will be up to 342 GHz/RIU. The amplitude and frequency shift changes of the terahertz transmission spectra caused by the different refractive indices of cashmere/wool can achieve highly sensitive label-free qualitative and quantitative identification of both. The experimental results show that the terahertz metasurface biosensor can work at a concentration of 0.02 mg/mL. It provides a new way to achieve high sensitivity, precision, and trace detection of cashmere/wool, and would be a valuable application for the cashmere industry.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , , Animais
9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 669: 295-304, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718583

RESUMO

Perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) have emerged as promising candidates for fluorescent probes owing to their outstanding photoelectric properties. However, the conventional CsPbBr3 (CPB) NCs are extremely unstable in water, which has seriously limited their sensing applications in water environment. Herein, we present a powerful ligand engineering strategy for fabricating highly water-stable CPB NCs by using a biopolymer of wool keratin (WK) as the passivator and the polyaryl polymethylene isocyanate (PAPI) as the cross-linking agent. In particular, WK with multi-functional groups can serve as a polydentate ligand to firmly passivate CPB NCs by the ligand exchange process in hot toluene; and then the addition of PAPI can further encapsulate CPB NCs by the crosslinking reaction between PAPI and WK. Consequently, the as-prepared CPB/WK-PAPI NCs can maintain âˆ¼ 80 % of their relative photoluminescence (PL) intensity after 60 days in water, and they still maintain âˆ¼ 40 % of their relative PL intensity even after 512 days in the same environment, which is one of the best water stabilities compared previously reported polymer passivation methods. As a proof-of their application, the portable CPB/WK-PAPI NCs-based test strips are further developed as a fluorescent nanoprobe for real-time and visual monitoring amines and food freshness. Among various amine analytes, the as-prepared test strips exhibit higher sensitivity towards conjugated amines, achieving a remarkable detection limit of 18.3 nM for pyrrole. Our research not only introduces an innovative strategy involving natural biopolymers to enhance the water stability of PNCs, but also highlights the promising potential of PNCs for visually and portably detecting amines and assessing food freshness.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Queratinas , Nanopartículas , Água , , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Água/química , Queratinas/química , Queratinas/análise , Lã/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Aminas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Análise de Alimentos/métodos
10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 11(25): e2402196, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38650164

RESUMO

Fiber-based artificial muscles are promising for smart textiles capable of sensing, interacting, and adapting to environmental stimuli. However, the application of current artificial muscle-based textiles in wearable and engineering fields has largely remained a constraint due to the limited deformation, restrictive stimulation, and uncomfortable. Here, dual-responsive yarn muscles with high contractile actuation force are fabricated by incorporating a very small fraction (<1 wt.%) of Ti3C2Tx MXene/cellulose nanofibers (CNF) composites into self-plied and twisted wool yarns. They can lift and lower a load exceeding 3400 times their own weight when stimulated by moisture and photothermal. Furthermore, the yarn muscles are coiled homochirally or heterochirally to produce spring-like muscles, which generated over 550% elongation or 83% contraction under the photothermal stimulation. The actuation mechanism, involving photothermal/moisture-mechanical energy conversion, is clarified by a combination of experiments and finite element simulations. Specifically, MXene/CNF composites serve as both photothermal and hygroscopic agents to accelerate water evaporation under near-infrared (NIR) light and moisture absorption from ambient air. Due to their low-cost facile fabrication, large scalable dimensions, and robust strength coupled with dual responsiveness, these soft actuators are attractive for intelligent textiles and devices such as self-adaptive textiles, soft robotics, and wearable information encryption.


Assuntos
Têxteis , Animais , Nanofibras/química , Órgãos Artificiais , Lã/química , Celulose/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
11.
Sci Prog ; 107(2): 368504241242282, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614468

RESUMO

This research aims to optimize the silk and wool dyeing process using natural dyes from Bixa orellana (annatto) through response surface methodology. Central composite design experiments highlight the significant enhancement of color outcomes achieved through microwave treatment. For silk, the optimal conditions (80 °C for 40 min) with annatto extract yield a color strength (K/S) of 17.8588, while wool achieves a K/S of 7.5329. Introducing eco-friendly bio-mordants, such as pomegranate peel and red sumac tannins, enhances color strength. Pre-dyeing treatments with 2% red sumac, 1.5% pomegranate peel, and weld flower extracts for silk produce high color strength, with K/S values of 16.4063, 16.3784, and 12.1658, respectively. Post-dyeing, the K/S values increase to 40.1178, 17.4779, and 21.6494. Wool yarn exhibits similar improvements, with pre-dyeing K/S values of 13.1353, 13.5060, and 16.3232, escalating to 10.5892, 15.3141, and 23.4850 post-dyeing. Furthermore, this research underscores improved colorfastness properties, including notable enhancements in light, wash, and rubbing fastness for both silk fabric and wool yarn. These findings underscore the efficacy of the proposed sustainable dyeing methods, offering valuable insights for eco-friendly textile production.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Árvores , , Animais , Bixaceae , Têxteis , Sementes , Seda
12.
Mamm Genome ; 35(2): 160-169, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589518

RESUMO

Ladakh, one of the highest inhabited regions globally, hosts the unique Changthangi goat, renowned for producing Pashmina, the world's most luxurious natural fiber. In comparison, the fiber derived from Changthangi sheep is considered next only to Pashmina. This research endeavors to compare the skin transcriptome profiles of Changthangi goats and Changthangi sheep, aiming to discern the molecular determinants behind the recognition of Changthangi goats as the source of Pashmina. Drawing upon previously conducted studies, a collective of 225 genes correlated with fiber characteristics were extracted from the differentially expressed genes noticed between the two species (p-value of ≤ 0.05 and a log2 fold change of ≥ 1.5). These genes were analyzed using DAVID software to understand their biological functions and to identify enriched KEGG and Reactome pathways. The protein-protein interaction networks were constructed using Cytoscape, cytoHubba, and STRING to focus on key genes and infer their biological significance. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significantly higher expression of genes involved in signaling pathways like Wnt, MAPK, PI3K-Akt, Hedgehog, associated with fiber development and quality in Changthangi goats. These pathways play crucial roles in hair follicle (HF) formation, maintenance of epidermal stem cells, and fiber characteristics. Findings also highlight the enrichment of cell adhesion molecules and ECM-receptor interaction, emphasizing their roles in HF structure, growth, and signaling. This investigation offers an in-depth understanding of the molecular intricacies governing Pashmina production in Changthangi goats, providing valuable insights into their unique genetic makeup and underlying mechanisms influencing the exceptional quality of Pashmina fibers.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Cabras , Pele , Transcriptoma , Animais , Cabras/genética , Cabras/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Lã/metabolismo , Fibra de Lã
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542234

RESUMO

Fiber diameter is an important characteristic that determines the quality and economic value of rabbit wool. This study aimed to investigate the genetic determinants of wool fiber diameter through an integration analysis using transcriptomic and proteomic datasets from hair follicles of coarse and fine wool from Angora rabbits. Using a 4D label-free technique, we identified 423 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in hair follicles of coarse and fine wool in Angora rabbits. Eighteen DEPs were examined using parallel reaction monitoring, which verified the reliability of our proteomic data. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that a set of biological processes and signaling pathways related to wool growth and hair diameter were strongly enriched by DEPs with fold changes greater than two, such as keratinocyte differentiation, skin development, epidermal and epithelial cell differentiation, epidermis and epithelium development, keratinization, and estrogen signaling pathway. Association analysis and protein-protein interaction network analysis further showed that the keratin (KRT) family members, including KRT77, KRT82, KRT72, KRT32, and KRT10, as well as CASP14 and CDSN, might be key factors contributing to differences in fiber diameter. Our results identified DEPs in hair follicles of coarse and fine wool and promoted understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying wool fiber diameter variation among Angora rabbits.


Assuntos
Folículo Piloso , Transcriptoma , Animais , Coelhos , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Fibra de Lã , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Lã/fisiologia
14.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(4): 2164-2174, 2024 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493449

RESUMO

Wool keratin (WK) protein is attractive for wound dressing and biomedical applications due to its excellent biodegradability, cytocompatibility, and wound-healing properties. In this work, WK-based wound dressings were prepared by depositing WK/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)-embedded WK/PVA composite nanofibrous membranes on cotton fabrics by electrospinning. Ag NPs were biosynthesized by reduction and stabilization with sodium alginate. The formed Ag NPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and their size was determined by transmission electron microscopy and image analysis. The formed Ag NPs were spherical and had an average diameter of 9.95 nm. The produced Ag NP-embedded WK/PVA composite nanofiber-deposited cotton fabric surface was characterized by FTIR and dynamic contact angle measurements, and the nanofiber morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The average diameter of the nanofibers formed by 0.1% Ag NP-embedded WK/PVA solution was 146.7 nm. The antibacterial activity of the surface of cotton fabrics coated with electrospun composite nanofibers was evaluated against the two most common wound-causing pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cotton fabric coated with 0.1% Ag NP-embedded WK/PVA nanofibers showed very good antibacterial activity against both pathogens, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay results showed good cytocompatibility against L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. However, the increase in Ag NP content in the nanofibers to 0.2% negatively affected the cell viability due to the high release rate of Ag ions. The results achieved show that the developed wound dressing has good potential for wound healing applications.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanofibras , Animais , Camundongos , Prata/farmacologia , Prata/química , Nanofibras/química , Queratinas , , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Bandagens
15.
Ambix ; 71(1): 98-122, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38444391

RESUMO

Nitric acid became commonly available in the seventeenth century. Since then, it held the interest of chemists, especially those interested in the art of dyeing. Due to what is now called the xanthoproteic reaction (from Greek xanthós, describing shades of yellow), nitric acid produces a stable yellow colouration in proteinaceous materials, such as wool, silk, and bones. The chemistry of this reaction is well understood today. Less well-known is that it held the interest of dyers in the past. Dyers considered the ability of nitric acid to give a yellow colour to certain substances a solution to giving materials a durable, that is, a lasting, yellow colour. Yellow, indeed, posed a problem in the art of dyeing. Before the discovery of synthetic dyes in the mid-nineteenth century, there were no organic yellow dyes with long-term colour stability. Using historical dyeing manuals and chemistry treatises, combined with our practical engagement with the processes they describe, this paper traces how, between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, dyers explored nitric acid while examining the durability of yellow colourations. Based on these explorations into nitric acid, the chemical arts developed theories about the nature of colour, and about the causes for its relative permanence.


Assuntos
Corantes , Ácido Nítrico , Animais , Cor , Corantes/química , , Seda
16.
Biomed Mater ; 19(2)2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306684

RESUMO

Therapeutic angiogenesis is pivotal in creating effective tissue-engineered constructs that deliver nutrients and oxygen to surrounding cells. Hence, biomaterials that promote angiogenesis can enhance the efficacy of various medical treatments, encompassing tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery systems. Considering these, we propose a rapid method for producing composite silicon-boron-wool keratin/jellyfish collagen (Si-B-WK/JFC) inorganic-organic biohybrid films using sol-gel reactions. In this approach, reactive tetraethyl orthosilicate and boric acid (pKa ⩾ 9.24) were used as silicon and boron sources, respectively, and a solid-state gel was formed through the condensation reaction of these reactive groups with the keratin/collagen mixture. Once the resulting gel was thoroughly suspended in water, the films were prepared by a casting/solvent evaporation methodology. The fabricated hybrid films were characterized structurally and mechanically. In addition, angiogenic characteristics were determined by the in ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, which revealed an increased vascular network within the Si-B-WK/JFC biohybrid films. In conclusion, it is believed that Si-B-WK/JFC biohybrid films with mechanical and pro-angiogenic properties have the potential to be possessed in soft tissue engineering applications, especially wound healing.


Assuntos
Cifozoários , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Queratinas , Boro , Dióxido de Silício , Silício , , Colágeno
17.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 350: 114474, 2024 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373464

RESUMO

Several internal and external factors can influence animals' hormonal activity. Cortisol level in hair and wool determines chronic stress, which is connected with the long-term HPA axis effect. Wool cortisol levels in alpacas have never been determined to this time. The study aimed to assess the influence of selected factors on wool cortisol concentration in alpacas. The study included 36 alpacas. Wool samples were collected during shearing in June 2021, cut with an electric clipper from the right shoulder and the rump. Wool samples were fragmented into proximal (winter-spring regrowth) and distal (summer-fall regrowth) segments. Alpacas' Heat Stress Index (HSI) for the summer of 2020 was 139.4, and 116 for the winter of 2021. The cortisol levels in the wool samples were determined with the General Cortisol ELISA Kit assay. The most significant differences in wool cortisol concentrations were caused by two factors: the wool segment (P < 0.001; η2 = 0.889) and the region on the body (P < 0.001; η2 = 0.876). Wool cortisol level was higher in the distal segment (referring to the summer-fall season) than in the proximal one (referring to the winter-spring season). It is suggested that alpacas can feel heat stress in summer (HSI = 139.4), which could influence higher cortisol levels in the distal segment. The wool cortisol level was higher in the rump samples than the shoulder ones. Therefore, it is essential in future studies that wool samples from all tested animals should be completed from the same body region. Differences among age and sex groups were also observed. Wool cortisol level was higher in older animals, as differences between age groups were observed in samples from the rump in the distal and proximal segments (distal, the rump younger*older: P < 0.001; η2 = 0.321; proximal, the rump older*younger: P = 0.007; η2 = 0.195). Males showed higher cortisol levels than females, as a difference between sexes was observed in samples from the rump in the proximal segment (P = 0.001, η2 = 0.271). This study emphasizes that various factors may significantly influence wool cortisol levels, which can be helpful in alpacas' welfare estimation using this hormonal indicator as a noninvasive long-term stress assessment method.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Lã/química , Hidrocortisona/análise , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 15(2)2024 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38397237

RESUMO

Keratin (K) is a major protein component of hair and is involved in hair growth and development. In this study, we analysed the expression, localization, and polymorphism of the K84 gene (KRT84) in Gansu Alpine Fine-wool sheep using immunofluorescence, RT-qPCR, and PARMS (penta-primer amplification refractory mutation system). Haplotypes of KRT84 were also constructed and their relationship with wool traits analysed. It was revealed that KRT84 was highly expressed in hair follicles, including the inner root sheath, outer root sheath, and hair medulla and at all six lamb ages investigated from 1 to 270 days of age. Three SNPs were detected in KRT84 exon 1, and they formed three haplotypes (named H1, H2, and H3) and six genotypes. Analyses revealed an association between haplotype combinations (diplotypes) and the mean fibre curvature, mean staple length, mean staple strength, mean fibre diameter, the coefficient of variation of fibre diameter, and comfort factor for these sheep. These results suggest that KRT84 is of importance in determining several key traits in Gansu Alpine Fine-wool sheep and that the gene could possibly be used as a genetic marker for wool trait selection in these sheep.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ovinos , , Animais , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Ovinos/genética
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338874

RESUMO

Homobox C13 (Hoxc13) is an important transcription factor in hair follicle cycle development, and its deletion had been found in a variety of animals leading to abnormal hair growth and disruption of the hair follicle system. In this study, we used immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASP) genotyping to investigate molecular genetic characteristics of the Hoxc13 gene in Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep. The results revealed that Hoxc13 was significantly expressed during both the anagen and catagen phases (p < 0.05). It was found to be highly expressed predominantly in the dermal papillae and the inner and outer root sheaths, showing a distinct spatiotemporal expression pattern. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exon 1 of Hoxc13, both the individual locus genotypes and the combined haplotypes were found to be correlated with wool length (p < 0.05). It was determined the mutations led to changes in mRNA expression, in which higher expression of this gene was related with longer wool length. In summary, this unique spatiotemporal expression pattern of the Hoxc13 gene may regulate the wool length of Gansu alpine fine-wool sheep, which can be used as a molecular genetic marker for wool traits and thus improve the breed.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox , Folículo Piloso , , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Biologia Molecular , Fenótipo , Ovinos/genética , Lã/metabolismo
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(2): 47, 2024 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233625

RESUMO

Very little information is available on the quality of wool produced by terminal crosses out of wool producing dam lines. This study was therefore undertaken to elucidate the wool quality traits of four crossbred lines relative to Merinos and Dohne Merinos, which served as dam lines. Each dam line was mated to rams of their own breed as well as to Dormer or Ile de France rams to create four crossbred lines, namely, Dohne x Dormer, Dohne x Ile de France, Merino x Dormer, and Merino x Ile de France, in addition to the purebred Dohne Merino and Merino lines. Four rams and four ewes from each of these lines were reared up to one year of age under optimal growth conditions and shorn at the end of that time. Fleeces were weighed and samples collected for analysis. Neither sex nor genotype influenced clean fleece weight or clean yield percentage, but fibre diameter differed between genotypes. Purebred Merino had the finest wool (18.26 µm) and the Merino x Dormer cross the coarsest (26.01 µm). However, all lines still produced wool that could be used in manufacturing clothing, while fleeces showed good uniformity. The two purebred lines had the highest comfort factor (> 98%). The crossbred lines produced a similar quantity of wool as the purebreds, although of poorer quality. All genotypes except Merino x Dormer appear to produce wool that could be processed into garments, although the crossbred wool would only be suitable for outerwear.


Assuntos
Carneiro Doméstico , , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Genótipo , Reprodução , Fenótipo
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